EDU 7100 Ashford Evolution and Future of HBCUs MSIs and Tribal Colleges Paper


EDU 7100

ashford university


Question Description

The Evolution and Future of HBCUs, MSIs, and Tribal Colleges

[WLOs: 4, 6] [CLOs: 1, 3]

For this assignment, you will write a five to seven page paper which addresses the following:

  1. Evaluate the political, legal, and socioeconomic factors which lead to the creation and expansion of either (a) HBCUs, (b) Tribal Colleges, or (c) Minority Serving Institutions.
  2. Analyze the current social, economic, or political challenges facing these institutions in contemporary higher education.
  3. Analyze the opportunities of these institutions in shaping public policy and societal change.

Required Resources


Cohen, A. M. & Kisker, C. B. (2010). The shaping of American higher education: Emergence and growth of the secondary system (2nd ed). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

  • Chapter 3: University Transformation as the Nation Industrializes, 1870-1944, pp. 119; 156-157.
  • Chapter 4: Mass Higher Education in the Era of American Hegemony, 1945-1975, pp. 195-199; 215-219.
  • Chapter 5: Maintaining the Diverse System in an Era of Consolidation, 1976-1993, pp. 396-400.
  • Chapter 6: Privatization, Corporatization, and Accountability in the Contemporary Era, 1994-2009, pp. 461-471.

Lucas, C. J. (2006). American higher education: A history (2nd ed). New York, NY: Palgrave McMillan Book.

  • Chapter 5: The Evolving American University, pp. 160-171.
  • Chapter 6: American Academe in the Early Twentieth Century, pp. 212-218; 230-233; 260-266.


Minor, J. T. (2008). Segregation residual in higher education: A tale of two states. American Educational Research Journal, 45(4), 861-885.

Recommended Resources


Witt, A., Wattenbarger, J., Gollattscheck, J., & Suppiger, J. (1994). America’s community colleges: The first century. Washington, DC: Community College Press.


Teresa, B. B., & Lucas, C. J. (2006). The first hundred years. International Educator, 15(6), 26-33.


MinnWins. (2012, Feb 16). White earth nation - education is the answer (Links to an external site.) [Video]. YouTube.

Web Pages

Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. (2014). Chronology of major landmarks in the progress of African Americans in higher education (Links to an external site.). Retrieved January 30, 2020, from

U.S. Department of Education. (n.d.). ED: lists of postsecondary institutions enrolling populations with significant percentages of minority students (Links to an external site.). Retrieved January 30, 2020, from

U.S. Department of Education. (n.d.). White House initiative on historically black colleges and universities (Links to an external site.). Retrieved January 30, 2020, from


AIHEC. (n.d.). American Indian Higher Education Consortium (Links to an external site.).

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Final Answer


Running head: HBCUs


The Evolution and Future of HBCUs

Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Course Name


The Evolution and Future of HBCUs

For a long time in American history, the ability to read and write remained a dream for
most black populations in the country. The first African Americans to be allowed to acquire
formal education did not make it to tertiary institutions. In 1799, John Chavis, who served as a
teacher and minister in the Presbyterian Church, became the first black to be admitted into
University or college in America (Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2014). It took another
five years for the first African American attains a master’s degree. Lemuel Haynes from the
Middlebury College achieved this milestone. The next African American achievement in higher
education was recorded two decades later when Alexander Lucius Twilight graduated with a
bachelor’s degree from the Middlebury College, becoming the first African American to
graduate from an American college (Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2014). The slow rate
of educational achievement for African Americans led to the need for institutions entirely
dedicated to meeting the educational needs of the minority group. Such institutions included the
Historically Black College and Universities (HBCUs) that are the focus of the discussion below.
It is good to note that the HBCUs were formed due to political, socioeconomic, and legal factors
that continue to impact them even in contemporary higher education.
Factors that Led to the Creation and Expansion of HBCUs
The formation of Historically Black Colleges and Universities marked a new dawn for
African Americans (Cohen & Kisker, 2010). The HBCUs were unique in the sense that they
were the only type of schools created solely for the education of Black citizens in the country
(U.S. Department of Education, 1991). The institutions were created over more than a decade
following the Civil War. It took combined efforts of the Freedman’s Bureau of the Federal



government, Northern philanthropists, and White abolitionist missionaries. Factors that led to the
formation of these institutions can be categorized into political, socioeconomic, and legal.
Political Factors
The Civil War marked a turning point in the political climate in the U.S, leading to
support for African American Higher Education. Before the Civil War, the education system for
the blacks was unstructured, and political leaders were unwilling to carry out any reforms. Some
statutory provisions and public policy at the time prohibited African Americans education in
most parts of the country. Following the Civil War, political leaders loosened their stand and
allowed the formation of special African American schools since most existing schools were
unwilling to admit the minority group. The earliest schools dedicated to educating blacks were

paula9 (11185)
University of Maryland

I was having a hard time with this subject, and this was a great help.

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