Business Finance
University of Malaya Coding Schemes Discussion

University of Malaya

Question Description

Help me study for my Statistics class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.

Assignment 1:

Part A:

Write a page discussing how you choose what to include in the coding scheme, and any lessons you have learned from this, you may refer to Lecture 2 slides No 2-7, No. 21 & 22 and a few references if needed.

To develop "Table 1: List of Codes Created from Theory and Created from Interview", please remember

1. to read the two articles provided to create the codes.
2. may develop new codes not provided by the articles

Please note that the format of this Table is not fixed, you may use your creativity to modify the Table to a Table that can better explain your codes.

The details are in attachments "Assignment 2 Guidelines (3)", please make sure you read it carefully before you start writing.

Part B:

There were questions on differences between codes, subcategories and categories. For clarity, I modified the previous Table of List of Codes posted at /Learning Materials/Assignment 2/Assignment 2 List of Code New Table. Please use this Table for your assignment. Although this Table is not fixed and may be modified as you see fit.

(Here only can upload 4 files. after bids i'll send another files.)

Assignment 2:

At least 600 words.

The requirement is: For Assignment 2, please personalise your assignment step to the data you had analysed in Assignment 1. Personalisation refers to using examples in Assignment 1 (e.g. Tables created, theories used) to explain the step. Please write as if the writing is part of your explanation in your thesis.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Assignment 2 Analyse and code your data of the interview transcript provided. You are to submit the following: 1. Write a page discussing how you choose what to include in the coding scheme, and any lessons you have learned from this 2. The coding scheme developed from your data analysis as per example in Table 1 & 2 below Notes: Research questions are: RQ1: What is the motivation of innovation in construction companies? RQ2: What are the main causes/components of innovation in construction companies? Theory: Innovation Systems by Malerba (2002, 2004, 2006). Step 1 Create a List of Codes (from the 2 Articles given). For example: Table 1: List of Codes Created from Theory and Created from Interview Categories Subcategories Subcategories Subcategories SubSubSubcategories categories categories RQ1 Motivation of Innovation Opportunities Problem RQ2. Causes/Components of Innovation Institutions rules, Demand Actor & Networks Knowledge New Codes Step 2 Read the Interview Transcript and make notes of your observations Step 3 Code the interview as you read the second time. Refer to Table. Note that the words you choose to use for your coding process maybe of following nature 1. Use the same words with the same meaning 2. Use different words but with the same meaning 3. Different meanings. You may add these new codes to Table 1 as Others Step 4 Place your coding in per Table 2 below. Table 2 : Results of Coding from Interview Transcript with Ms Innovation Project Manager, Ms L. Research Question Codes Motivation Opportunities differentiation Opportunities Lines from Interview When the construction giants are differentiating themselves the smaller ones start to use XYZ to differentiate themselves. Line Number 2-4 XX - XX Table 1: List of Codes Created from Theor Themes Motivation of Innovation Category Opportunities Problem New Category 1 Causes/Components of Innovation Actor & Networks Actor Network Institutions Knowledge & Learning Demand New Theme 1: New Category 2 New Theme 2: New Category 3 Table 1: List of Codes Created from Theory and Created from Interview Sub Categories 1. 2. 3. New Sub Categories 1. 2. 3. New Sub Categories New Sub Categories 1. 2 1. 2. 1. Types of Institution a. Rules b. Laws c.Standards 2. 3. New Sub Categories 1. 2. 3. New Sub Categories 1. 2. 3. New Sub Categories 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. odes Created from Theory and Created from Interview Codes from Interview Transcript 1 Assignment 2 Interview Transcript Company: CASE STUDY 3 Date: 09.01.2013 Interviewee: Innovation Project Manager, Ms L Duration of Interview: 2 hours Venue: Innovation Project Manager’s Office Copy : Excerpts, Course notes 2 3 Researcher: Please share what motivated your company to innovate XYZ? 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Ms. LEL: In US, the innovation of XYZ is more prevalent amongst the smaller consultants because they want to differentiate themselves. When the construction giants are differentiating themselves, the smaller ones start to use XYZ to differentiate themselves. Because the smaller firms use XYZ, the bigger firms start to wake up. Productivity translates to bottom line. Also construction being dirty, risky and dusty – how would it appeal to the younger generation. A mechanical engineer has a choice of working in manufacturing, consultancy, construction – how to attract talents to construction becomes difficult. The older generation of construction doesn’t need qualification and bangs table (less professional) in their work – this needs to change. Using XYZ is not impress talents but overall in an industry we must be more competitive. Only if we are more competitive then we can remunerate them, they take pride in their jobs then the whole industry can grow. If you talk to local university admission unit, they say that the civil engineering courses are not so appealing to students. We are even talking about getting the `cream’ but just getting people to join the course. When we started XYZ, the industry started to know, i.e., when we brand CASE 3, it attract some of the very good candidates. At least, they have a choice to use XYZ other than being in the hot sun doing engineering work. We don’t mean with XYZ quality issues will be sorted out, it comes back to our culture whether we are particular about quality about culture in the site/project implementation. And also we know our industry supply chain – foreign labour is doing the work – these are not skilled -- they may be farmers who become construction workers. 23 Researcher: How were things done before your company has XYZ? 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Ms. LEL: Manufacturing is very advanced, has high productivity, clean environment and advance tools. Construction is less advanced because each product is different and the processes are redundant and the players always changes e.g. different clients. Panel consultants may be the same. Engaging of consultants is mainly through open bidding. It’s very fragmented and things are done ad-hocly. There are different procurement system - `build’ or `design and build’. The conventional way where the client appoints the architect take lead and then clients get contractor to build - the contractors are the executor and they don’t have to innovate. If drawings are wrong, we hack it and redo and are entitled to claims. In Design and Build, then the contractor is accountable for overall design but for contractor the more inefficiency exists the better it is for them “to claim” monies. Contractors are not motivated to innovate at all these loop holes. We are not effective and are fragmented. 35 36 Researcher: Please explain what you mean by the construction industry being fragmented? 1 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Ms. LEL: Fragmentation refers to the roles and responsibilities of all parties. Clients can be one time off to own certain facility. Regular developers selling house are different from those selling shopping malls. These developers generally want to make monies. Then there are the consultants that are needed for design input and professional liability. They charge based on the time they use in designing – more time spent more charges. Percentage of contract sum is the architect fees and design time. There is no motivation to minimize design time. Contractors want to finish the job within their budget, specifications and time frame. We want things fast. All players’ motivation is different. Sub-contractor scope is smaller and they are specialist. Their motivation is still time and cost. The role and responsibilities tend to draw a line e.g. this is my liability then this is my problem. Even in the implementation of XYZ – the coordination, planning and logistics, costs – motivation for implementing XYZ is different. For consultants, their motivation is that they want to change the way of designing and they don’t feel the benefits of XYZ. In XYZ implementation, different stakeholders and different parties depends on benefits they are going to get. 51 Researcher: How were things done before your company has XYZ? 52 53 54 55 56 Ms. LEL: Before XYZ there’s a lot of firefighting with no upfront planning and confirmation. When you actually have drawings and start to coordinate almost reaching the execution part already but now it’s different. The price to pay is that we have to involve a lot more people and involve them earlier at the upfront. And towards the tail end, during execution onsite, the engineers have been cut down less firefighting. It “reduces the work and improves productivity. 57 58 59 60 In terms of cost estimations we are also building our master library. Through the years, we have files but they are very fragmented – they are here and there –but now we are consolidating them into a Master Library and data. Eventually this will be our competitive advantage as well. 61 62 63 64 65 66 At the end of the day, it’s to ensure things are structured and in a systematic form. But still it cannot eliminate tacit knowledge. For example, I am involved in kicking out this project, the process of pushing change management, there are experiences where you simply talk to people – it’s very hard to codify and it stays with you. We need to form a system and eventually a community of ecosystem to support it. We will maximize the codified knowledge but tacit knowledge will always be there. It’s more versus less. 67 68 69 XYZ, we are doing R&D is in progress and is consolidating. Our R&D is not dealing with programming or equipment but integrating where we know our business processes best where we can’t outsource. 70 71 72 73 74 75 Our company productivity can be improved through managed processes – products are being reached because depends on the contract, the design part are mainly driven by clients’ expectations and what architects have come out with on designs. So what can be managed to make business more productive is how to manage the processes. In the olden days we can use an experienced staff and throw away all coordination work. But in actual fact we can leverage on him to do bigger scales of work. This is how we also do in human capital improvements. 76 Researcher: What are the factors that triggered the innovation of XYZ? 2 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 Ms. LEL: A foreign consultant approached us. Our Director is a believer in technology. Even 20 years ago in the 1990’s we were the first in using X. Back in the 90’s he already understand that in order for us to scale up because we were small then. He has always been thinking about being more productive. It’s in his blood not because XYZ we suddenly get excited. He has always been a believer in technology. He had always had dream of having something like XYZ to be implemented. He told us a story long ago where by the Japanese already uses part of XYZ. During X, we have a 10-20 people kind of set-up and eventually when X matured staff was all seconded to our shared services. Our Director said the shared services is more to service and performing general tasks so somehow the R&D initiative died off. He had always thought that there’s so much innovation of R&D that we should be looking at as a company but there’s not much now. Staffs that were previously doing R&D when they were transferred their roles and responsibilities change because they are serving wider base customers of our sisters companies. R&D is so company specific that he would think that it should be coming from a business unit. Our Director asked me to sit in the meeting and meet the foreign background because of my expertise related to XYZ. We got to start from the Design and Technical team. To initially start off the idea there was just our Director and I. After that we start out with the Design and Technical Team. It’s natural that XYZ software that the users will start off with the Design and Technical team but we actually roll out to the planning Dept. and QS Dept. 95 Researcher: Please describe how the innovation was developed. 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 Ms. LEL: I have more breadth of the innovation whereas the Design and Technical team (DTT) have the details. I will start off with the R&D and preempt them on the tools, consultants or what’s on in the market, and the directions of the market. the Design and Technical team start with the adoption or testing first depends on situations and tools. After that they test run and implement it. They are giving ideas from the users’ perspective. We actually give DTT the ideas on their new ways of doing things but as they move on, as they start using it, they start giving ideas and customize. I source for the stuffs and then I send to the users (DTT) to test suitability. Whenever I propose a new way, DTT will give back ideas and customize. That was the initial stage. So after doing R&D for a while we call in the specialists to audit whether we are doing in a very traditional way using XYZ tools or it’s a best practice that they had experienced before. So it got to go through a different life stage where after a while you got to do things differently to check our own team’s work. We need feedback whether we are on the right track. Then we roll out to the other Departments. During the first one year, we didn’t have full-time staffs working on XYZ from other Departments. Like others, we also suffer from buyin issues. Now we have full-time staffs from other Departments working on it. We were fortunate that top management didn’t take a long time to believe in in it. If the company does not have buy-in from the top, the whole thing may not work. To work on something like this, you have to put on the resources, much money and investments and you have to hire so many people, I would say it’s a work of “Faith”. 115 Researcher: What are the challenges that your company face in innovating XYZ? 116 117 118 Some software is not matured. Some software is harder to use then others. It’s not so straight forward. Mainly the issues were “buy-in” and technical. The “buy-in” as change management is in place – we are not suffering from it anyway now. The technical issues were also take time 3 119 120 to resolve but it comes from vendor side and we have to provide feedback. Again it depends on how important is CASE 3 to the vendor. 121 Researcher: Tell me more about the issue of buy-in. 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 Change management refers to management got to put emphasis on it, have to put investments in it, give training. To get buy- How do you know whether this dept. Head has got buy-in or not? You got to see the amount of resources that he put in and the quality of staff he put in. Let’s say they give the most lousy staff then you know this Department Head don’t really believe in it. If they give you the brightest talent and top talent round and they dedicate them and commit them to the road map and assignments that we request then you have the “buy-in”. Through the process, we have seen that in terms of resource commitment, in terms of putting in time to join in our meetings, to provide input. We involve internal staff, consultants and at the project level we also have sub-contractors. 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 We have to get their ideas for XYZ but because consultants tend to be smaller set-up, they don’t have manpower to do R&D. So a lot of times they are actually under our guidance where we teach them this is the way to do it, we give them templates to start off with. Their role is passive. At the earlier stage the consultants are more actively involved, sub-contractors, sub-contractors at the downstream so their involvement is at the later stage. The level of details between them is different. M&E Consultants are more on schematic designs. Actually we help these consultants and sub-contractors more. This is because you have to see the motivation. Our motivation is to save costs and to be productive. Consultants’ motivation – it involves so much work and you are not the only client for me. To them, they are a small set-up, the way they see R&D, way to justify costs is also different. But they do get involved. We have internal buy-in now so the challenge is still how to enlarge this influence, the external people which is more tough as it involve conflict of interests. At least internally, we are still under the strong “leadership of command” everyone will be in line. When you do “change management”, you are bound to meet people with different motivations – the more friendly or less friendly ones because of top management you can bull doze through them. The company has to move together, we are as strong as the weakest link. 147 4 Data Analysis Steps • Read through data • Develop preliminary code list • Source – theories, other researches, own experience/gut feeling • Code – word/phrase (often taken verbatim from text) which represents a single idea • Single words, phrases, sentences, or paragraphs can be coded • Discuss code list with supervisor to finalize list and create codebook (iterative process) • Code remaining transcripts using codebook • •Organize codes into larger categories • Organize categories into larger, overarching themes (thematic analysis) ...
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Final Answer


Table 1: List of Codes Created from Theory a
Motivation of Innovation



Actor Effects
Causes/Components of

Actor & Networks

Knowledge & Learning


Table 1: List of Codes Created from Theory and Created from Interview
Sub Categories
Job opportunities
Freedom of Access to markets

Food and Environmental problems
Transportation issues
Poor public image
Leadership capabilities
Personal motivations

Planning Tasks
Represent Societal Interests
Supports improvement
Allows for cooperation
Types of Institution
a. Rules
b. Laws

ledge & Learning
Diversification of firms

Public Agencies

st of Codes Created from Theory and Created from Interview
Codes from Interview Transcript
Competition for opportunities

Access to markets

vironmental problems
prevalence of problems

Actor influence

Network cooperation between actors and the community to bring innovation

Institutution influence

Change in Technology

Demand on markets



Student’s Name
School Affiliations



From the analyzed data in assignment one, it is clear that multiple factors within the organization
influence the motivation of innovation within a company. From the theories, its well understood
that innovation is influenced by various opportunities that arise within the organization and the
problems that are also encountered. The theories have extensively out...

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Purdue University

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