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SIS 212 GWU Environmental Issue in China Research Paper

SIS 212

George Washington University

SIS

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Need help with my History question - I’m studying for my class.

one outline and one actual paper needed.

If you could send me the outline as soon as possible will be nice.

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SIS-212-001 China, Japan & U.S.: Research Paper Your research paper (8 pages, double-spaced) can be based on a topic from a list of questions that will be distributed to the class or on any other approved topic related to the course covered in the class schedule up to March 23, including the one you selected for your class presentation. Be sure to address the relationship between socio-historical factors and contemporary behaviors and outlooks analyzed in your paper. You should submit a hard copy of your research outline to me by March 16 to get my feedback. The outline should include your research questions, a tentative thesis statement, a summary of your argument in bullet point, and a preliminary bibliography. The paper is due by April 6. Please consult me on additional readings. You will not receive a grade for this paper if it does not include citations and a bibliography of readings consulted. Sources from the Internet should be of a scholarly/authoritative nature. The proper style for citations and bibliography is indicated in Kate L. Turabian, Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations, and the Chicago Manual of Style, both of which are available in the Bender Library Reference Room, and at www.library.american.edu/e_ref/citation.html. You can use either one of the two formats. Your answer should show your ability to: (1) integrate and synthesize materials and readings covered to date; (2) reason logically with conclusions supported by evidence; and (3) express ideas clearly Essay questions 1. Iris Chang has labeled the war crimes committed by the Japanese in Nanjing (Nanking) in 1937 as the “Forgotten Holocaust of World War II.” At the same time, the Japanese government has persisted in denying that its military carried out a massacre there. Explain the reasons for the vastly different Chinese and Japanese perspectives on the killings and how this event continues to negatively affect contemporary Sino-Japanese relations. Why did the U.S. decide not to convict the Japanese Emperor and the majority of the Japanese leadership for war crimes? Explain how that decision has facilitated the on-going Japanese “white washing” of its wartime record, as reflected in the textbook revision controversy, “comfort women” debate, and Yasukuni Shrine visits. Explain also why it was not until after the 1990s that China allowed these issues to negatively affect its relations with Japan. 2. At the start of the American Occupation of Japan (1945-1952), two major objectives were the democratization and demilitarization of Japan. Discuss the reforms - political, military, economic, land, labor, women rights and education - introduced by General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP), to achieve these goals. Were all of these goals attained when the Occupation ended? If so, or if not, explain why (with specific reference to the “reverse course”). In your opinion, which reforms have had the most significant impact on present day Japan? 3. Identify at least three key tenets of Mao Zedong Thought and examine either Mao’s objectives in launching the Great Leap Forward (1958-1960) or the Cultural Revolution (1965-1975). Discuss how Mao put into action those three tenets throughout the campaign you have chosen and evaluate its political, social, economic and environmental impact on China at that time and today. 4. Kenneth Lieberthal listed a number of possible outcomes - depending on specific domestic and external developments - in the system of governance in China over the coming two decades. Which of the following do you believe is the most likely outcome within the next two decades: continued monopoly of power by the CCP or political liberalization and multi-party democracy? Illustrate your argument with supporting evidence. 5. Environmental degradation and the Coronavirus pandemic (COVID 19) are two critical issues that China must address immediately. Write an essay on one of these issues. Examine the nature of the problem and how it threatens present day China and its future, including economic progress, social stability and quality of life. Assess the effectiveness of the government’s response. What is the impact of that issue on China-US relations? 6. Compare the status and roles of Chinese women during the Confucian, Maoist and post-Maoist eras. Do you think Chinese women are better off today than they were during the Confucian and Maoist eras? Why or why not? Illustrate your answers with supporting evidence. 7. Japan is one of the strongest democracies and most progressive societies in the nonWestern world. However, many observers argue that Japanese women do not enjoy equal rights with Japanese men, both in the private sphere of family life and the public sphere of the workplace. Do you agree with this statement? If so, or if not, why? Back up your argument with supporting evidence. 8. What in your opinion are the most striking similarities and differences between the (a) American and Japanese education systems or (b) the American and Chinese education systems since World War II? What are the strengths and weaknesses of each system? To what extent can the differences be explained by societal characteristics such as “individualism” in the United States,” “groupism” in Japan, and “ideological correctness” in China? What are the socio-historical factors that explain the prevalence of such societal values in United States, Japan and China respectively? 9. Until its defeat in the 2009 parliamentary elections, the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) of Japan had dominated Japanese politics since its formation in 1955 (except for a brief 11-month period in 1993-1994). What were the major factors that contributed to its longevity in power? What factors led to the defeat of the LDP by the Democratic Party of Japan in 2009? Why was it returned to power again in December 2012? Back up your arguments with supporting evidence. CLASS SCHEDULE Class 1: January 13 Introduction to the course Class 2: January 16 China: Socio-Historical Context & Geographical Setting - Patterns from the Past Required - Gamer, “Introduction;” Toops, “China: A Geographic Preface;” & Murphey, “The Historical Context;” in Gamer & Toops, eds., chs. 1-3 Class 3: January 23 Western Imperialism and Demise of Imperial China Required - Schoppa, “From Empire to People’s Republic,” in Joseph, ed., ch. 2 Video critique/discussion #1 The Two Coasts of China (DVD 2531) Class 4: January 27 Japan: Socio-Historical Context & Geographical Setting - Patterns from the Past Required - McCargo, “Introduction: Themes and Debates,” & “Historical Background,” chs. 1, 2 News presentations #1 Class 5: January 30 The Pacific War: Japanese Invasion of China – From Mukden to Nanjing Required - Saaler, “Bad War or Good War: History and Politics in Post-War Japan,” in Kingston, ed., Critical Issues in Contemporary Japan, ch. 10 Recommended - Chang, The Rape of Nanking, pp. 3-16, 19-34, 81-104, 159-180, 199-225 Video critique/discussion #2 Nanking (DVD 4367) Class 6: February 3 American Occupation of Japan Required - Pyle (1996), ch. 12 Video critique/discussion #3 Re-Inventing Japan (DVD 2535) CONTEMPORARY CHINA Class 7: February 6 Kuomintang-CCP Civil War and Establishment of People’s Republic of China Required - Gamer, “Chinese Politics,” in Gamer & Toops, eds., ch. 4, pp.79-96 - Lieberthal, “The Maoist System: Ideas and Governance” (Mao Zedong Thought), pp. 59-77 China under Mao: The Great Leap Forward & Cultural Revolution Required - Shapiro, “Deforestation, Famine, and Utopian Urgency,” ch. 2 Recommended - Fairbank & Goldman, “The Great Leap Forward 1958-1960” & “The Cultural Revolution 1966-1976,” chs. 19, 20 Video critique/discussion #4 China Through Mao’s Eyes: 1958-1969 Not a Dinner Party (DVD 5154) Class 8: February 10 China’s Communist Party-State: From Deng Xiaoping to Xi Jinping Required - Gamer, “Chinese Politics,” in Gamer & Toops, eds., ch. 4, pp. 96-121 Class discussion #1 - Lawrence & Martin, Understanding China’s Political System, Congressional Research Services, March 20, 2013 (available on the internet) News presentations #2 Class 9: February 13 Economic Modernization and Social Change in China Required - Tong & Wong, “China’s Economy,” in Gamer & Toops, eds., ch. 5 Video critique/discussion #5 China from the Inside (DVD 2547: Episode 4 – Freedom and Justice) Class 10: February 17 Education in China Class discussion #2 - Dreyer, “Education,” China’s Political System: Modernization and Tradition, 2019, ch. 10. News presentations #3 Class 11: February 20 Women and Society in China Required - Zang & Jankowiak, “Family, Kinship, Marriage and Sexuality,” in Gamer & Toops, eds., ch. 10 Joint Presentation #1 - Bossen, “Women and Development,” in Gamer & Toops, eds., ch. 11 News presentations #4 Class 12: February 24 Environmental Degradation in China Required - Edmonds, “China’s Environmental Problems,” in Gamer & Toops, eds., ch. 9 Joint Presentation #2 - Albert & Xu, “China’s Environmental Crisis,” Council on Foreign Relations (CRF) Backgrounders, January 18, 2016 (http://www.cfr.org/china/chinas-environmentalcrisis/p12608) News presentations #5 Class 13: February 27 CCP Rule and Prospects for Democracy Recommended -Wright, Disincentives for Democratic Change in China, East-West Center, February 2007 (available on the internet) -McGregor, R., “Party Man: Xi Jinping’s Quest to Dominate China,” Foreign Affairs, September/October 2019 Class discussion #3 - Lee, “Putting Democracy in China on Hold,” Centre for Independent Studies (CIS) Issue Analysis 95, May 2008 Class discussion #4 -Economy, “China’s New Revolution: The Reign of Xi Jinping,” Foreign Affairs, May/June 2018 CONTEMPORARY JAPAN Class 14: March 2 Contemporary Japanese Society: Demographic Trends Required - McCargo, “Social Structure and Social Policy,” ch. 4 Video critique/discussion #6 How Is Japan Dealing With Its Rapidly Ageing Population? Journeyman Pictures # September 2, 2016, 14 minutes (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wF14TCrMN2Q) News presentations #6 Class 15: March 5 Japanese Education System Required Sugimoto, “Diversity and Unity in Education,” ch. 5 Video critique/discussion #7 Japanese Education in Crisis (DVD 5514) Joint Presentation #3 Aspinall, “Violence in Schools: Tensions between ‘the Individual’ and ‘the Group’ in the Japanese Education System,” in Kingston, ed., Critical Issues in Contemporary Japan, ch. 18 SPRING BREAK March 9-13 Class 16: March 19: 4:05 – 5:20 pm (research paper outline due date) Japanese Political Economy and Work Culture Required -McCargo, “The Changing Political Economy,” ch. 3 Joint Presentation #4 (combine both readings) - Sugimoto, “Varieties in Work and Labor,” ch. 4 - Kingston, “Jobs at Risk,” Contemporary Japan, ch. 5 News presentations #7 Class 17: March 19: 6:45 – 8:00 pm Women in Japanese Society Required - Kingston, “Families at Risk,” Contemporary Japan, ch. 4 Joint Presentation #5 - Sugimoto, “Gender Stratification and the Family System,” ch. 6 News presentations #8 Class 18: March 23 Contemporary Japanese Politics Required - McCargo, “Political Society: Parties and Opposition,” ch. 6 Class discussion #5 Auslin, Michael, “Japan’s New Realism: Abe Gets Tough,” Foreign Affairs, March/April 2016 News presentations #9 ...
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Final Answer

Attached.

Prompt 5. Environmental degradation and the Coronavirus pandemic (COVID 19) are two
critical issues that China must address immediately. Write an essay on one of these issues.
Examine the nature of the problem and how it threatens present day China and its future,
including economic progress, social stability and quality of life. Assess the effectiveness of
the government’s response. What is the impact of that issue on China-US relations?

Outline
Environmental Degradation in China
I.

Introduction
Currently, China is facing a serious problem of environmental degradation.
This is characterized by the ecological strain for the society that is
overpopulated and underdeveloped evident in the shortage of water, land,
desertification, and deforestation. China is also facing complex environmental
pollution challenge due to the establishment of the modern industries and
growing urbanization. Environmental degradation has also affected climate
change, marine population, and the increase of toxic waste which is harmful to
human health. As a result, this china threatens the China’s present day and
future, hence the government has to put in place mechanisms to address the
problem. .
Thesis Statement:
There is no doubt the issue of environmental degradation in china threatens its
present and its future and despite it increasing its relations with The U.S. it is
the high time for the China’s government to put in place the necessary
interventions to prevent the situation from deteriorating further.

II.

Body
(A) Nature of environmental degradation problem in china
i.

Ecological strain in Chinese society is evident in water shortage and the
decline in forest cover.

ii.

Environmental pollution due to industrial development and urbanization

iii.

New environmental problems such as climate change, poor waste
treatment, and marine pollution.

(B) How environmental degradation threatens present-day china and its
future
i.

Undermines the social stability

ii.

It lowers the quality of life

iii.

It slows down the economic progress

iv.

Slows down growth and economic transformation

v.

Threatens the sustainable development

vi.

Social and economic costs

(C) Effectiveness of the government’s response to environmental degradation
i.

The creation of the law-based mechanism has improved environmental
governance

ii.

Incorporation of the emerging technologies in the environmental
policies implementation

iii.

The setting of long-term environmental goals has enhanced
transparency and accountability in the way the government respond to
environmental concerns by the citizens.

(D) Impact of environmental degradation on China-US relations
i.

Enhanced cooperation

ii.

Change in political relations

iii.

Improved Social and cultural negotiations.

(E) Recommendations
i.

Developing grassroot environmentalism through involvement of the
media and non-governmental organization in environmental protection.

ii.

Enhance cooperation with the international community

iii.

Decentralization of the environmental responsibility to the local
authorities

iv.

Creation of a center to offer policy guidance on environmental
protection

III.

Conclusion
The environmental degradation problem in china ids evident through
ecological strain, increased environmental pollution and emerging challenges
such as climate change. This continues to threaten the social stability, lower
the quality of life, slows down economic development and sustainable

development. The environmental degradation in china is an issue which needs
to be prioritized. The way China is dealing with the problem of environmental
degradation is different from the US. However, there is improved
collaboration between the two countries on the issue. The existing system is
characterized by non-democratic principles but highly responsive to the public
demands for improved environmental governance.

References
Khan, M. I., & Chang, Y. C. (2018). Environmental challenges and current practices in
China—a thorough analysis. Sustainability, 10(7), 2547.
https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/10/7/2547
Kostka, G., & Zhang, C. (2018). Tightening the grip: environmental governance under Xi
Jinping. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09644016.2018.1491116
Wu, F., & Edmonds, R. (2017). China's Three-Fold Environmental Degradation.
Environmental Degradation” in Critical Issues in Contemporary China, 2nd edition,
edited by Czeslaw Tubilewicz, Routledge.
https://www.academia.edu/29884644/Chinas_ThreeFold_Environmental_Degradation
Smil, V. (2015). The bad earth: Environmental degradation in China. Routledge.
https://www.ro...

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