JWU Risk Landscape of The Water and Wastewater Systems Discussion

Johnson & Wales University

Question Description

I’m studying for my English class and need an explanation.

Discussion Questions: Discuss the unique characteristics and risk landscape of the Water and Wastewater Systems, Chemical, and Critical Manufacturing sectors. How are the public and private sectors being coordinated to assist in securing these sectors?

You must separate each aspect of the question into different paragraphs and incorporate headers to differentiate the various aspects. Failure to do so may result in a loss of points.

Required Readings

DHS CIP: Read all subsections such as overview, specific plan, resources, and training sections (if applicable) within each sector below:

1. Water and Wastewater Systems Sector

2. Chemical Sector

3. Critical Manufacturing Sector

4. Watch the Chemical Sector: NIPP in Action video

5. Lewis, T.G. (2014). Critical Infrastructure Protection in Homeland Security: Defending a Networked Nation. (Read Chapter 11)

6. Copeland, C. (2010, December 15). Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector; Congressional Research Service.

7. Terrorism and the Chemical Infrastructure: Protecting People and Reducing Vulnerabilities. (2006). (Read Pages 18-34)

8. Chemical Sector – Specific Plan, DHS 2015 (Read entire plan)

9. Clark, R. M. (2014). Securing water and wastewater systems: global perspectives. Water & Environment Journal, 28(4), 449-458.

Instructions: Fully utilize the materials that have been provided to you in order to support your response. Your initial post must be at least 350 words. You also must respond to at least two other student's initial postings and these responses must be a minimum of 150 words and include direct questions. You may challenge, support or supplement another student’s answer using the terms, concepts and theories from the required readings. Also, do not be afraid to respectfully disagree where you feel appropriate; as this should be part of your analysis process at this academic level.

Forum posts are graded on timeliness, relevance, knowledge of the weekly readings, and the quality of original ideas. While proper APA is not required, attribution to sources that informed your posting should be included. Refer to the grading rubric for additional details concerning grading criteria.

Student Responses

Student#1 Edwin


Discuss the unique characteristics and risk landscape of the Water and Wastewater Systems?

The Water critical need for water in every sector (Meinhardt, 2004). Water systems have been identified as critical infrastructure and critical to national security. Bioterrorism would release unwanted pathogens into waterways, causing concern to public health. In the 1970s, residents in a small town in West Virginia were exposed to high levels of PFOA in their drinking water. It was found that DUPONT, the chemical giant, reinvented how people cooked. DUPONT was responsible for inventing Teflon, the chemical used to create the nonstick barrier on cooking pans, and it was also used on many household products because of its stain free chemical agent use widely in just about anything. These chemicals were highly toxic and are found in 99% of Americans' bloodstream, even in newborn babies, and it is bio-resistant (Rich, 2016). The issue was that these chemicals found themselves in the local water supply poisoning many of the residents in Parkersburg, West Virginia. Terrorists could silently poison any water system in the United States without it being detected in communities, not until it is too late.

Discuss the unique characteristics and risk landscape of the Chemical Systems?

The Chemical Sector is much like the Communication Sector in that both benefits everyone. However, the Chemical Sector is hazardous to the well-being and safety of the United States. Chemicals are used by terrorists to make Improvised Explosive Device (IED), Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD), and weaponized to kill people. Many chemicals are silent killers. “There are 60,000 unregulated chemicals out there right now” (Rich, 2016). For example, for 14 years, Teflon was produced with Perfluorooctanoic acid, or PFOA or C-8. These chemicals were linked to diseases, and the community of Parkersburg West Virginia was exposed to it because it was introduced in their water system. Such an act of terrorism is possible in the future without detection.

Discuss the unique characteristics and risk landscape of the Critical Manufacturing sectors?

The Department of Homeland Security identified the Critical Manufacturing (CM) Sector critical to national security twelve years ago. CM includes metal manufacturing, machine manufacturing, appliances, electrical equipment, and transportation equipment manufacturing. Together, CM is worth over two trillion dollars of the United States economy, and the disruption of service will stop the production of critical equipment, stop economic growth, and stop employment.

How are the public and private sectors being coordinated to assist in securing these sectors?

The federal government is almost the first to respond during natural or humanmade disasters. In the United States, 85% of CIKR is privately own, and without the knowledge of their daily operations, it would pose a challenge to help restore normalcy and protect communities. The federal government needs the intelligence to gather the necessary data to prepare for incidents involving any of the CI. For this reason, the US government created the Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Program to help facilitate and protect information exchange between the private and public sectors as well as with the government (USDHS, 2009).




Meinhardt, P. L. (2004). Water and Bioterrorism: Preparing for the Potential Threat to U.S. Water Supplies and Public Health. Retrieved from

Rich, N. (2016). The Lawyer Who Became DuPont’s Worst Nightmare. The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved from

United States. Department of Homeland Security. (2009). Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII). [Video/DVD] United States. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved from

Student# 2 Stephen

Good morning all,

This week’s forum we were asked to discuss the unique characteristics and risk landscapes or the Water and Wastewater Systems, Chemical, and Critical Manufacturing sectors. Additionally, how are the public and private sectors coordinating their efforts to secure these sectors?

The unique characteristics and risk landscape of the Water and Wastewater Systems

This sector is complex in nature and is comprised of drinking water and wastewater systems that are owned and overseen by many private and government entities. This sector provides overarching public health, environmental protection, and security, to name a few. The sector has unique risks including threats, vulnerabilities, and consequences that make security in this sector extremely important. The Water and Wastewater sector plan is designed to be a “living document” that not only establishes the strategic framework for Sector’s security and resilience, but provides a unique flexibility to achieve them. (Water and Wastewater Systems Sector-Specific Plan, 2015)

The unique characteristics and risk landscape of the Chemical Sector

This sector has a unique characteristic, in that facilities that produce chemicals are located around coastal ports, which allows them to move large amounts of materials from just a few locations. This can be a significant risk factor, like putting all of your eggs in one basket. Risks in this Sector include, but are not limited to, cyber-attacks, terrorist attacks, natural disasters and pandemics. This sector is really hitting home right now. The likelihood of foreign-borne viruses to the United States’ significantly increased, which has brought a pandemic to our soil. This has affected the sector’s workforce and operations. Like other sectors this one has a plan in place in case of this type of outbreak. (Chemical Sector-Specific Plan An Annex to the NIPP 2013, 2015)

The unique characteristics and risk landscape of the Critical Manufacturing Sector

The Critical Manufacturing Sector takes in raw materials and turns them into parts and equipment that are the linchpin to many industries across the country. This sector represents a significant amount of our nations GDP and forms the backbone of energy and transportation infrastructure in the United States. Many facilities within this sector manufacture key products for our nation’s defense and are a part of the Defense Industrial Base Sector. A failure within this sector could cause significant national economic impact and any long disruptions could cause failures in many other critical sectors. (Critical Manufacturing Sector-Specific Plan An Annex to the NIPP 2013, 2015) Natural disasters, supply chain interruptions, cyber, and terrorist attacks are all risks in this sector.

How are public and private sectors coordinating efforts to secure these sectors?

Water and Wastewater Sector along with EPA, state, and federal agencies share the mission to protect public health, the environment, and security and resilience activities. These councils have representation from all levels in the private and government sectors that share security and resiliency measures.

The Chemical Sector has successfully built public-private partnerships, to secure this sector through information sharing, publishing best practices, and running exercises to improve incident response times and recovery methods.

The Critical Manufacturing sector utilizes joint council working groups to recognize threats, identify and mitigate vulnerabilities by understanding potential disruptive events.



Chemical Sector-Specific Plan An Annex to the NIPP 2013. (2015).

Critical Manufacturing Sector-Specific Plan An Annex to the NIPP 2013. (2015).

Water and Wastewater Systems Sector-Specific Plan. (2015). Department of Homeland Security.

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Final Answer

here they are



Students’ Responses

Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation



Response to Student#1 Edwin
I support your argument acknowledging that the water and wastewater sector is critical
and vulnerable. However, I did not see you discussing the specific risk factors or vulnerabilities
that are affecting t...

Knutsen (22851)
Duke University

Return customer, been using sp for a good two years now.

Thanks as always for the good work!

Excellent job