Science
Evidence on The Presence of Extraterrestrial Life Paper

Question Description

Help me study for my Science class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.

Term Paper Instructions

IMPORTANT: Your proposal MUST follow this format or it risks rejection. A rejected paper will receive 0 points for grade and will be further scrutinized for plagiarism with serious consequences. Please include all headers in your paper. All writing should be in your own words with appropriate citations to any other works.

Paper Topic: You are to synthesize the material you learned in this course to propose a mission to discover extrasolar life to the Global Organization for an Optimistic Future (GOOF). GOOF is willing to spend unlimited funds to be the first agency to find a non-terrestrial living organism of any kind. They will select the proposal that shows the most scientific evidence for finding life with the minimal amount of money and time.

I. Introduction (~150 words)
Give an overview of the mission your propose.

II. Mission Location (~1000 words)

Select a location (e.g., a moon or planet) other than Earth where you would propose to search for extraterrestrial life. Make a valid scientific argument on why you think this location is the most promising and practical place to search.

III. Discover of Lifeforms (~1000 words)

Describe the most likely lifeforms scientists think we will find on the extrasolar planet or moon you chose. Explain how this lifeform likely survives and thrives in the described location. Your explanation should include a description of its biological process (e.g. respiration, metabolism) and the sources of energy and other requirements and how these requirements are likely available in the location.

IV. How Would We Find It (~ 250 words)

Give a description of the mission or observational technique(s) you propose to accomplish the mission.

IV. Conclusion (~150 words)

A summary of your proposal.


Criteria for a successful paper:

A successful paper will be at least 2500 words and will follow the format above. It will include:

  • A clear, accurate, and coherent scientific argument that uses scientifically valid information (from the Internet or journals) and many of the main concepts used in the course. Your paper should demonstrate your understanding of these concepts, not just the awareness of the terminology.
  • A clear organization and correct grammar to provide a readable and intelligent paper. It should be easy and pleasurable to read. This must include an introduction, conclusion, and the mandatory headers to help make clarify your argument.
  • Within this format, your paper should demonstrate individuality and creativity to show how you have digested and interpreted the information, and to show me it is your OWN work. Papers that read like a bunch of cut and paste text without any personality will be poorly graded.
  • A complete and consistent set of citations and references in APA, IEEE, or similar academic format. I don't care which format you use, but be consistent and thorough.
  • Pride in your work. If you don't love it, I won't love it.

You MUST do original work. I will be very strict on anything that is copied from the Internet, purchased, or “borrowed” from another student’s paper - it is plagiarism. Don't go there.

This paper is worth 33% of your course grade.


Please submit your work in strict accordance with the requirements, and please do not copy other works. I will provide other assignments in this semester, you can better understand what we have learned

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Running Head: ASTRONOMY 1 Student’s Name: Manting Yang A number :A00424314 Introduction ASTRONOMY 2 The search for potential life harboring worlds in our solar system has been going on for a long time. Humans have been trying to understand the cosmos and the possible kinds of life that may exist. Scientists believed a long time that only earth could support life due to its strategic location in the solar system. However, with recent advancement in technology which has allowed for better analysis and study of the solar system, it has been found that other life forms may exist in the solar system. Scientists now have proof and evidence that other planets and moons in our solar system may be able to support life. Mars Mars has been the center for discussion about planets that may be able to support life. For centuries scientist have been studying Mars trying to establish whether the planet may support life or may have supported life many years ago. As early as 1877, Giovanni Schiaparelli an Italian astronomer using a telescope observed Mars and reported to have seen channels. The channels which were later referred to as canals by Percival Lowell were used as evidence that there was intelligent life on the planet which had constructed the canals (Frost et al., 2003). Evidence has shown that in the past, there was liquid water on mars which means that Mars' atmosphere at the time was thicker and warmer. The evidence has led scientist to strongly believe that Mars must have supported life in the past and has led to the continued search for life on the planet. In the past fifty years alone, there have been several missions to mars all looking to search for life on the red planet. Scientists agree that one of the key ingredients for life is water since all forms of terrestrial life need water to survive. However, most of the water in mars is found in ice capes while the rest of the surface is dry and barren. The lack of liquid water on Mars has been the most significant impediment to most scientific exploration for life on the planet. Lack of ASTRONOMY 3 liquid water and the planet's thin atmosphere, which leads to high levels of radiation from the sun has led to controversy about the possibility of life on Mars. Scientists have also been studying meteorites that landed on earth to establish whether they may show evidence of life on the planet. It has been found from studies that three meteorites out of thirty-four that scientist have studied show evidence of past life on Mars. In 1966 scientists discovered a meteorite in Antarctica that showed traces of bacteria-like lifeforms remains from the rocks. When further tests were conducted on the rocks, it was established that they contained organic materials (Walter & Davies, 1999). However, in the year 2012, it was settled that the organic materials had been formed without the involvement of life in Mars. Scientists believed the organic material created as a result of volcanic eruption rather than biological processes. Nonetheless, scientists have associated the presence of organic materials in mars with the organic materials, which led to life on earth, therefore, concluding that life may yet occur on Mars. Until now, evidence that Mars can support or have supported life in the past is still controversial and inconclusive. However, most scientists believe that we are on the verge of discoveries the truth about Mars with the increased exploration on the planet and the advancement of technology. Europa Europa is a moon found on Jupiter, and scientist believes that the moon is most likely to support life. The first shred evidence that shows the possibility of life support in this moon is the presence of liquid water. Data collected by different scientists prove that the moon has plenty of water in the form of a salty ocean that is located beneath the crust of the moon. Scientist believes that the moon contains more water than what is found on earth and the moons ocean floor covered by rocks. The combination of the ocean water and the rocky ocean floor has led many ASTRONOMY 4 scientists to believe would allow for living organisms (Marion et al., 2003). NASA's Galileo spacecraft provided the best evidence that Europa has an ocean. The spacecraft orbited Jupiter in the years between 1995 and 2003 collecting data which led to the conclusion that there is a massive ocean on the moon. From the analysis of the moon's surface, evidence also shows a strong possibility of an ocean beneath the surface. Unlike other moons, Europa surface does not have craters which scientist believe is due to geological activities such as the rising of warmer ice levels the craters formed from meteorites impacts. Scientists also believe that Europa has the necessary chemical materials that are essential for life to exist. Form the impacts by meteorites and the already present chemical during the formation of the moon, elements such as carbon, nitrogen and oxygen may exist on the moon. The presence of organic materials and the presence of tidal heating makes a suitable environment where life may exist. From the study of life on earth, energy is essential for the survival of life, but since Jupiter is very far from the sun life might only be supported by chemical reactions. While the intense radiation hampers life on the surface of Europa from the planet Jupiter, the same radiation may act as a fuel for life beneath the moon's surface on the ocean (Kempe & Kazmierczak, 2002). From the science of radiation, it is established that radiation splits water molecules; oxygen does not float away, unlike hydrogen. Due to oxygen's strong reaction nature, it may be leading to chemical reactions that may release energy which may be used by lifeforms on the moon. Since Europa has a salty ocean, the reactions between the water and the rocks may create hydrogenic materials. If the hydrogenic materials were to interact with hot rock than chemical nutrients may be produced, which may support life. Scientists believe strongly that the availability of water and energy on Europa may support simple life such as bacteria. However, ASTRONOMY 5 until now scientists have not been able to verify any of the claims made about life in Europa. Nonetheless, the future looks bright, and soon the claims made may be verified with the intensified space exploration in recent past and the plans on further exploration. Titan Titan is the largest moon on the Saturn and the second-largest moon in our solar system. It is the only moon with a dense atmosphere, and like earth, it has water bodies such as rivers, lakes, and sea. Just like the earth, its atmosphere is mostly made up of nitrogen with only small amounts of methane. In our entire solar system, its only Titan apart from the earth where liquids are falling from clouds and flows on its surfaces evaporates and falls back again. Due to its long distance from the sun, the amount of light that Titan receives is about a hundred times fainter compared to that that earth receives (Norman, 2011). The planet Saturn has seasons just like those on earth though they last longer due to its distance from the earth. Scientific exploration strongly argues that titian atmosphere and surface can allow for organisms to survive. Its outer silicate core is cool enough to allow for growth of living organisms. The atmosphere of Titan is mostly made up of nitrogen and small amounts of methane and other compounds. Sunlight usually destroys methane, then where does methane come from? In earth, the presence of life replenishes methane in the atmosphere. Scientists believe that there is a strong possibility that methane in Titans atmosphere is as a result of life on the moon. From the information obtained by Cassini Spacecraft and Huygens probe, scientists have established that Titan's surface is rich with carbon-rich molecules which form amino acids, which are the building blocks for proteins essential to support life (Schulze-Makuch &Grinspoon, 2005). The critical questions concerning the possibility of life on Titan are its cold temperatures which prevent the presence of liquid water on its surface. ASTRONOMY 6 After orbiting Saturn for 13 years, Cassini was able to collect enough information about the nature of the moon, Titan. It showed that Titan is not dormant as many would have thought; instead, the moon is active by the presence of lakes, mountains and few craters which suggest activity on the moon. The processes were responsible for erosion and the filling of the craters formed. Scientists have also discovered cryovolcanoes where water erupts from under the surface of ice-covered surfaces. The melting of the ice shows the likelihood of biomolecules which are essential life precursors. Scientist hold that life may be evolving in Titan if not already present. Research is still ongoing, and for now, it is hard to disregard the possibility or the impossibility of possible life form on the moon. Conclusion In conclusion, the search for life in other planets and moons in our solar system has been going on for several centuries. The good news is that with the latest advancement of technology, it has become easier to collect information form planets and moons that were unknown to as a few centuries ago. From the research done over the centuries, there is strong evidence that shows other life forms may exist in our solar system. However, we are still a long way to having conclusive evidence that can prove other life forms exist. Research is the only hope we have if we are to discover what lies beyond our precious planet. A combined effort is required due to the expensive nature of space exploration. I firmly believe that by the end of this century, there will be significant breakthroughs in the field of space exploration and possible discovery of other life forms. ASTRONOMY 7 References Frost, R. L., Yang, J., & Ding, Z. (2003). Raman and FTIR spectroscopy of natural oxalates: Implications for the evidence of life on Mars. Chinese Science Bulletin, 48(17), 18441852 Walter, M., & Davies, P. C. W. (1999). The search for life on Mars. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Perseus Books. Marion, G. M., Fritsen, C. H., Eicken, H., & Payne, M. C. (2003). The search for life on Europa: limiting environmental factors, potential habitats, and Earth analogues. Astrobiology, 3(4), 785-811. Kempe, S., & Kazmierczak, J. (2002). Biogenesis and early life on Earth and Europa: favored by an alkaline ocean? Astrobiology, 2(1), 123-130. Norman, L. H. (2011). Is there life on… Titan? Astronomy & Geophysics, 52(1), 1-39. Schulze-Makuch, D., & Grinspoon, D. H. (2005). Biologically enhanced energy and carbon cycling on Titan? Astrobiology, 5(4), 560-567. Running Head: LIFE FORMS IN OUR SOLAR SYSTEMS Life Forms in Our Solar System Name: Manting Yang S number: s6309015 1 LIFE FORMS IN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM 2 Introduction Mars is one of the planets in the solar systems that have been of critical interest in the discovery of life forms within the solar system. Mars, as is known by many scientists, consists of very similar characteristics to that of the planet earth. One major landmark and breakthrough for the evidence of life and its survival on the plate of mars was the discovery of liquid water on the planet. Though water is not a necessary form of survival for human beings, it constitutes a considerable percentage of an aspect that supports most of the life forms on our planet earth. The first evidence of water to be found on mars can be dated back in 2012, where NASA scientists discovered a curiosity rover that stumbled upon the streambed crater. The Vikings biological experiments conducted on mars in the 1970s showed some signs of life to have existed on Mars. The tests done on the soil mars was held because the soil had favourable conditions for microorganisms to survive. This paper, therefore, seeks to discuss the various forms of life forms that can survive in mars and the evidence that is used to support the evidence being given. The three living forms that are going to be discussed in this paper include Methanogens, bacteria, and globules that were discovered from the Maritain Meteorites ALH84001. Describe three types of life forms that have been discovered on Earth that could survive in the conditions on that planet or moon. The three types of scientific life f0orms that can survive on mars include: • Methanogens. • Lichens. • Cyanobacteria. LIFE FORMS IN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM 3 Methanogens 1. What are the scientific claims about how these organisms survive in extreme conditions? Most cattle contain, Methanogens on their gut area. Methanogens are known to survive in Martian conditions. This consists of low pressure, varying temperatures, and Methanogens are a group of organisms that survive and live without oxygen. Methanogens are a group of organisms that tend to survive solely on hard environments and conditions in dry areas. The Methanogens can survive on icy conditions. In mars, research has suggested that over the years, the planet has been termed as the red hot planet because of the high waves of radiation that it emits from time to time in Presently, the world is though to be dry with varying cold and dry conditions, (Kral et.al, 2004). These types of environments are explained as the maritime environment. It's important to note that Methanogens use hydrogen as their primary source and carbon dioxide as their carbon sources. Some of the methanogens also live in deserts. The Habitual grounds for methanogens can also be identified in swamps and marshes that are usually rich in water. 2) What is the evidence for the claim? The environmental conditions that can be used to provide evidence of the survival of Methanogens on the surface of mars are varied. First of all, Methanogens are anaerobic. Since mars do not support oxygen that can be used for living organisms such as humans, then Methanogens can survive. The second environmental condition that can be suited to survive on the planet is the fact that Methanogens are non-photosynthetic and are therefore unable to use organic nutrients as part of their means of gaining food. In the year 2004, scientists were able to discover the existence of Methane on the surface of Mars. Therefore, ascertaining the LIFE FORMS IN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM 4 probability that Methanogens can survive in the environment considering the microorganisms depend on Methane for breathing within their hosts and also in their environments. 3)How strong is the evidence? Is there a large body of evidence that this is true, or is it still controversial? Karl, the head of the research programs on the methanogens in Arkansas university, stated that the microorganisms were deemed suitable to survive on Mars. Research that was conducted included placing four different species and types of methanogens on a simulation chamber. The pressure in the chamber was then to be dropped drastically six millibars, which is equivalent to that of the pressure on mars' surface, (Malaska, 2012). Earth's surface pressure is 1013milibars. Therefore, the conditions under the chamber that the methanogens are growing under are monitored and decrease to know the best satisfactory conditions for growth. The methanogens were also exposed to extreme Martian conditions out know how they faired in these conditions with high temperatures. Lichens 1. What are the scientific claims about how these organisms survive in extreme conditions? A comparable study accomplished through the German Research Aerospace Centre became likewise directed on Lichens also to decide the conditions below which the microorganisms develop. Another simple exam meaning to determine whether or not existence can exist on Mars is Low-Pressure Tolerance with the aid of Methanogens in an Aqueous Environment. The explores goal became to assess the effectiveness of methanogen presence below a low-anxiety climate. The low-stress air speaks to the chance of how Mars underpins methane-creating living beings. The outcomes of the research regarded all through the sixty LIFE FORMS IN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM 5 days all methanogens had been viably ready to develop. As indicated by way of several Scientists, if there are suggestions of Methane on a planet, life will be the explanation, (Kral et.al, 2004). Networks of microbes may be dwelling below the Martian surface and producing the gas. It makes feel that there ought to be extra proof to unequivocally infer that a Martian domain underpins Methane, be that as it might also, sizeable implications may be drawn from the investigation. 2) What is the evidence for the claim? The usage of simple investigations is amazingly huge and will sincerely maintain being of extensive help in locating if lifestyles exist on Mars. The essentialness of practically equal to considers from the way that there's but no reasonable and compact evidence to facilitate the case that existence exists on Mars or anyplace else regarded to man up to now as that is concerned, (Malaska, 2012). As expressed within the creation locating existence, outdoor Earth is amazingly enormous. This is because it could set off an extra noteworthy comprehension of the birthplaces of the universe and the way life commenced on Earth. Also, finding outdoor life could propose that there is probably insightful existence on specific planets, which might inspire philosophical inquiries on human's area acknowledged to humankind. With everything taken into account, locating life on Mars would enormously affect how we see the technology on Earth. Simple investigations will preserve on assuming a vital activity in determining what lies ahead inside the quest for lifestyles on Mars. 3. How strong is the evidence? Is there a large body of evidence that this is true, or is it still controversial? Finding any kind of existence on Mars could, at prolonged ultimate provide ascent to a response at the off hazard that we are remote from all people else proper now or not. Space investigation is one of the most charming themes in technological know-how and has brought LIFE FORMS IN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM 6 about various examinations being directed. Mars is one planet, especially that researchers have very well contemplated. Their exploration indicates that Mars, at one point, may additionally have been neighbourly to lifestyles. In any case, no solid proof of lifestyles has been found. Certain variables are genuinely required for a planet to aid life. These variables comprise but aren't constrained to big scale macronutrients and micronutrients, an adequate climate, vitality, and fluid water. Two simple investigations were led to assist and answer the inquiry if life exists on Mars. One decided whether subsurface situations on Earth which organization with existence are corresponding to the ones that stay on Mars. Cyanobacteria 2. What are the scientific claims about how these organisms survive in extreme condition? Cyanobacteria is a type of bacteria that is green in colour is often confused with algae, which is not the case. Cyanobacteria has cells that use molecules to harvest energy. This way, cyanobacterium is considered as a form of light-harvesting cells, such as the chloroplast. Cyanobacteria can live on an environment that also has a low oxygen level as well as in high oxygen level depending o the conditions of that environment, (Mahaney & Dohm, 2010). Cyanobacteria have previously been found in fossil matter, therefore, qualifying it as a life form. 2) What is the evidence for the claim? An excellent approach for locating if lifestyles are equipped for getting by way of on Mars is via mimicking Martian situations on Earth, (Mahaney & Dohm, 2010). This is the element that easy investigations are. Various types of Mars simple examinations have endeavoured with the aid of numerous analysts. Penelope Boston's paper The Astrobiology LIFE FORMS IN OUR SOL ...
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Final Answer

Attached.

Running head: ASTRONOMY

1

Astronomy
Student’s Name:
Instructor’s Name:
Course:
Date:

Astronomy

2

Introduction
This proposal paper aims at finding if there is substantiating evidence on the presence of
extraterrestrial life. Extraterrestrial life refers to the life that may have existed or may exist in the
universe outside the earth (Motswagae, 2018). This quest is to find if there is a microorganism that
lives outside the planet earth. This, therefore, raises various questions such as what are the basic
requirements for life? Are there other planets that are like earth? How likely is the evolution of
intelligent life? These questions test the possibility of life beyond planet earth, and completion of
the mission will have benefits such as increasing the stock of knowledge as well as revolutionizing
people's perspective on terrestrial planets. In our case, we shall examine the possibility of the
presence of life on the red planet, Mars. There are many conspiracy theories on the existence of
life in mars, and hence we will attempt to either validate or reach a different conclusion. The paper
is composed of four sections; mission location, the discovery of forms of life, plan of how to find
the terrestrial planet, and a conclusion.
Mission location
Among all the planets in the solar system, mars are the other planet that exhibits signs of
life. This possibility of life has inspired scientists to search for evidence on the extraterrestrial
bodies. The scientists have visited the planet for over fifty years to determine the probability of
such an evolution. All extraterrestrial life requires the presence of water for them to grown and
thrive in any location across the universe. In our case, the planet mars have exhibited the presence
of water though scientists claim that the water was only present In the past. Planet mars are
currently dry and vastly barren lands, while most of its water reserves are found in polar ice caps
(Redd, 2017). Other characteristics of the planet include having a thin atmosphere that allows the

Astronomy

3

sun's radiations to get into its surface and hence posing a challenge for the growth of the terrestrial
living organisms.
Although the planet having unfavorable conditions to support life, further evidence from
images captured by NASA Mars global survey shows that in 2000 there were gullies on the surface
of the planet that were formed by flowing water. This evidence indicates that formerly there was
the presence of water, which scientists estimate to have covered more than 19% of the planet
(Redd, 2017). This shows that mars were not always as desolate as it currently seems. Some
theories state that the water present on the surface of mars was lost to space and hence showing
the possibility of evolution of terrestrial life. The planet's water cover can be compared to the
Atlantic ocean that occupies 17% of the earth, and hence there sufficient probability of there being
the presence of life on Mars. A senior scientist at Goddard, Michael Mumma, argues that the
presence of wet conditions on Mars shows that life must have thrived on the planet for a more
extended period than we can estimate.
U.S. Geological Survey's Astrogeology Science Center in Flagstaff, Arizona, argues that
there is a possibility of the presence of water in modern planet mars. Their argument is supported
by the debate on whether the recurring slope lineae are formed by water flowing beneath the
surface of Mars. Af...

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