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Higher Risk of Suicide Attempts among LGBTQ Youth Research Paper

Question Description

I’m trying to study for my Social Science course and I need some help to understand this question.

Methodology and Data Analysis Paper - This is based on my Qualitative research study I'm conducting.

Research Study - Higher Risk of Suicide Attempts among LGBTQ Youth (18+)

Description -

Each student will implement their research proposal. Then each student will submit a first draft of her or his methodology and data analysis section of the final research report. See Appendix A for details of what to include in this paper as well as Appendix B for the grading rubric.

I will be providing draft and you should be able to include in the final Methodology and Data Analysis Paper. I will be also attaching an EXAMPLE of the paper that the professor provided to help guide the process of the paper. Additionally, I will be attaching powerpoints to help with the paper.

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Analyzing Qualitative Data Thematic analysis Week 5 & 6, We will LEARN… – The purpose of qualitative data analysis – Planning the analysis – What is thematic analysis? – Doing thematic analysis: a step-by-step guide – Evaluating qualitative data analysis plan PURPOSE OF QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS The primary purpose of a qualitative data analysis is to sift and sort the masses of words we have collected from our research participants in such a way that we can derive patterns related to our research question to identify the similarities and differences presented by individuals and the possible links between them. PLANNING THE ANALYSIS ❑Step 1: Transcribing the Data ❑Task 1a: Deciding what computer program to use, if any ❑ Word-processing programs, ETHNOGRAPH, HYPERQUAL, ATLAS.ti, NUD*IST, and NVivo ❑Task 1b: Deciding who will transcribe the data ❑ Should give guidelines to a research or administrative assistant about how the material should be transcribed (e.g., including both the questions and answers, use of brackets to show non-verbal communications such as pauses, laughing or crying, and voice tone) and how to format the transcript (e.g., to leave a margin for writing notes and codes along the right-hand side, to number each line) ❑Step 2: Establishing General Rules for the Analysis ❑Task2a: Previewing the data ❑ To read all of the transcripts before beginning to formally identify categories ❑ To give all of the transcripts and all parts of the transcripts the same amount of attention. ❑Task 2b: Keeping a journal ❑ e.g., planned method, any changes in the plan, with dates and reasons, a record of all our activities and the feelings and reasoning's behind them. What is thematic analysis? “Thematic analysis is a method for identifying, analyzing, and reporting patterns (themes) within data. It minimally organizes and describes your data set in (rich) detail. However, frequently if goes further than this and interprets various aspects of the research topic” (Braun & Victoria, 2006, p.79) What counts as a theme? • A “theme” captures something important about the data in relation to the research question, and represents some level of patterned response or meaning within the data set. • The ‘keyness’ of a theme is not necessarily dependent on quantifiable measures, but rather on whether it captures something important in relation to the overall research question. DOING THE ANALYSIS – Step 3: Doing First-Level Coding (concrete ideas in the transcript) – Task 3a: Identifying Meaning Units (e.g., a word, particular or complete sentence, or paragraph or more) – Task 3b: Creating categories (meaning units should fit together into categories) – Task 3c: Assigning codes to categories (codes are simply a shorthand form of the category name and usually displayed in the margins of the transcribed text) – Task 3d: Refining and reorganizing categories (consider the logic underlying the rules for we made for grouping meaning units and defining categories) Example: Doing First-Level Coding – Research question: Why foster parents resign? 1. Sue (angrily): His behavior was just too much and nobody from the agency told 2. us that he’d set fires before and was probably going to burn our house down. I 3. suppose they thought that if they’d told us that we wouldn’t have taken him but 4. I do feel that we were set up from the beginning (sounding very upset). And when 5. we called the agency, there was only an answering machine and it was a whole 6. day before the social worker called us back. 7. Interviewer: That’s dreadful. Example: Doing First-Level Coding – Research question: Why foster parents resign? 1. Sue (angrily): His behavior was just too much1 and nobody from the agency told 2. us that he’d set fires before and was probably going to burn our house down. I 3. suppose they thought that if they’d told us that we wouldn’t have taken him but 2 4. I do feel that we were set up from the beginning (sounding very upset). 3 And when 5. we called the agency, there was only an answering machine and it was a whole 6. day before the social worker called us back. 4 7. Interviewer: That’s dreadful. DOING THE ANALYSIS – Step 4: Doing Second-Level Coding (looks for and interprets the more abstract meanings underlying these concrete ideas) – Task 4a: Comparing categories ✓ Compare the categories themselves in order to uncover possible relationships between them. ✓ The point of doing this is to identify themes based on patterns that repeatedly occur among our categories (e.g., one theme, which is the agency’s attitude toward the foster parents derived from two categories, which are lack of information and nonattendance at meetings) DOING THE ANALYSIS – Step 5: Interpreting Data and Building Theory – Task 5a: Developing conceptual classifications systems (e.g., draw a cluster diagram, make a matrix, count the number of times a meaning unit or category appears, look for a missing links, or note contradictory evidence) – Task 5b: Presenting themes or theory – Step 6: Assessing the Trustworthiness of the Results – Task 6a: Establishing our own credibility (It is necessary to demonstrate that our own judgement is to be trusted) – Task 6b: Establishing the dependability of the data (e.g., triangulation and member checking) – Task 6: Establishing our control of biases and preconceptions EVALUATING YOUR QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS PLAN – 32 questions on pages 342-343 you should ask yourself before embarking on a qualitative research study (Raines, 2011) The major steps of a qualitative data analysis • Transcript preparation • Planning the analysis • First-level coding • Second-level coding • Interpretation & Theory building • Assessing the trustworthiness of the results Computers & Qualitative Data Analysis ❑ A simple word-processing program ❑ Spreadsheets such as excel, Lotus 1-2-3 etc. ❑ Software packages such as ATLAS. Ti, HyperResearch, NVIVO, and QCA etc. ➢ For the most part, the intelligence part of the analysis still rests with the researcher. The software, however, can greatly assist in the data organizing!!! Class Discussion First, read the Abstract section in the article and find the research question Second, read the Methods section in the article, and find research design, sample, including participants and sampling, instrumentation, data collection, and data analysis that the author used for her research Finally, discuss how the author answered her research question through qualitative data analysis Quiz When doing a Qualitative Research Study you are seeking to be involved in the study and to find information from meaningful conversations and life experiences, not just numerical data. As a researcher the most meaningful part of writing a Qualitative Research Paper can be drawing meaning from the data you collect. a. True b. False Quiz Transcripts are generally not word-for-word depictions of what interviewees said. a. True b. False Quiz – Amanda is conducting an interpretive research study on patients with schizophrenia. She has decided to keep a journal of all her experiences and meetings with the clients. She has audio taped a lot of her conversations from visits with the participants. She has even picked a computer program to transcribe all of the audio that was recorded. She is pretty pleased at the thoroughness of her work. However, why might there still be questions on the credibility and dependability of the data? a. Without numbers, the study is useless b. There is the potential for personal biases c. An interpretive study relies heavily on the researcher’s judgment d. Both B and C e. A, B, and C Quiz – What is true about analyzing qualitative data? a. It is a one step process b. Data collection and analysis are often blended c. Researchers must focus on the relationship of each piece of data to all other data d. b and c only e. a and c only Quiz – Having others unitize and categorize your data to ensure your categorization scheme is useful is called: – First level coding is the identification of categories within the collected data and then assigning codes to the identified categories. a. Audit trail b. Qualitative analysis a. True c. Triangulation b. False d. Ethnography Quiz – Second level coding: a. b. c. Is more abstract than first level coding Is more concrete than first level coding Involves interpreting the underlying meaning of ideas clearly portrayed in the data d. Both a and c e. Both b and c – A meaning unit is a piece of a transcript that: a. You are not sure what it means b. You are not sure if it is important c. It is important enough to stand alone as a meaningful idea d. Both a and b e. Is no longer than five (5) lines of the transcript Quiz – After categories have been – When you reach identified and first level coding is “category saturation” you complete, then you: have not adequately a. Break the categories down completed first level into smaller categories coding. b. Integrate the categories a. True based on common themes b. False and sub-themes c. Begin second level coding d. a and c only e. b and c only Quiz – When reading transcripts, it is important to always start at the beginning and read through to the end. a. True b. False – When conducting a qualitative research study it is important for the researcher to keep a journal throughout the study for documentation. However the researcher must remember to document only facts of the study and not his/her personal feelings, which may cloud the study and therefore the results. a. True b. False Quiz – Maloney is conducting an interpretive study where she will be collecting and analyzing qualitative data. This is the first research study Maloney has designed and executed as the head researcher. She is young and somewhat new to the field but is confident in her ability to carry out a meaningful and useful study. Because of her age and limited experience in the field, Maloney is concerned her credibility may be questioned. Will keeping a journal help establish her credibility? – a. No, a journal is only useful on a personal scale – it is a place for Maloney to collect her thoughts and make personal notes. – b. Yes, any note taking will add credibility to Maloney as a researcher. – c. No, journaling is a boring, unnecessary task which will hamper the progress of Maloney’s research study. – d. Yes, a thorough properly utilized journal will show that proper procedures have been followed which will lend credibility to the researcher. Group Activity – “If you could change one thing in the world today, what would it be? ” – Go through the responses and see if you can locate any patterns of similarity or difference. – Sort the responses into groups according to the patterns or themes that emerge as you read through the responses. Group Activity – Try to make the following assessments: 1. How many times have student identified the same (or very similar) things they would change if they could? 2. What proportion of the class used identical words to describe what they would change? Collecting Qualitative Data  Establishing Data Collection Procedures for Narrative Interviewing ▪ It is necessary for us to decide when and how to approach potential research participants before data collection occurs. ▪ Do clients who come from an ethnic minority have difficulty in accessing social services? Who would we interview first? Would we interview someone receiving multiple social services or someone not receiving any? Is there a particular ethnic group that we would want represented in our early interviews? ▪ We must also establish how the interview will be structured ▪ From informal casual conversations to more formal guided discussions.  Recording Narrative Data ▪ The most reliable way to record interview data is through the ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ use of audiotape. (Video tape??) The audiotape gives us verbatim statements and the tone, pace, and “atmosphere” of the interview can be recalled by simply replaying the tape. To prepare data for analysis, it is necessary to transcribe every word of the interview. In addition, any pauses, sighs, and gestures are noted in the text. The interviewer must also keep notes on the interview to record impressions, thoughts, perspectives, and any data the will shed light on the transcript during analysis. The verbatim transcript and the interviewer’s notes are key piece of data when text data are analyzed.  Trustworthiness and Truth Value of Narrative Data ▪ We must have some way to access the credibility of the data we collect (the reliability & validity of the data with quantitative data) ▪ An important question to access the trustworthiness and truth value of the text data is whether we understand what our research participants were telling us from their points of view. ▪ Two common ways to check the credibility of interview data are triangulation and member checking. TRIANGULATION  Comparing data from multiple perspectives ▪ Interview several people (i.e., data sources) on the topic ▪ Compare quantitative and qualitative data for the same variable MEMBER CHECKING  Getting feedback from our research participants about our interpretation of what they said; asking them to confirm or refute the conclusions made ▪ It’s particularly useful when our analysis has been completed, our interpretations made, and our conclusions drawn.  Advantages and Disadvantages of Narrative Data ▪ Advantages: ▪ The richness of data that are generated. ▪ It allows us to remain open to learning new information or new perspectives about old ideas. ▪ Disadvantages: ▪ It is time consuming including time to conduct the interviews and transcribing the text data. ▪ Researchers can tire easily and are subject to imposing their own biases and perspectives on what the research participants say.  Justin wants to test a research question that he has proposed. He does not have the resources to train people to observe or administer a survey. He believes that meaningful data already exists that are related to his variables. He is going to use a data base for his initial testing. What kind of data is this? a. Secondary data b. Observational data c. Survey data d. Narrative data  If you were interviewing a client and they began telling stories in their own words after we asked our identified research question, which form of interviewing would you be practicing? a. Job interviewing b. Narrative interviewing c. Observational interviewing d. Quantitative interviewing  Phil is conducting a research study and wants to find out information about people who are homeless. He plans to collect qualitative data by asking specific questions to the participants who are homeless. An example of a question he may ask is, "Could you tell me about how your life has changed since you have become homeless?" Since most of the data he will be collecting consists of open ended questions such as this, what type of method will Phil be using? a. Narrative interviewing b. Participant observation c. Secondary content data d. Historical data  Jade is going to be conducting a qualitative research study. She will be recording narrative data by audio recording interviews. She needs a way to assess the credibility of her data collection. What should she do? a. She should calculate a numerical value to determine reliability and validity. b. She should check the credibility by using triangulation and member checking. c. She doesn’t need to check the credibility of her data collection because it is qualitative. d. As long as her data is second-hand existing data, she knows that she has credibility.  Darrin wants to find out what people think about an upcoming seminar that he has helped organize for the United Underappreciated Teacher’s Assistant Organization. He plans on asking a few of his peers attending the seminar to observe and record some of the activities and give feedback. He also asks them to try to gauge the feelings of other participants based on their verbal and nonverbal reactions. He is trying to explain this method of data collection to his friend Rick but his mind keeps blanking so he asks you if you know the name of the method he’s using. Which one is it?      a. Narrative data b. Participant observation c. Secondary observation d. Secondary content e. Historical data  Which one below is not a qualitative data collection method? a. Narrative interviewing b. Participant observation c. Secondary content data d. Structured observations e. Historical data f. All of the above g. None of the above Information of research study to help the paper ​(do not include in the paper)​ : Purpose of the Study While there is limited information on suicidal attempts amongst the LGBTQ community of youths, it is important to hypothesize that this group has higher rates and elevated risks of suicide. This study seeks to build on existing studies and will explore risk and protective factors for self-harm and suicidal attempts amongst LGBTQ youth. The protective and risk factors aid in explaining suicidal behaviors and informs program approaches towards eliminating or reducing suicidal behavior amongst youths categorized under the LGBTQ community. Significance of the Study LGBTQ youth often lack important protective factors such as safe schooling and family support. As a result, more LGBTQ young adults seem to experience or register higher levels of substance abuse and depression. It is quite difficult to express the implication of discrimination and stigma against this group. This study explores the impact of discrimination and stigma as risk factors for suicidal behavior. The results of this study can be used to reduce the risks of suicidal attempts amongst LGBTQ youth. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(Include in the paper) Methods Research Design A qualitative intersectional and experimental study design will be used to collect data through interviews and online surveys. All youths (18+) involved in the study will be consented to complete the interview. Additionally, an experimental study design was adopted since it allows the researcher to control over the entire research study. Sample A sample of LGBTQ youth aged above 18 years will be purposively sampled within the American population. Youths will be asked whether they had ever disclosed their status to their guidance counselor, teacher, sibling, healthcare provider, parent, etc. Only the lot of youths that have previously shared their situation with a third party will be considered for the research. As a follow-up, all youths that have consented to participate in the study will be asked the extent to which they disclosed their different sexual orientation and/or gender identity to teachers, parents, siblings, etc. Instrumentation/Measures After the follow-up is carried out, a variable will be created to indicate the acceptance level felt by the youths after the disclosure of their sexual orientation and/or gender identity. A question asking whether they had attempted or contemplated committing suicide within the last year will also be asked. The question will be asked to youth aged 18+ years that had seriously considered or attempted suicide. Data Collection An informed consent form will be involved before the data collection process is initiated. Parental permission will not be necessary, in this case, since the sample of youths opted are aged 18+ years. Written consent will be offered to all participants and the faculty advisor ...
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Final Answer

Attached.

Running head: METHODOLOGY AND DATA ANALYSIS

Higher Risk of Suicide Attempts among LGBTQ Youth (18+)
Author's Name
Institutional Affiliation

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METHODOLOGY AND DATA ANALYSIS

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Higher Risk of Suicide Attempts among LGBTQ Youth (18+)
Research Design
A qualitative intersectional and experimental study was conducted to determine the
suicide rates among LGBTQ youths in the American populace. The research focused on risk and
protective factors for self-harm and suicidal attempts by LGBTQ youths. The study collected
data through interviews and online surveys. The study employed interviews to collect data to
ascertain quality answers from the respondents as opposed to single word responses. The study
also required all participants to give consent that they are members of the LGBTQ community
and aged 18 years and above before completing the interview for data reliability, quality and
integrity. The study also employed an experimental study design for it permitted and accorded
the researcher control over the entire research study.
Sample Size
The study utilized simple random sampling to determine participants, which averted
researcher selection bias. Therefore, the study purposively sampled LGBTQ youths aged 18
years and from within the American population. While 18 years was the lower age limit, 25 years
was the upper age limit to qualify as a respondent in this study. This age bracket ascertained that
only consenting adults that fully comprehend the LGBTQ topic took part; it also protected
children from exploitation in a study exploring a still eerie perceived topic socially.
Moreover, the researcher's choice of this age bracket emanated from the realization that
participants within this age group are mature enough not only to provide comprehensive
responses but also to withstand the emotional toll of the process. The study commenced by
asking the part...

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