LED 690 NU Experimental Design Involving Equal Treatment of Participants Questions

LED 690

National University


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Research Design Fifth Edition 2 I dedicate this book to all of my mentees and former students over the years who have engaged in this fascinating process of research and who have welcomed my suggestions for improving their scholarly works. I also welcome my son, J. David Creswell, a noted psychologist and researcher at Carnegie Mellon University, as my coauthor. 3 Research Design Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches Fifth Edition John W. Creswell Department of Family Medicine University of Michigan J. David Creswell Department of Psychology Carnegie Mellon University 4 FOR INFORMATION: SAGE Publications, Inc. 2455 Teller Road Thousand Oaks, California 91320 E-mail: order@sagepub.com SAGE Publications Ltd. 1 Oliver’s Yard 55 City Road London EC1Y 1SP United Kingdom SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd. B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044 India SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd. 3 Church Street #10-04 Samsung Hub Singapore 049483 Copyright © 2018 by SAGE Publications, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. 5 Printed in the United States of America Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Creswell, John W., author. | Creswell, J. David, author. Title: Research design : qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches / John W. Creswell, PhD, Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan, and J. David Creswell, PhD, Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University. Description: Fifth edition. | Los Angeles : SAGE, [2018] | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2017044644 | ISBN 978-1-5063-8670-6 (pbk. : alk. paper) Subjects: LCSH: Social sciences—Research—Methodology. | Social sciences— Statistical methods. Classification: LCC H62 .C6963 2018 | DDC 300.72/1—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017044644 Acquisitions Editor: Helen Salmon Content Development Editor: Chelsea Neve Editorial Assistant: Megan O’Heffernan Production Editor: David C. Felts Copy Editor: Amy Marks Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd. Proofreader: Eleni-Maria Georgiou Indexer: Stepping Stones Indexing Services Cover Designer: Janet Kiesel Marketing Manager: Shari Countryman 6 Brief Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Analytic Contents of Research Techniques Preface Companion Website Acknowledgments About the Authors Part I Preliminary Considerations 1. Chapter 1 The Selection of a Research Approach 2. Chapter 2 Review of the Literature 3. Chapter 3 The Use of Theory 4. Chapter 4 Writing Strategies and Ethical Considerations Part II Designing Research 1. Chapter 5 The Introduction 2. Chapter 6 The Purpose Statement 3. Chapter 7 Research Questions and Hypotheses 4. Chapter 8 Quantitative Methods 5. Chapter 9 Qualitative Methods 6. Chapter 10 Mixed Methods Procedures Glossary References Author Index Subject Index 7 Detailed Contents Analytic Contents of Research Techniques Preface Purpose Audience Format Outline of Chapters Companion Website Acknowledgments About the Authors Part I Preliminary Considerations Chapter 1 The Selection of a Research Approach The Three Approaches to Research Three Components Involved in an Approach Philosophical Worldviews The Postpositivist Worldview The Constructivist Worldview The Transformative Worldview The Pragmatic Worldview Research Designs Quantitative Designs Qualitative Designs Mixed Methods Designs Research Methods Research Approaches as Worldviews, Designs, and Methods Criteria for Selecting a Research Approach The Research Problem and Questions Personal Experiences Audience Summary ▶Writing Exercises Additional Readings Chapter 2 Review of the Literature The Research Topic The Literature Review The Use of the Literature 8 Design Techniques Steps in Conducting a Literature Review Searching Computerized Databases A Priority for Selecting Literature Material A Literature Map of the Research Abstracting Studies ▶Example 2.1. Literature Review Abstract in a Quantitative Study ▶Example 2.2. Literature Review Abstract in a Study Advancing a Typology Style Manuals The Definition of Terms ▶Example 2.3. Terms Defined in an Independent Variables Section ▶Example 2.4. Terms Defined in a Mixed Methods Dissertation A Quantitative or Mixed Methods Literature Review Summary ▶Writing Exercises Additional Readings Chapter 3 The Use of Theory Quantitative Theory Use Testing Causal Claims in Quantitative Research Variables in Quantitative Research Definition of a Theory in Quantitative Research Forms of Theories in Quantitative Research Placement of Quantitative Theories Writing a Quantitative Theoretical Perspective ▶Example 3.1. A Quantitative Theory Section Qualitative Theory Use Variation in Theory Use in Qualitative Research Locating the Theory in Qualitative Research ▶Example 3.2. A Theory Early in a Qualitative Study Mixed Methods Theory Use ▶Example 3.3. A Theory at the End of a Qualitative Study Social Science Theory Use Participatory–Social Justice Theory Use Box 3.1. Transformative-Emancipatory Questions for Mixed Methods Researchers Throughout the Research 9 Process ▶Example 3.4. Theory in a Feminist Mixed Methods Study Summary ▶Writing Exercises Additional Readings Chapter 4 Writing Strategies and Ethical Considerations Writing the Proposal Arguments Presented in a Proposal Format for a Qualitative Proposal ▶Example 4.1. A Qualitative Constructivist/Interpretivist Format ▶Example 4.2. A Qualitative Participatory–Social Justice Format Format for a Quantitative Proposal ▶Example 4.3. A Quantitative Format Format for a Mixed Methods Proposal ▶Example 4.4. A Mixed Methods Format Designing the Sections of a Proposal Writing Ideas Writing as Thinking The Habit of Writing Readability of the Manuscript ▶Example 4.5. An Illustration of the Hook-and-Eye Technique Voice, Tense, and “Fat” Ethical Issues to Anticipate Prior to Beginning the Study Beginning the Study Collecting the Data Analyzing the Data Reporting, Sharing, and Storing Data Summary ▶Writing Exercises Additional Readings Part II Designing Research Chapter 5 The Introduction The Importance of Introductions An Abstract for a Study Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Introductions 10 A Model for an Introduction An Illustration The Research Problem Studies Addressing the Problem Deficiencies in Past Literature ▶Example 5.1. Deficiencies in the Literature—Needed Studies ▶Example 5.2. Deficiencies in the Literature—Few Studies Significance of a Study for Audiences ▶Example 5.3. Significance of the Study Stated in an Introduction to a Quantitative Study Summary ▶Writing Exercises Additional Readings Chapter 6 The Purpose Statement Significance and Meaning of a Purpose Statement A Qualitative Purpose Statement ▶Example 6.1. A Purpose Statement in a Qualitative Phenomenology Study ▶Example 6.2. A Purpose Statement in a Case Study ▶Example 6.3. A Purpose Statement in an Ethnography ▶Example 6.4. A Purpose Statement in a Grounded Theory Study A Quantitative Purpose Statement ▶Example 6.5. A Purpose Statement in a Published Survey Study ▶Example 6.6. A Purpose Statement in a Dissertation Survey Study ▶Example 6.7. A Purpose Statement in an Experimental Study A Mixed Methods Purpose Statement ▶Example 6.8. A Convergent Mixed Methods Purpose Statement ▶Example 6.9. An Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods Purpose Statement ▶Example 6.10. An Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods Purpose Statement Summary 11 ▶Writing Exercises Additional Readings Chapter 7 Research Questions and Hypotheses Qualitative Research Questions ▶Example 7.1. A Qualitative Central Question From an Ethnography ▶Example 7.2. Qualitative Central Questions From a Case Study Quantitative Research Questions and Hypotheses ▶Example 7.3. A Null Hypothesis ▶Example 7.4. Directional Hypotheses ▶Example 7.5. Nondirectional and Directional Hypotheses ▶Example 7.6. Standard Use of Language in Hypotheses A Model for Descriptive Questions and Hypotheses ▶Example 7.7. Descriptive and Inferential Questions Mixed Methods Research Questions and Hypotheses ▶Example 7.8. Hypotheses and Research Questions in a Mixed Methods Study ▶Example 7.9. A Mixed Methods Question Written Using Methods and Content Language Summary ▶Writing Exercises Additional Readings Chapter 8 Quantitative Methods Defining Surveys and Experiments Components of a Survey Study Method Plan The Survey Design The Population and Sample Instrumentation Variables in the Study Data Analysis Interpreting Results and Writing a Discussion Section ▶Example 8.1. A Survey Method Plan Components of an Experimental Study Method Plan Participants Variables Instrumentation and Materials Experimental Procedures 12 ▶Example 8.2. Pre-experimental Designs ▶Example 8.3. Quasi-experimental Designs ▶Example 8.4. True Experimental Designs ▶Example 8.5. Single-Subject Designs Threats to Validity The Procedure Data Analysis Interpreting Results and Writing a Discussion Section ▶Example 8.6. An Experimental Method Plan Summary ▶Writing Exercises Additional Readings Chapter 9 Qualitative Methods The Characteristics of Qualitative Research Qualitative Designs The Researcher’s Role and Reflexivity Data Collection Procedures Data Recording Procedures Data Analysis Procedures Interpretation Validity and Reliability Writing the Qualitative Report ▶Example 9.1. Qualitative Procedures Summary ▶Writing Exercises Additional Readings Chapter 10 Mixed Methods Procedures Components of Mixed Methods Procedures Describe Mixed Methods Research Types of Mixed Methods Designs Convergent Mixed Methods Design Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods Design Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods Design Several Complex Mixed Methods Designs A Procedure for Embedding Core Designs Into Complex Designs Factors Important in Choosing a Mixed Methods Design Examples of Mixed Methods Procedures ▶Example 10.1. A Convergent Parallel Mixed Methods Design 13 ▶Example 10.2. An Explanatory Sequential Mixed Methods Design ▶Example 10.3. An Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods Design ▶Example 10.4. A Social Justice Design Summary ▶Writing Exercises Additional Readings Glossary References Author Index Subject Index 14 Analytic Contents of Research Techniques Chapter 1. The Selection of a Research Approach Determining your research approach Identifying a worldview with which you are most comfortable Defining the three types of research approaches Using quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods designs and methods Chapter 2. Review of the Literature Assessing whether your topic is researchable Using steps in conducting a literature review Using computerized databases available for reviewing the literature Developing a priority for types of literature to review Designing a literature map Writing a good abstract of a research study Using important elements of a style manual Defining terms Employing a model for writing a literature review Chapter 3. The Use of Theory Testing causal claims in quantitative research Identifying variables in a quantitative study Defining the nature of a quantitative theory Using a script to write a theoretical perspective into a quantitative study Considering the types of theories used in qualitative research Placing theories in a qualitative study Placing a theoretical lens into a mixed methods study 15 Chapter 4. Writing Strategies and Ethical Considerations Assessing the structure of a proposal for qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods studies Using writing strategies for drafting a proposal Developing a habit of writing Constructing umbrella thoughts, big thoughts, little thoughts, and attention thoughts in writing Developing writing consistency through the hook-and-eye technique Using principles of writing good prose Anticipating ethical issues in many phases of the research process Chapter 5. The Introduction Writing an abstract for a study Exploring differences among quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods introductions Using the deficiency model for writing an introduction Designing a good narrative hook Writing about the research problem Summarizing the literature about a research problem Pointing out deficiencies in past literature Considering audiences that may profit from your study Chapter 6. The Purpose Statement Using a script for writing a qualitative purpose statement Considering how the script would change depending on your qualitative design Using a script for writing a quantitative purpose statement Considering how the script would change depending on your quantitative design Using a script for writing a mixed methods purpose statement Considering how the script would change depending on your mixed methods design 16 Chapter 7. Research Questions and Hypotheses Writing a script for a qualitative central question Considering how this script would change depending on the qualitative design Writing a script for quantitative research questions and hypotheses Considering how this script would change depending on the quantitative design and the different types of hypotheses Using a model for descriptive and inferential quantitative questions and hypotheses Writing scripts for different forms of research questions for a mixed methods study Chapter 8. Quantitative Methods Using a checklist for survey research to form topic sections of a survey procedure Employing steps in analyzing data for a survey procedure Writing a complete survey methods discussion Using a checklist for experimental research to form sections for an experimental procedure Identifying the type of experimental procedure that best fits your proposed study Drawing a diagram of experimental procedures Identifying the potential internal validity and external validity threats to your proposed study Chapter 9. Qualitative Methods Using a checklist for qualitative research to form topic sections of a procedure Stating the basic characteristics of qualitative research Determining how reflexivity will be included in a proposed study Weighing the different types of data collected in qualitative research Employing steps in the qualitative data analysis process Establishing validity in qualitative research 17 Chapter 10. Mixed Methods Procedures Stating a definition and the characteristics of mixed methods research Using a convergent mixed methods design Using an explanatory sequential mixed methods design Employing an exploratory sequential mixed methods design Using one of the complex mixed methods designs Choosing which design is best for a mixed methods study 18 Preface Purpose This book advances a framework, a process, and compositional approaches for designing a proposal or research project for qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods research in the human, health, and social sciences. The ascendency of qualitative research, the emergence of mixed methods approaches, and the growth of quantitative designs have created a need for this book’s unique comparison of the three approaches to inquiry. This comparison begins with preliminary consideration of philosophical assumptions for all three approaches, a review of the literature, an assessment of the use of theory and conceptual frameworks in research approaches, and reflections about the importance of writing and ethics in scholarly inquiry. The book then addresses the key elements in the process of designing and conducting a research project: writing an introduction; stating a purpose or research aims for the study; identifying research questions and hypotheses; and advancing methods and procedures for data collection, analysis, and interpretation. At each step in this process, the reader is taken through qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Audience This book is intended for students and faculty who seek assistance in preparing a plan, proposal, or research project for a scholarly journal article, a dissertation, a thesis, or an application for funding. At a broader level, the book may be useful as both a reference book and a textbook for courses in research methods. To best take advantage of the design features in this book, the reader needs a basic familiarity with qualitative and quantitative research; however, terms will be explained and defined and recommended strategies advanced for those needing introductory assistance in the design process. Highlighted terms in the text and a glossary of the terms at the back of the book provide a working language for understanding research. This book also is intended for a broad audience in the human, health, and social sciences. Readers’ comments from the past four editions suggest that individuals using the book come from many 19 disciplines and fields. We hope that researchers in fields such as marketing, management, criminal justice, communication studies, psychology, sociology, K–12 education, higher and postsecondary education, nursing, family medicine, health services research, global health, behavioral health, urban studies, family research, and other fields of study will find this fifth edition useful. Format In each chapter, we share examples drawn from varied disciplines. These examples are drawn from books, journal articles, dissertation proposals, and dissertations. Though our primary specialization is in educational psychology, the health sciences, and in psychology, the illustrations are intended to be inclusive of many fields. They reflect issues in social justice and examples of studies with marginalized individuals in our society as well as the traditional samples and populations studied by researchers. Inclusiveness also extends to methodological pluralism in research today, and the discussion incorporates alternative philosophical ideas, diverse modes of inquiry, and numerous procedures. This book is not a detailed method text; instead, we highlight the essential features of research design. We have attempted to reduce research to its essential core ideas so that researchers can plan a thorough and thoughtful study. The coverage of research designs is limited to frequently used forms: surveys and experiments in quantitative research; narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case studies in qualitative research; and convergent, explanatory sequential, and exploratory sequential designs in mixed methods research. Although students preparing a dissertation proposal should find this book helpful, topics related to the politics of presenting and negotiating a study with review committees are addressed thoroughly in other texts. Consistent with accepted conventions of scholarly writing, we have tried to eliminate any words or examples that convey a discriminatory (e.g., sexist or ethnic) orientation. Examples were selected to provide a full range of gender and cultural orientations. Throughout the text we do not favor either qualitative or quantitative research. Indeed, we have intentionally altered the order of qualitative and quantitative examples throughout the book. Readers should also note that in the longer examples cited in this book, many references are made to other writings. Only the 20 reference to the work we use in the illustration will be cited, not the entire list of references embedded within any particular example. As with earlier editions, we have maintained features to enhance the readability and understandability of the material: bullets to emphasize key points, numbered points to stress key steps in a process, and longer examples of complete passages with annotations to highlight key research ideas that are being conveyed by the authors. In this fifth edition ...
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Running head: LED 690 EXAM

Led 690 Exam
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1. Repeated measures design is an experimental design that involves equal treatment of the
participants. Their response is monitored and recorded. In the democratic leadership style, all
workforces are treated the same regardless of the job group. The outcome is also observed based
on organization performance (Yahaya, & Ebrahim, 2016).
2. A longitudinal survey can be used in leadership by the panel studies. The survey design is
used to collect data for an extended period (Yahaya et al.,2016). It can be managed in an
organization where there are democratic leadership styles since the workers have the freedom to
express their opinions regarding the workplace.
3. The ethnography technique is one of the most intriguing strategies by Creswell. The researcher
collects data from a group of individuals confined in a standard-setting for quite a long time. The
approach stands out because the researcher can achieve consistent results leading to an accurate
4. Researchers need to apply mixed methods in their study as they help understand contradictions
that exist between qualitative results, and the quantitative outcome (Creswell et al., 2017). It
helps to reflect on the participant's perception.
5. The literature review helps to understa...

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