Humanities
Middle Tennessee State University Pilot Safety Research Paper

Middle Tennessee State University

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I’m working on a Management question and need guidance to help me study.

I have write a ( pilot safety research paper ) and i need to make some adjustments , please se the sample document and do like it , also Adding four articles related to the subject+ the articles should be from 2017 to 2020.

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VIABLE SOLUTIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE URBAN WATER SYSTEMS for Professor name Class name University Name City, State by Student Name Class name Student Submitted November 6, 2008 TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT………………………………………………………..…………. 3 INTRODUCTION…………………………………………...……...……..... 4 Definitions and Background…………………………...……….………. 4 Purpose and Audience…………………………………...………….…... 4 Sources………………………………………………………...……….… 5 Working Definitions .................................................................................................... 5 Limitations………………………………………………….…….....…… 6 Scope…………………………………………………………………...… 6 COLLECTED DATA…………………………………………….………... 6 Urban Water Management Today…………………………………..… 6 Current Urban Water Sustainability…………………………….... 7 The Goal of Present Day Water Resource Engineering……...…... 7 Solutions of Sustainable Urban Water Systems………………….…… Recycling Wastewater…………………………………...…….… Applications of Rainwater………………………………….…..... Computer Sustainability Simulation…………………………....... 8 9 10 10 Viability and Disadvantages of Sustainable Solutions………………. Viability of Solutions…………………………………….….….. Disadvantages of Solutions………………….………………….. 11 11 12 CONCLUSION…………………………………………………..………… Summary………………………………………………………….……. Interpretation of Findings……………………………................…....... Recommendations…………………………..……………………….…. REFERENCES………………………………...………………………….... 13 13 13 14 15 ABSTRACT While the strain of urban water systems has grown significantly with humanity’s continually growing population, the problem can be solved with multiple water sustainability engineering techniques. Some of the many possible solutions to the problem of urban water sustainability include the use of rainwater, the use of recycled wastewaters, and the implication of computer programming to determine optimal design of a water system in terms of sustainability. A solution to urban water problems will not be solved through the use of any one technique alone, but through an integration of a multitude of engineering practices. INTRODUCTION Definitions and Background Presently, the human population is growing at an astonishing rate. And, as global population increases, more and more people are moving to the cities. As these urban centers grow, they place increasing strain on the natural resources available in the area around them that are necessary to keep the city functioning. Water is one such resource that is being strained by the incredible growth of human civilization. Therefore, it is necessary that efficient and stable systems are put into place to allow for a constant supply of fresh water to the millions of people living in such cities (Han, Xu, & Xu, 2008). These water systems should also respect the environment and guarantee water for future generations. It is incredibly important that urban water sustainability is reached so proper health and sanitation can be maintained and advanced human civilization can continue to flourish. Purpose and Audience The purpose of this paper is to research and investigate any and all feasible solutions that will lead to urban water sustainability. Throughout the paper, three examples of sustainable solutions will be mentioned and discussed at greater depth. These solutions are the total and comprehensive re-use of rainwater, the recycling of wastewaters, and the use of new kinds of computer-aided hydrological simulation. It will be shown that a combination of many of the water sustainability techniques discussed will result in more efficient urban water use and a more sustainable urban water cycle. The paper was created mainly for the general public. It has been written at a sub-technical level so that a variety of people can learn about the current problems of water sustainability. However, this paper is still of valuable to water scientists, environmental engineers, and water resource engineers as a document that brings multiple sources and studies to one conclusion concerning the entire problem of urban water sustainability. Sources All articles were obtained through the use of Western Michigan University’s online scientific journal database. All journals collected were “pdf” files that will also be submitted along with this paper in hard copy form. A majority of the sources used for this paper came from many of the journals published by the American Society of Civil Engineers. Working Definitions There are several terms in the paper that the reader may not be familiar with and are that are important concepts that enhance the discussions and conclusions that follow. These include: 1. IUWS – An acronym that stands for Integrated Urban Water Systems. IUWS involves the combinations of hydrological practices that attempt to use multiple sources of water, such as treated wastewater, at the same time in order to meet the demands of an urban area (Blackmore & Plant, 2008). 2. The “triple bottom line” – This is a term associated with the goal of water resource management. Namely, the balancing of the needs of society, the integrity of the environment, and economic realities (Ashley, et al., 2008; Koo & Ariaratnam, 2008). 3. Potable water – water used for drinking water and other domestic use (Makropoulos, Natsis, Liu, Mittas, and Butler, 2008). Limitations This paper will discuss exclusively about providing water sustainability solutions to urban areas. There will be no discussion of irrigation sustainability or water resource policy in rural areas. Furthermore, while this paper will discuss the economics involved in urban water sustainability, the term “viable” as expressed in the title does not refer to economic viability but environmental viability. In other words, this paper focuses more on environmentally sustainable systems than economic sustainability. Scope The report will begin by discussing the current status of urban water systems as related to sustainability, including a description of sustainability practices and knowledge already in place and the goal of water resource sustainability. Then there will be an indepth description of three possible solutions that can lead to sustainable urban water systems. After that will be an examination of the viability of these solutions as well as the disadvantages of each. COLLECTED DATA Urban Water Management Today Water is obviously an incredibly important resource for the human race. Water sustains not only our bodies but civilization itself. It is vital that as population around the world continues to explode and as cities keep growing scientists and engineers continue to discover efficient methods of continuing the supply of fresh, clean, and safe water to humanity. Ignoring the water sustainability could endanger millions of lives and the continuation of advanced human society. Current Urban Water Sustainability Delleur (2003) discusses many of the current sustainability practices in place in the major cities of the world, especially those in Western Europe, the United States, and Canada. Currently, as Delleur states, urban water resource engineers recognize that sustainability practices and continued environmental integrity must be integral parts of water resource policy if cities are going to be able to provide clean and safe water for millions. This includes the acceptance by water scientists of the fact that wastewaters, whether industrial or domestic, can have immediate re-use instead of automatic treatment and replacement into the natural water cycle (a process that over-works current water systems). Furthermore, Delleur concludes that current environmental scientists are fully aware of the detrimental effects polluted natural waters can have on the sustainability of a city’s watershed (2003). It is vital to remember that although today’s water sustainability theory is widely recognized by the hydrological and environmental academic and research communities, the theories are often not applied to their full potential. This is why it is necessary to investigate the viability all urban water sustainability practices. The Goal of Present-Day Water Resource Engineering According to Koo and Ariaratnam (2008) and Ashley et al. (2008) the goal of all water resource engineering is to recognize and balance the various aspects of the triplebottom line. While the concept of the triple-bottom line has already been mentioned, it is important to discuss the concept in further detail. For example, the re-fitting of urban water mains is projected estimated to cost $10 billion in the next twenty-two years because of deteriorating water systems (Koo & Ariaratnam, 2008). But, the reconstruction of an entire water distribution system would cost large amounts of money too. In this way water policy makers must determine how to balance properly functioning water systems with economic conditions. Furthermore, according to Koo and Ariaratnam (2008) and Ashley et al. (2008) these economic concerns must be coupled with the needs of human society and nature. For example, a sustainable water system must provide enough resources for not only the continuation of the surrounding ecosystem but also for the continuation of industry and business inside the city as well as for the general population. In this way, the three areas of the triple-bottom approach are in constant tugof-war with each other (Koo & Ariaratnam, 2008; Ashley et al., 2008). Solutions for Sustainable Urban Water Systems This section will only describe the solutions to urban water sustainability themselves. A close look at the advantages and disadvantages of each sustainability practice individually will follow in a later section. What is vital in sustainability scenarios is the acceptance by water resource engineers and scientists is that rain water and wastewater can be used as primary sources of water for urban centers and not just as a commodity that must be cleaned and placed back into natural water sources (Han et al., 2008). In other words, according to Makropoulos et al. (2008), the immediate recycling of wastewaters (from rain or otherwise) is much more efficient than only treating wastewaters and collected rainwater for release back into the environment. This is because it costs much time and money to transport and clean such waters. Furthermore, the absence of this wastewater will free space in the main water transport systems during flooding periods and reduce the amount of polluted waters in the drainage systems (2008). Recycling Wastewater The recycling of urban wastewaters is one solution that could make an impact on urban water sustainability. The definition of wastewaters in this paper includes waters from domestic sources or industrial wastewaters. Zhang, Cao, and Meng (2007) discuss this re-use of wastewater through a sustainable urban sewer system (SUSS) model. SUSS involves the chemical treatment (cleaning) of collected domestic and industrial wastewater. The treated SUSS water, however, would not be used as potable water, but as water for industrial uses (i.e. factories and manufacturing), for urban irrigation (i.e. parks and residential areas), waterway reclamation, and would also be used in efforts to place water pack into the natural hydrological cycle (2007). In this way, the best and cleanest water, which often comes from natural sources, is reserved as potable water for the general population and is not spent in the industrial and commercial sectors, in which high-quality water is not always needed (Han et al., 2008). A perfect example of the reuse of wastewater can be found in Australia. The city of Sydney discovered that 61% of domestic wastewater could be recycled and re-used for toilets or urban irrigation (Pitt & Clark, 2008). Figure 1: Urban Reclaimed Wastewater System. Note: the series of underground structures are the water treatment facilities. The blue arrows pointing towards the central buidlings refer to the use of wastewater for irrigation. Source: Furumai, 2008. Applications of Rainwater Unlike wastewater, which cannot be used for immediate in-home use, rainwater can often be used domestically after only light treatment (Zhang et al., 2007). For example, in Japan, rain water is collected in villages, sometimes providing up to 60% of water needs in the community (Furumai, 2008). Therefore, it is possible that rainwater could be collected for immediate drinking use in cities as well. Also, according to Furumai, rainwater is used just as wastewater is to provide water for toilets and also for appliance cooling. Rainwater is collected for such uses at major buildings in Tokyo such as the Tokyo Dome, the major stadium in the city (2008). Computer Sustainability Simulation The use of computer programming can be extremely helpful in modeling the best course of action for professionals attempting to make an urban water system sustainable. Makropoulos et al. (2008) discuss the use of such a software program. Computer hydrology models can determine the best combination of water resource sustainability techniques for a specific urban watershed. The computer simulation investigated by Makropoulos et al., is referred to as the Urban Water Optioneering Tool (UWOT). UWOT uses a mixture of the programming software called Simulink and the simple and well-known program Microsoft Excel to compute and display the complex algorithms that model urban water sustainability. The genetic algorithm (GA) is often used in UWOT simulations. GAs are preferred because they are designed perfectly to compute and solve long and complex water resource scenarios (2008). Viability and Disadvantages of Sustainable Solutions First, this section will examine how the level of performance for the above solutions in terms of providing an urban water system with sustainability. Then, there will be a discussion of the problems with each of the solutions. Viability of Solutions The use of recycled wastewater has proven very viable in attempting urban water sustainability. First of all, Furumai (2008) states the use of wastewater results in an increase in available water without increased tapping of natural water resources. This means the use of recycled wastewater means that more high-quality, natural waters can be distributed to the people that require such water (2008). This is undoubtedly the largest strength of wastewater recycling as it means higher volumes of water entering cities. Also, the use of recycled wastewater means that there is less strain on a city’s main water sanitation systems because less wastewater is being placed into such systems (2008). This becomes incredibly important in flood-prone areas, where volume in sewer systems is at a premium when increased run-off from rainwater must be properly transported. Furthermore, the major water systems can be used solely for cleaning incoming natural waters as the wastewater is separately treated (Furumai, 2008). One of the largest benefits of rainwater, according to Furumai, is that rainwater can be collected without incredibly complex engineering systems and used in urban environments as a source of water (2008). However, there are many faults in using rainwater as shown in the following section. The promise of computer simulation for achieving urban water sustainability has also been proven by Makropoulos et al. who concluded that UWOT was an important tool in attempting to build a sustainable urban water system (2008). In this way, it can be assumed that most other hydrological simulation will also help attain urban water sustainability. Furthermore, the computer simulation is obviously much faster and more accurate when considering the variables of an urban water system. Disadvantages of Solutions A major disadvantage of the use recycled wastewater is that it can obviously not be immediately used for drinking water. This disadvantage, however, is trumped by wastewater’s advantage of “freeing-up” more natural water for human consumption discussed earlier. According to Furumai, the main problem with the collection of rainwater for urban use is that it is not a constant supply (2008). This is even truer for cities in dry climates. A city could not depend on rainwater as a constant source of water, but only as a “bonus” source of incoming water. According to Makropoulos et al., it is also possible that rain water collected in cities could be polluted. This pollution could be a result of atmospheric pollution (acid rain) or occur because the building surfaces the rainwater is collected on (2008). This means that rainwater would have to be treated more extensively depending on the level of pollution. A major disadvantage of the use of computer programming to manage sustainability in urban water systems is stated quite clearly by Blackmore and Plant. These two question the basis of hydrological modeling as too rigid, especially when considering today’s climate change and the possibility of natural disasters affecting the water supply of a city. They state that hydrological modeling must take a wider variety of factors into account in order to accurately give solutions to urban water sustainability (2008). CONCLUSION Summary This paper has examined what urban water sustainability is and discusses possible solutions to the problem of continuing this water sustainability. While only three possible solutions to the problems of urban water sustainability are discussed in this paper, there are many other options water resource engineers and scientists are pursuing. However, it has been shown that these three solutions – the use of rainwater, the use of recycled wastewaters, and hydrological computer simulations – all help to improve the sustainability of urban water systems with only limited disadvantages. Interpretation of Findings It is obvious that all three sustainable solutions in urban areas are viable. However, for an urban center to achieve complete water sustainability IUWS must be put in place, as described by Blackmore and Plant (2008). In other words, no one sustainable practice will result in urban water sustainability. It is necessary to integrate as many water sustainability techniques as possible in order to balance the triple-bottom line in an area. Continuation of IUWS in an urban area will result in increased environmental quality and adequate water supply to all the citizens of the city. Recommendations It is strongly recommended that politicians and policy makers around the world begin to implement IUWS in order to conserve water quantities so urban populations can continue to support current population levels. The general public should also be made more aware of current water supply situations. Furthermore environmental engineers, water resource engineers, and environmental scientists all need to continue researching more solutions that can solve urban water sustainability. As stated early, only an integrated solution of many different practices will fully solve the problem. Therefore, the more water saving techniques available, the more likely true water sustainability will occur. REFERENCES Ashley, R., Blackwood, D., Butler, D., Jowitt, P., Davies, J., Smith, H., Gilmour, D., & Oltean-Du ...
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Attached.

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Running head: PILOT SAFETY

Pilot Safety

First Name
LastName
University
Course

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Running head: PILOT SAFETY

Abstract
Pilot safety is a significant aspect for the American Pilots Association (APA), and has
been identified as a crucial agenda that requires amendment at the Federal level. The aviation
industry is facing one of its difficult times compounded by the virus outbreak in China.
Nonetheless, the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration is committed to the plans designed
to update the safety clauses for pilots working for both passenger and cargo flight companies.
The need to update the policy on pilot’s safety stems from the increase of pilot deaths in
different accidents, raising the question of how safe are the pilots when embarking on a
flight. All indications seem to point at strict measures set forth by aviation industries aimed at
maximizing the profits at the expense of overwhelming their crew. The journey to restore
sanity and dignity to the industry should not take accidents that claim hundreds of lives –
including pilots- to enforce current regulations before acting on drafting amendments to
amend them.

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Running head: PILOT SAFETY

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT………………………………………………………..………….2
INTRODUCTION…………………………………………...……...…….....4
Background…………………………...……….………………………... 4
Purpose and Audience…………………………………...………….…...5
Definitions of Terms .................................................................................................... 5
Sources………………………………………………………...……….….6
Limitations………………………………………………….…….....…… 6
Scope…………………………………………………………………...…..6

COLLECTED DATA…………………………………………….…………...6
Aviation Crisis…………………………………..…
Relationship between pilot experience and safety...........................
The Cost of Negligence…...............................................................
Compliance with weather conditions…………………………….

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Possible Solutions to Pilot Safety Issues………………….……………... 9
Emotional Control for Pilots…………………………………...….. 10
Confronting the Issue of Fatigue…………………………………... 10
Retraining and evaluation of pilots periodically ………………… 11
Exposure and training on flight technology………………………..12
Viability of the Proposed Solutions and their Downside………………. 12
Viability of Solutions……………………………………
12
Downside of Solutions………………….…………………..
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CONCLUSION…………………………………………………..…………
Summary………………………………………………………….…….
Interpretation of Findings……………………………................….......
Recommendations…………………………..……………………….….

REFERENCES………………………………...…………………………....

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Running head: PILOT SAFETY

Introduction
Background
Experts in aviation hold that there is a big challenge within the industry that is
endangering the lives of our pilots. Every line of profession contains guidelines on how to go
about daily operations. Presently, there have been several incidents that have resulted in
either killing the pilot or exposing them to hostile situations. Personal keenness, industry
guarding its members from harsh environment, legal procedures to monitor adherence to set
rules, humanitarian bodies’ contribution, and safety agencies constitute the elements involved
in ensuring human welfare. The different concepts of securing the wellbeing of the workers
vary and increases depending on the nature and structure of the firm involved. Each sector
sensitizes the need for safety measures and strives to guarantee a sound environment by all
means. It’s an important aspect to secure human resources first before handling other
components, which might not be as delicate as human factors. The risk level of pilots is
steadily rising as safety issues spike in the industry. FAA should remain keen to regulate the
industry by acting on alarms sent to them by the most important players in the industry pilots.
Disasters can occur at any time without knowledge; hence, it is crucial to prepare and
remain vigilant to avoid tragedies. Accidents occur every day. Most of these accidents
leading to a disaster do not necessarily originate from the pilot, but technical hitches that may
cloud certain functions of the airplane. The need to consider proper actions worth taking
before such incidents occur constitutes the safety measures. Transport by air involves a

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Running head: PILOT SAFETY
complex accident prevention guideline. This paper aims at discussing the safety of pilots,
which remains a key to secure the passengers and guarantee safe journeys to and from
destinations of their own preference. The travel through space needs to meet both mechanical
and professional capabilities for assurance of safe takeoff, landing, and atmosphere
environment consideration all through the journey.
Purpose and Audience
The objective of this paper is to investigate, analyze, and instigate recommendations
on the issue of pilot safety. This paper recognizes the key players in the industry and their
role in keeping pilots safe. Safety assurance is what pilots want before they can take to the
cockpit, and their role is well outlined in this paper. The paper is prepared with a little
technical language that suites stakeholders in the aviation industry. General scholars and
aviation students should find this paper appealing to them on how it approaches the topic and
the use of extensive research. The audience should find the paper quite informative and in
line with the labor rights, while admitting pilots have more to do to ensure safety is
guaranteed.
Definition of terms
There are a number of terms that have been used in this paper and may not be familiar
with the reader. Those terms have been identified and defined within the context of the topic
for the purpose of making reading and understanding of the paper much easier.
FAA –This is an abbreviation for the Federal Aviation Authority that is mandated
with regulating, licensing, and controlling all aviation activities in the U.S.
Boeing 737 MAX –The 737 MAX is a passenger aircraft manufactured by the U.S
Company Boeing. The aircraft has been on the headlines following two similar crashes that
left all the over 150 passengers onboard dead in each of the planes.

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Running head: PILOT SAFETY
COVID-19 –A pandemic outbreak that was first reported in the Chinese city of
Wuhan towards the end of 2019 and spread to as many as 150 countries worldwide. The
outbreak is currently ongoing with fatalities standing well above 20,000.

Sources
Credible sources were used in drafting this paper, with all of the sources accessed in
‘pdf’ format directly from verified websites. Half of the articles are journals that advocate for
better mechanism of ensuring pilot safety. Two of the sources are articles retrieved from
federal agencies mandated to regulate the aviation industry. All the articles have been
engaged in this paper and offer a diverse view of the issue of pilot safety.
Limitations
This paper on pilot safety is limited to the subject stated in its exclusivity. Passenger
issues and those of the management of aviation facilities have been shelved. The paper is
solely pinned on the issue of safety for our pilots and the policy and regulations that could
help cushion the problem. On the use of its sources, the paper is limited to articles and
journals dated from the last few years. Any other relevant information that is outdated has
been ignored and not considered at any stage of writing this paper.
Scope
The paper beginning with highlighting the issue of safety of our pilots and the
consequences of those safety issues in a broader context. With the issues identified, the paper
moves on to the analysis phase, where data and information touching on the topic being
exhibited. The digging of information and subjecting it to the context of the issue at hand is
well taken care of in the paper. After research and analyses on the information collected, the
paper arrived at its findings and signed off with recommendations.

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Running head: PILOT SAFETY
Collected Data
Information collected from the sources has been used to arrive at findings and aids to
contextualize the issue of safety. The data also points to the changes that the aviation industry
has witnessed in the past few years and their contribution to the safety of pilots. Much of the
information is derived from peer-reviewed journals that dwell on aviation issues, with a keen
interest in how pilots have been prepared to cope with safety demands. The data examines
the crisis in the aviation industry, and then moves to the cause of the crisis before moving to
the cost of the crisis. After identifying the issues of safety, the data is compiled to yield
possible solutions to the problems and their relevance to the issue of pilot safety.
Aviation Crisis
The spike in the number of air crashes across the globe is raising concern on the
safety of our pilots. The department of transport keeps on emphasizing the need to observe
safety measures across all airports across the U.S. In the airline transport services, accidents
don’t commonly occur through aeroplane collisions, but technical issues or pilot errors.
Maintaining secure journeys by air expects a lot from pilot skills and airplane maintenance
guidelines. Ensuring that no more aircraft crashes get broadcasted now and then requires a
close view of how safety can come across. Engineering of the transport gadgets by air always
emphasizes thorough checking of the aircraft status before commencing a flight. Since no
existence of mid-way stoppages like bus stations, it remains ideal to ensure fuel capacity
matches the distance to be taken. All issues in terms of faulty parts and failing components
have not been a significant issue even in the recent crashes reported. Skills and competencies
of the pilots to conquer challenges, even in harsh weather, explore one of the commonly
encountered aspects in the industry (Cessna, 1998). Bad weather involving misty and hail
rainfall constitutes concerns that challenge space travel, causing crashes at thick forests or
even on high mountainous regions.

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Running head: PILOT SAFETY
Relationship between pilot experience and safety
Pilot safety begins from personal character and obedience to the set guidelines and
preca...

smithwiliams (18939)
University of Virginia

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