Business Finance
HLSS 312 AMU Port Security Threats Within Port Security Research Paper

HLSS 312

American Military University


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3/26/2020 APUS CLE : HLSS645 I001 Win 20 : Assignments  HLSS645 I001 Win 20   Assignments Assignments Assignment List Research Paper Research Paper DUE: Mar 29, 2020 11:55 PM Grade Details Grade N/A Gradebook Comments None Assignment Details Open Date Graded? Points Possible Resubmissions Allowed? Feb 3, 2020 12:05 AM Yes 100.0 No Attachments checked for originality? Yes Assignment Instructions The topic for your research paper can be anything pertaining to port security, the security of the maritime transportation system, threats to maritime critical infrastructure (including cyber or piracy) or ways that risk can be quantified within a port. You are to prepare your formal graduate research paper in a word document (Times New Roman, Font 12) using APA format. Your research paper should be 10-12 pages of content excluding your title page and bibliography page. A minimum of 10 outside references, 6 of which MUST be peer-reviewed is required. Prepare your final draft for submission to include at a minimum the following components: Introduction, Research Study Question, and Hypothesis (1-2 pages): This section shall provide an overview of the topic that you are writing about, a concise synopsis of the issues, and why the topic presents an area of study suitable for graduate study. Critical to this section is your hypothesis which should conclude the introduction section. Literature Review (4-6 pages): All research projects include a literature review to set out for the reader what knowledge exists on the subject under study and helps the researcher develop the research strategy to use in the study. A good literature review is a thoughtful study of what has been written, a summary of the arguments that exist (whether you agree with them or not), and are arranged thematically. The literature review is not an annotated bibliography and should be written in coherent narrative style, grouped by subject area which provides a synthesis of the body of knowledge. At the end of the Lit Review summary, there should still be gaps in the literature that you intend to fill with your research. Methodology (1-2 pages): This section provides the reader with a description of your research methodology. It is not enough to simply state that you are using "qualitative" methods. I want to know the SPECIFIC type of method 1/3 3/26/2020 APUS CLE : HLSS645 I001 Win 20 : Assignments employed....Case Study? ACH? etc. If you have any questions regarding this section seek additional reference support from the library. Constructing a solid academically rigorous methodology section will enhance the skills you will need to execute a successful thesis. Analysis (2-3 pages): This section is not simply a summary of the references you developed nor is it the same as conclusions. In the analysis component of this section you identify how you analyzed the data. The second part is the finding you got from your analysis of the data. The findings are the facts that you developed, not your interpretation of the facts. These actions are at the very core of graduate level research that interpretation is conducted in the conclusions and recommendations section of the paper. Findings will come from the prior research you examined and your analysis of those prior findings to create new findings for your paper. While there may be some facts that are such that they will stand and translate to your paper, the intent is to create new knowledge, so you will normally analyze the data to create your own findings of what facts that data represents. Conclusions and Recommendations (2-3 pages): This section is where you give your interpretation of the data. Here you tell the reader what the findings mean. Often the conclusions and recommendations sections will mirror the findings in construct as the researcher tells the reader what that researcher sees as the meaning of that data, their conclusions. Then, drawing on those conclusions, the researcher tells the reader what they believe needs to be done to solve/answer the research question. This section may include recognition of any needs for further research and then finishes with a traditional conclusion to the paper as a whole. References: This section will contain all references, cited in APA format and alphabetically arranged. Your paper must contain a minimum of 10 reference sources with at least 6 of them being peer-reviewed journals or products of Think Tanks such as RAND, Brookings or Heritage. Entitle this section as “References” following the parenthetical and reference citation format style within APA. You should be compiling sources and adding to them as you gone along throughout the semester. They should be error free!!! Technical Requirements: Length: 10-12 pages double spaced, 1" margins, 12 pitch type in Times New Roman font left justified format. Citations/References: You must use APA parenthetical style for this assignment. A minimum of 10 outside references, 6 of which MUST be peer-reviewed is required. Submission: All work is to be submitted as an attachment to the assignment link by 11:55 pm on the due date. All work should be prepared in Microsoft Word format and submitted as an attachment. Grading: All submissions will be graded using the attached rubric. Supporting Materials SSGS Assignment Rubric 500-600 Level.docx (22 KB) Submission To submit your assignment, attach one or more files and then click Submit. Originality of attachments will be verified by Turnitin. Both you and your instructor will receive the results. 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Final Answer

Hi, here is the completed assignment.Let me know if any changes are required.Thank you.


Port security refers to the guidelines, rules, and regulations that are employed to maintain
the security of ports from terrorism or any other unlawful activities.

Port security also defines the measures that are placed to ensure that treaties made by other
countries are enforced and maintained by the ports and maritime of different countries.
Most threats that are related to port security often involve the physical security of the port
or maritime supply chain.

Literature Review
Port Security Threats

Maritime cargo and products are often targeted by organized criminal gangs or other
individuals that are often involved in illegal smuggling, illegal immigration, terrorism or
theft of cargo.

The illegal trafficking of goods and people is often organized by criminal gangs and cartels
that make profits from the trafficking of drugs, money, immigrants, weapons and other

Existing measures

Various measures have been implemented to prevent these maritime security threats. To
prevent maritime terrorism, there are security programs and information guidelines that are
used in the coordination and implementation of programs that prevent terrorist attacks.

With the evolution of technology, ports have been more proactive in increasing their
cybersecurity measures to deal with cybersecurity threats. Some of the measures currently

in use include the incorporation of firewalls and more authentication measures that prevent
the unauthorized access of their systems by unauthorized users.
Additional measures

It is clear that although the ports have implemented security measures to prevent these port
security threats, there is a need for more additional security measures to prevent security
threats. There has been a challenge where port security is not viewed as a priority for most
countries across the world.

International coordination of port security will improve communication among the various
ports. Often, communication is one of the main gaps that result in increased terrorism and
the trafficking of drugs and people.

Open-ended questionnaires and interviews were used as the method of data collection. The
questionnaire targeted employees of the Los Angeles port where the focus was on;
implementation of ISPS, coordination of security, security officer training, knowledge and
procedures, communications and security measures for handling cargo and monitoring.

There were multiple secondary sources of data that were evaluated including evaluation of
the ISPS code, previously published materials and other web materials that evaluated the
potential security risks that are likely to face the ports.


The data in the case study was obtained through the use of open-ended questionnaires. The
data was compiled and analyzed from the questionnaires through the determination of the
answers that were provided by the security professionals.

The results showed that 30% of the information collected from the interviews and
questionnaires indicated that there were collusions between the security personnel, workers
and drivers towards theft of cargo.

From the observation, it was clear that there were security gaps from the security personnel
assessment at the port. The staff was not able to completely monitor the activities of the
port as they were not able to assess the credentials of all the people that accessed the port
at different times of the day.

The results showed that 70% of the ports across the world lack strict measures in the
prosecution of drug trafficking gangs and other criminal gangs that are involved in the
trafficking of illegal substances in the ports.


The purpose of this study was the identification of the port security threats, port weaknesses
and determination of recommendations to increase port security. Various types of threats
have been evaluated in the study including cargo theft, maritime terrorism, cybersecurity
threats and smuggling of drugs and immigrants.


Threats within Port Security



Port security refers to the guidelines, rules, and regulations that are employed to maintain
the security of ports from terrorism or any other unlawful activities. Port security also defines the
measures that are placed to ensure that treaties made by other countries are enforced and
maintained by the ports and maritime of different countries. Most threats that are related to port
security often involve the physical security of the port or maritime supply chain. Port security is
internationally managed by the International Maritime Organization rules and the International
Ship and Port Facility Security Code that was passed in 2002 (Bichou, 2015). This essay analyzes
the importance of port security, the maritime system of transportation, and cybersecurity threats to
maritime infrastructure. The essay will also analyze the...

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