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PHC 151 Saudi Electronic University Environmental Pollution in KSA Paper

PHC 151

Saudi electronic university

PHC

Question Description

Need help with my Environmental Science question - I’m studying for my class.

Writ a essay on following topics minimum 2 – 3 pages:

Q. 1. Explain the environmental pollution (air, water, soil and food) health issues in KSA.

Q. 2. Describe the sources and pathways of exposure groups.

Q. 3. Enumerate methods to control and prevent pollution.

Q. 4. How public health policy and environmental law supporting to promote public health?


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ASSIGNMENT COVER SHEET Course Name: Environmental Health Course Number: PHC - 151 CRN: Assignment - 1 (Week 13) (Points: 10) Writ a essay on following topics minimum 2 – 3 pages: Q. 1. Explain the environmental pollution (air, water, soil and food) health issues in KSA. Assignment Title or Task: Q. 2. Describe the sources and pathways of exposure (You can write a question) groups. Q. 3. Enumerate methods to control and prevent pollution. Q. 4. How public health policy and environmental law supporting to promote public health? Student Name: Shaikhah Alshaheen Xoxo Student ID No: Submission Date: Instructor name: Grade: …. Out of 10 (Filed by Instructor) I. Introduction Saudi Arabia have around 18 per cent of the world's oil reserves and considered as the world largest exporter of petroleum. Unfortunately, Due to this fact many pollutants such as air, water, soil and food pollutants can be present with this industry. In this report first, I will discuss the types of pollutants in Saudi Arabia then describe the source and pathway of the group exposure and finally I will give methods to control the pollution and speaks about how environmental laws are supporting public health. 1. Air Pollution Air pollution occur when harmful amounts of particle is present in air. Air pollutant can be classified as two types Anthropogenic(man-made) sources and natural sources. The man-made sources such as incomplete combustion of gases in fossil fuel industry and the natural sources such as the dust which is present in land that have little and or no vegetations areas. These pollutants can introduce health disease and contribute to the global warming too. The global way of measuring the air pollution is air quality index (AQI). there different entries to scale but the results are comparable, the scale depends on number of the particulate matter present in air from (0-50) particulates, which is in the green zone and represent no health risks and safe for living. From (301-500) particulates the purple zone is hazardous and it’s not safe and people may catch serious diseases like cancer. 2. Water Pollution Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as ground water, seas, and aquifers as result of human activity. Any disturbance of the water chemical property can lead to sickness of people using it for drinking, bathing and cooking. In Saudi Arabia scarcity fresh water led to focus the use on red sea in west coast and Arabian gulf in east. Those waters are subjected to many containments such as dumping of untreated water after being used in industrial application and this affects the aquatic life and led to health problems of people consuming it. 3. Soil Pollution Soil pollution is that the land becomes unavailable because the presence of harmful chemicals. Usually these chemicals come from unproper waste management in industry or pesticides that farmers use while farming. In Saudi Arabia, one study was done in Jeddah city showing that samples gathered from different locations found a traces of heavy metal like lead, zinc and chromium. these metals can hugely impact the integrity of soil and could transfer to the food which local people consuming it and lead to heavy metal poisoning. 4. Food Pollution Food sources in Saudi Arabia are from two sources either animals or vegetables. Animals like livestock which lives in lands, so they are affected by the air pollution, also aquatic life which lives in sea they are affected by the water pollution. So, the food pollution is always related to other sources of pollution, and it’s problems will be solved if other types of pollution are taken care of. II. Sources and Pathways 1. Air Pollution Pathways The air pollution can affect people who are inhaling those harmful particles substances. These substances can flow through the nasal passage causing the body to react to it and could trigger an inflammation. These inflammations can cause a long-term effect of short breathing or even asthma. Another scenario that these particles can diffuse through the blood and vascular system reaches another body organs like the heart and causes more serious damage like cancer. 2. Water Pollution Pathways Untreated water resources which people use in different household activity can negatively affect human life. For example, untreated water used for bathing when it touches the skin it causes skin rashes. Also, water used for cooking and drinking can carry infectious diseases which are water-borne such as typhoid, cholera and malaria. These diseases are carried from the stomach by the blood and target specific organs in the body and damage it. 3. Soil Pollution Pathways Dumping of harmful chemicals into the ground affecting its integrity. Contaminated lands can directly affect people that use vegetations and fruits that come from contaminated lands can and catch diseases. Indirectly affecting humans by making the livestock which feed on vegetation from these contaminated lands and when people consume the livestock, they become ill. 4. Food Pollution Pathways Food pollution can’t occur solely without one or two types from the other pollution types. Growing food in polluted land, air or uses polluted water for growing food all these factors can lead to food pollution. Using this food for a period of time can accumulate certain toxics in human system and lead to serious diseases. III. Methods to prevent pollutions 1. To prevent air pollution • Use energy efficient way of transportation, electric cars, public transportation, and sharing rides, in which it can reduce emissions and prevent air pollution. • Oil industry reduce their emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, such that they can collect it and utilize it in another industry such soft drink beverages. • Consider using another source of energy like solar, nuclear, wind energy instead of using fuel. 2. To prevent water pollution • Increase the number of water treating plants. • Form fines and punishment for industries which dump foreign materials into the sea and water bodies. • Cleaning the sea water by special tools. 3. To prevent soil contamination • Reducing Chemical Fertilizers and Pesticides, which will help to have a healthy environment. • Reforesting, which can protect land from outer harmful materials. • Recovering and Recycling Material, and not to bury it in lands which can ruin the soil quality. 4. To prevent food contamination • Reduce the use chemical fertilizers and pesticide. • Use the genetic engineering to have healthy and safe food to eat IV. Role of environmental law to promote public health VI. References https://www.airnow.gov/index.cfm?action=aqibasics.aqi https://www.huffpost.com/entry/what-air-pollution-does-to-yourbody_n_5a1a7f47e4b064948074da5f https://www.theworldcounts.com/stories/how-does-water-pollution-affect-humans https://www.environmentalpollutioncenters.org/food/ https://www.conserve-energy-future.com/41-super-easy-ways-to-stop-air-pollution.php https://www.water-pollution.org.uk/prevent-water-pollution/ https://www.opec.org/opec_web/en/about_us/169.htm https://sciencing.com/prevent-land-pollution-23063.html https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19345483 ASSIGNMENT COVER SHEET Course Name: Environmental Health Course Number: PHC - 151 CRN: Assignment Title or Task: (You can write a question) Assignment - 1 (Week 13) (Points: 10) Writ a essay on following topics minimum 2 – 3 pages: Q. 1. Explain the environmental pollution (air, water, soil and food) health issues in KSA. Q. 2. Describe the sources and pathways of exposure groups. Q. 3. Enumerate methods to control and prevent pollution. Q. 4. How public health policy and environmental law supporting to promote public health? Student Name: Student ID No: Submission Date: Instructor name: Grade: …. Out of 10 (Filed by Instructor) Page 1 of 4 Guidelines for Assignment Submission: Start Date: 05/04/2020 (12:30 AM/00:01 AM) End Date: 16/04/2020 (11:59 PM) 1. The Student must fill all “Above Details” 2. The Assignment file should be in “MS Word” document 3. The font size should be “12” 4. The font type should be “Times New Roman” 5. The “Heading” and “Sub Heading” should be Bold 6. The text color should be “Black” 7. The text line spacing should be “1.5” 8. The running text should be “Justified” and “Proper Alignment” 9. The answers and text should not be repeated and copy from other students. It should follow the “Plagiarism Rules” 10. The Text concerned proper ”References” ---@@@-------- START FROM BELOW-----Assignment - 1 (Week 13) (Points: 10) Writ a essay on following topics minimum 2 – 3 pages: Q. 1. Explain the environmental pollution (air, water, soil and food) health issues in KSA. Q. 2. Describe the sources and pathways of exposure groups. Q. 3. Enumerate methods to control and prevent pollution. Q. 4. How public health policy and environmental law supporting to promote public health? Page 2 of 4 Page 3 of 4 Reference: ***GOOG LUCK*** Page 4 of 4 ...
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Environmental Pollution in KSA
I.

Environmental Pollution Health Issues
Saudi Arabia has a big population and is one of the most important oil sources globally. It

has around 18 percent of the world's oil reserves and considered as the world’s largest exporter
of petroleum. The production of oil for combustible uses and its wastes is considered a pollution
source in the air, soil, water, and even food because it uses several chemical compounds in the
processes. Unfortunately, these environmental pollutions may cause various health issues among
individuals.
Air Pollution
Air pollution occurs when harmful amounts of a particle are present in the air. Air
pollutants can be classified as anthropogenic (man-made) sources and natural sources. An
example of a man-made source is incomplete combustion of gases in the fossil fuel industry
while a natural source’s example is dust present in a land that has little and or no vegetation
areas. These pollutants can introduce health diseases and contribute to global warming too. The
global way of measuring air pollution is air quality index (AQI). Their different entries to scale
but the results are comparable, the scale depends on a number of the particulate matter present in
the air from (0-50) particulates, which is in the green zone and represents no health risks and safe
for living. From (301-500) particulates the purple zone is hazardous and it’s not safe and people
may catch serious diseases like cancer.
Also, other health issues caused by air pollution include breathing problems, chronic
disease, premature mortality, and increased hospitalization (Nayebare, 2017). Air pollution is
considered to be associated with stroke, heart and respiratory diseases, and affecting maternal
and child health.
Water Pollution
Pollution affects water bodies such as groundwater, seas, and aquifers as a result of
human activity. Any disturbance of the water chemical property can lead to the sickness of
people using it for drinking, bathing, and cooking. In Saudi Arabia scarcity of freshwater led to a
focus on the use of the red sea on the west coast and Arabian Gulf in the east. Those waters are

subjected to much containment such as dumping of untreated water after being used in industrial
application and this affects the aquatic life and led to health problems of people consuming it.
Desalination in Saudi Arabia is the major cause of creating huge volumes of chemicallaced brine that is risking and contaminating the food chains because they are mostly untreated.
Because of this people are affected by water-borne diseases like typhoid, cholera, paratyphoid
fever, dysentery, jaundice, amoebiasis, and malaria (Siddiqi, 2016). Water-borne diseases
account for thousands of deaths every year.
Soil Pollution
Soil pollution is that the land becomes unavailable because of the presence of harmful
chemicals. Usually, these chemicals come from improper waste management in industry or
pesticides that farmers use while farming. In Saudi Arabia, one study was done in Jeddah city
showing that samples gathered from different locations found traces of heavy metal like lead,
zinc, and chromium. These metals can hugely impact the integrity of the soil and could transfer
to the food which local people consuming it and lead to heavy metal poisoning.
Soil is getting contaminated because of the underground fuel leakage from gas stations in
the country (Lim, 2018). Many symptoms appear in people who are contaminated with soil
pollutants like chest pain, fatigue, eye irritation, rash, coughing, lung problems, and nausea.
There are also long term diseases like leukemia which is caused by a contact with soil
contaminated with chemicals (e.g. gasoline, benzene), damage on the nervous system caused by
metal in the soil (lead), and affecting especially children, neuro-muscular damage and central
nervous system depression, kidney, and liver damage which is caused by chemicals like mercury.
Food Pollution
Food sources in Saudi Arabia are from either animals or vegetables. Livestock animals are
mostly affected by air pollution and aquatic life is affected by water pollution. So, food pollution
is always related to other sources of pollution, and its problems will be solved if ot...

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Carnegie Mellon University

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