Writing
Social Change and Deviance Discussion

Question Description

I’m working on a Social Science exercise and need support.

Discussion on deviance:

1. Zimbardo says that assigning labels to people and putting them into a situation where those labels acquire validity and meaning is sufficient to elicit pathological behavior. Discuss what he means with regards to the social structure of the prison.

2. When the personnel of one hospital found out about this experiment, they said nothing like that could ever happen in their hospital. Rosenhan said he would have a pesudopatient admitted to the hospital within the next three months. What happened? How could that happen?

Discussion on work:

1. Explain how saleswomen have changed the business of selling cars.

2. Based on the article on McDonald discuss the concept of rationalization and how it has changed the workplace.

Discussion on education and medicine:

1. Discuss the benefits to schools and society by having children learnthe student role - conforming, lining up, following directions, not interrupting, etc. What are the costs or negative consequences of learning the student role?

2. Should American women continue to give birth in the lithotomy position? If yes, why? If no, why not?

Discussion on religion:

1.Why is the cow considered sacred in India? Harris mentions that we

have a "sacred" car. List the functions of Americans' "sacred" car

in the same way that Harris does with the functions of the Indians'

sacred cow.

Discussion on social change:

1. Although the Amish have retained many of their traditions, the article points out that

there are changes in the 5 major social institutions due to various pressures. Why have

the Amish resisted change? Do you think they will be able to continue resisting change?

How do you think the Amish will be 20 years from today?

I had uploaded the PowerPoints for each discussion topic Each of your answers should be around 300 words

***I need Discussion on deviance on 4/1****

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Social Change Defined ⚫ Social change means any significant alteration in a social structure. Thus, any changes of norms, values, and cultural products is considered social change. It excludes changes in fads and fashions. Sources of Change ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ Technology Cultural change Geography and history Theories of Social Change ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ Evolutionary theory – Spencer Durkheim – fundamental social change is the shift from a society based on mechanical solidarity to organic solidarity Conflict theory – Marx Cyclical (rise and fall) theory – Oswald Spengler – Every society moves through 4 stages of development: Childhood, youth, maturity, and old age. Resistance to Change ⚫ ⚫ Vested interests Innovation that run counter to moral values – abortion and birth control pills. ⚫ Other than food production, how are other aspects of society being “McDonalized”? Social change among the Amish ⚫ Although the Amish have retained many of their traditions, the article points out that there are changes in the 5 major social institutions due to various pressures. Why have the Amish resisted change? Do you think they will be able to continue resisting change? How do you think the Amish will be 20 years from today? Population ⚫ ⚫ Malthus theorem The New Malthusians – (quarter million births a day.) One billion in the year 1800, 130 years for 2nd billion, 30 years for 3rd billion, 15 years for 4th billion, 12 years for 5th billion, 12 years for 6th billion and 10 years for 7 billion. ⚫ The Anti-Malthusians – take a closer look at demographic transition. Stages of population growth/decline ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ • Stage 1 – stable population – births and deaths are balanced Stage 2 – rapidly growing population Stage 3 – Stable population Stage 4 – Shrinking population Births in 67 of the world’s nations have dropped so low that they no longer produce enough children to maintain their population. Extremes in childbirth Fewest Children ⚫ Bulgaria 1.1 ⚫ Latvia 1.1 ⚫ Czech 1.2 ⚫ Estonia 1.2 ⚫ Italy 1.2 ⚫ Macao 1.2 ⚫ Russia 1.2 ⚫ San Marino 1.2 ⚫ Slovenia 1.2 ⚫ Spain 1.2 Most Children ⚫ Niger 7.5 ⚫ Oman7.1 ⚫ Ethiopia 7.0 ⚫ Gaza 7.0 ⚫ Uganda 6.9 ⚫ Angola 6.8 ⚫ Somalia 6.8 ⚫ Western Sahara 6.8 ⚫ Mali 6.7 ⚫ Yemen 6.7 Why are people starving?? ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ The amount of food produced for each person in the world has more than doubled since 1950. Although the population has doubled improved methods have made more food available for each person on earth. Starvation occurs because particular places lack food. They have wars, inefficient farming techniques, and droughts. The U.S. government pays farmers to reduce their crops. Why do poor countries have high population? – More children? ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ The status of parenthood is prized Children are seen as a sign of Gods’ blessing. Children are economic assets. Caring for chickens, younger children, cattle, fetching water, cutting fodder, harvesting rice, working for wages, hoeing, etc. Most Populated Cities City 2000 City 2015 1 Tokyo 26.4 Tokyo 26.4 2 Mexico City 18.1 Mumbai 26.1 3 Mumbai 18.1 Lagos 23.2 4 Sao Paulo 17.8 Dhaka 21.1 5 New York 16.6 Sao Paulo 20.4 Most Populated Cities City 2000 City 2015 6 Lagos 13.4 19.2 7 Los Angeles 13.1 8 9 Calcutta Shanghai 9 12.9 12.9 Karachi Mexico City New York Jakarta 12.6 Calcutta 17.3 10 Buenos Aires 19.2 17.4 17.3 Urbanization Concepts ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ Development of cities Industrial revolution and size of cities Urbanization, metropolis, and megalopolis Edge cities Problems ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ ⚫ Deconcentration Relocation of industries Gentrification Financial problems Poverty and homelessness Alienation ⚫ What are the advantages and disadvantages of living in cities? Would you prefer to live in a small town or a large metropolis? Why? ⚫ Why does the United States not take radical steps to solve the problems of homelessness? Religion Religion can be defined as a unified system of beliefs and practices that focuses on sacred things and serves to create a community of worshippers (Durkheim). ⚫ Religion is an institution of shared beliefs and practices created by us as a response to forces we cannot understand rationally, and that we believe give ultimate meaning to our lives. ⚫ The Functions of Religion Answers questions - ultimate meaning ⚫ Provides emotional comfort ⚫ Gives social solidarity ⚫ Guidelines for everyday life ⚫ Support for the government ⚫ Social change ⚫ Dysfunctions – War and Justification for persecution ⚫ Symbolic Interaction ⚫ Religious symbols – cross, star, moon, ⚫ Rituals ⚫ Beliefs ⚫ Religious experience – born again ⚫ The Conflict Perspective Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world……The opium of the people – Marx ⚫ Show social inequality – men and women ⚫ Legitimation of social inequalities – king, caste system ⚫ Max Weber ⚫ The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism Major Religions Christianity ⚫ Islam ⚫ Hinduism ⚫ Buddhism ⚫ Judaism ⚫ Cults – Branch Davidian, Heaven’s Gate, Jim Jones, etc. ⚫ Buddhism Four Noble Truths 1. Suffering: Birth is suffering, aging is suffering, illness is suffering, death is suffering; union with what is displeasing is suffering; separation from what is pleasing is suffering; not to get what one wants is suffering. ⚫ 2. The cause of suffering: Desire which leads to renewed existence (rebirth) (the cycle of samsara) 3. The cessation of suffering: The cessation of desire. 4. The way leading to the cessation of suffering: The Noble Eightfold Path The eight-fold path Right Speech - One speaks in a non hurtful, not exaggerated, truthful way ⚫ Right Actions - Wholesome action, avoiding action that would do harm ⚫ Right Livelihood - One's way of livelihood does not harm in any way oneself or others; directly or indirectly ⚫ Right Effort ⚫ Right Mindfulness/Awareness - Mental ability to see things for what they are with clear consciousness ⚫ Right Concentration - Being aware of the present reality within oneself, without any craving or aversion. ⚫ Right Thoughts - Change in the pattern of thinking. ⚫ Right Understanding - Understanding reality as it is, not just as it appears to be. ⚫ Voodoo Voodoo in S. Florida ⚫ Voodoo in Florida ⚫ State Religion ⚫ Voodoo Day ⚫ The God Delusion Richard Dawkins ⚫ You have been appointed the Campus Director of Minority Graduation. Review what the article "Upward Mobility Through Sport" says about the chances for African American athletes to graduate from college. You are aware that this principle applies to other groups. Come up with a plan on how to increase the graduation rates of African American youth. ⚫ Why the cow is considered sacred in India? Harris mentions that we have a "sacred" car. List the functions of the Americans' "sacred" car in the same way that Harris does with the functions of the Indians' sacred cow. Medicine ◼ Whenever a doctor cannot do good, he must be kept from doing harm. – Hippocrates ◼ Percent of population with bachelor’s degrees Iatrogenic Disease, Breast Cancer, &Doctors too Tired for Safety ◼ Iatrogenic Disease ◼ 25 Shocking Medical Mistakes ◼ Tired Doctors ◼ Fruits and Vegetables ◼ Medicine is a major social institution. It is a society’s organized ways of dealing with sickness and injury. Perspectives of health and illness ◼ The role of culture in defining health and sickness – dyschromic spirochetosis ◼ The sick role ◼ The professionalization of medicine ◼ The monopoly of medicine - midwives Issues in health care ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Medical care: A right or a commodity? Social inequality Malpractice suits Medical incompetence 44,000 and 98,000 Depersonalization Conflict of interest Medical fraud Sexism in medicine Euthanasia Threats to Health ◼ AIDS over 35 million people have AIDS ◼ Globalization of disease ◼ Alcohol and nicotine ◼ Experiments – Tuskegee, radiation Alternative medicines Education If you think in terms of a year, plant a seed; if in terms of ten years, plant trees; if in terms of 100 years, teach the people. - Confucius ◼ Earnings by Degree Highest Level of Education: Individuals 25 and Older ◼ Percent of population with bachelor’s degrees ◼ Education is the deliberate, formal transfer of learning, skills, and values from one person to another. It is an institution for socialization by which a cultural heritage is transmitted from generation to generation. Functions of Education ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Cultural transmission Social control – conserve social values and prevent moral decline Transmission of knowledge and academic skills Tracking and sorting people Advancement of knowledge Development of social skills Hidden Curriculum ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Punctuality Obedience Rational goal oriented behavior Competition Discuss the following ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Returning students seek second degree for job security SAT and other college entrance scores on the decline What can they do with a liberal arts degree? Digital divide threatens societal integration IQ Tests - Discrimination ◼ ◼ A symphony is to a composer as a book is to a(an) _______ Paper, Sculptor, Musician, Author, or Man Education and socioeconomic status ◼ How is educational attainment correlated with socioeconomic status? With race? ◼ How do you think classroom size affects the quality of education? ◼ What are your views on “Online classes”? Unionization ◼ ◼ “My contractual responsibilities end precisely at 5:00 pm” Teacher strike ◼ ◼ ◼ If education is such a priority issue in American society, why should a teacher be paid a salary that is commensurate with an executive secretary rather than a physician or a lawyer? Why are teachers’ salaries low? Teachers don’t care about money; they only care about their students and the learning process, so why should we pay them more? Learning the student role - Gracey ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ ◼ Discuss The benefits to schools and society of having children learn the student role – conforming, lining up, following directions, not interrupting, etc. The costs or negative consequences of learning the student role. What the classroom would be like (including this) if students did not follow the student role? Are there alternatives to stifling individuality, initiative, independence, and creativity? Work and Bureaucracy ⚫ He who learns but does not think, is lost! He who thinks but does not learn is in great danger. - Confucius Our Economy ⚫ The state of the economy ⚫ Older Workers Left Behind Bureaucracy ⚫ An organization designed to accomplish large-scale tasks by systematically coordinating the work of many individuals is called a bureaucracy. Characteristics of Bureaucracy ⚫ Division of labor ⚫ Hierarchy of authority ⚫ Impersonality ⚫ Rules and regulations ⚫ Written records and communications Authority There are 3 types of legitimate authority ⚫ Traditional (kings) ⚫ Charismatic (Stalin, Dalai Lama, Gandhi) ⚫ Rational (managers) Problems of Bureaucracy ⚫ Lack of communication between units ⚫ Red tape – a rule is a rule ⚫ Conflict between line and staff ⚫ Bureaucratic incompetence - The Peter Principle Advantages of Bureaucracy ⚫ Reliable ⚫ Efficient ⚫ Impartial ⚫ Discourages corruption Problems of Work Control of workers – Scientific Management ⚫ Alienation ⚫ Alienation refers to the separation of human beings from each other, from themselves, and from the products they create. It is manifested by high dissatisfaction, absenteeism, disruption in the workplace, alcohol and other drug abuse. ⚫ ⚫ 1. 2. 3. Structural Transformation of the Economy Three fundamental turning points Around 8,000 BC the agricultural revolution. Around 1780 the industrial revolution Currently the second industrial revolution The Second Industrial Revolution ⚫ Technological breakthroughs in microelectronics. ⚫ The globalization of the economy. ⚫ Capital flight. ⚫ The shift from manufacturing to information and services. Will Work for Free ⚫ Human Kinda Attacking Nicely ⚫ Discuss how saleswomen have changed the business of selling cars. ⚫ The reason the editor chose "Over the Counter at McDonald's" was to stress the rationalization of everyday life. Review the article's introduction for an explanation of this phrase. Explain how everyday life is being rationalized. ...
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Final Answer

Attached.

1

Running Head: DEVIANCE

Deviance
Students Name
Institutional Affiliation
Course
Date

DEVIANCE

2

Zimbardo says that assigning labels to people and putting them into a situation where
those labels acquire validity and meaning is sufficient to elicit pathological behavior. Discuss
what he means with regards to the social structure of the prison.
The labeling of prisoners during the experiment shows that identification in prisons would
basically be done through labelling. With regard to what Zimbardo says means that participants
were assigned roles of prisoners and guards in a simulated environment randomly. Prisoners were
considered as criminals and being arrested without any warnings and taken to the local police
station. The finger print was also taken (Bartels & Herman, 2018). After they had arrived at the
police station their clothes were taken away, deloused and all their possessions taken away and
given prison clothes, beddings and uniforms. Therefore, these prisoners were identified by their
numbers that they were given. The prisoner’s clothes comprised of a smock written on with a hat
to cover their hair and locked chain. On the other hand, all soldiers were dressed in same uniforms,
also carried a whistle (Bartels & Herman, 2018). They also wore special sunglasses to avoid
looking at them direct to their eyes.
When the personnel of one hospital found out about this experiment, they said
nothing like that could ever happen in their hospital. Rosenhan said he would have a
pesudopatient admitted to the hospital within the next three months. What happened? How
could ...

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