Economics
ECON 110 American University Poverty in Both Bangladesh and China Paper

Econ 110

ECON

Question Description

Can you help me understand this Economics question?

With all the attachment below, there is a briefly outline of what the paper topic is. Also, there is a guidance of the requirement in the other attachment as well. The first attachment is the database you can use to compare both China and Bangladesh. This is a university senior level paper.

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Description: World Bank (2019). World Development Indicators; as downloaded on January 16, 2019 Country Name Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Indicator Name 1970 1971 1972 2005 PPP conversion factor, GDP (LCU per international $) 2005 PPP conversion factor, private consumption (LCU per international $) Access to clean fuels and technologies for cooking (% of population) Access to electricity (% of population) Access to electricity, rural (% of rural population) Access to electricity, urban (% of urban population) Account ownership at a financial institution or with a mobile-money-service provider (% of population age Account ownership at a financial institution or with a mobile-money-service provider, female (% of popula Account ownership at a financial institution or with a mobile-money-service provider, male (% of populati Account ownership at a financial institution or with a mobile-money-service provider, older adults (% of p Account ownership at a financial institution or with a mobile-money-service provider, poorest 40% (% of p Account ownership at a financial institution or with a mobile-money-service provider, primary education o Account ownership at a financial institution or with a mobile-money-service provider, richest 60% (% of po Account ownership at a financial institution or with a mobile-money-service provider, secondary educatio Account ownership at a financial institution or with a mobile-money-service provider, young adults (% of p Adequacy of social insurance programs (% of total welfare of beneficiary households) Adequacy of social protection and labor programs (% of total welfare of beneficiary households) Adequacy of social safety net programs (% of total welfare of beneficiary households) Adequacy of unemployment benefits and ALMP (% of total welfare of beneficiary households) Adjusted net enrollment rate, primary (% of primary school 50.84694 age children) Adjusted net enrollment rate, primary, female (% of primary 33.9379 school age children) Adjusted net enrollment rate, primary, male (% of primary 67.2113 school age children) Adjusted net national income (annual % growth) Adjusted net national income (constant 2010 US$) Adjusted net national income (current US$) Adjusted net national income per capita (annual % growth) Adjusted net national income per capita (constant 2010 US$) Adjusted net national income per capita (current US$) Adjusted net savings, excluding particulate emission damage (% of GNI) Adjusted net savings, excluding particulate emission damage (current US$) Adjusted net savings, including particulate emission damage (% of GNI) Adjusted net savings, including particulate emission damage (current US$) Adjusted savings: carbon dioxide damage (% of GNI) Adjusted savings: carbon dioxide damage (current US$) 6778633 Adjusted savings: consumption of fixed capital (% of GNI) Adjusted savings: consumption of fixed capital (current 7.03E+08 US$) 6.89E+08 5E+08 Adjusted savings: education expenditure (% of GNI) 0.54251 0.54251 0.54251 Adjusted savings: education expenditure (current US$) Adjusted savings: energy depletion (% of GNI) Adjusted savings: energy depletion (current US$) 0 0 Adjusted savings: gross savings (% of GNI) Adjusted savings: mineral depletion (% of GNI) Adjusted savings: mineral depletion (current US$) 0 0 0 Adjusted savings: natural resources depletion (% of GNI) Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Adjusted savings: net forest depletion (% of GNI) Adjusted savings: net forest depletion (current US$) 24439316 21166669 19389401 Adjusted savings: net national savings (% of GNI) Adjusted savings: net national savings (current US$) Adjusted savings: particulate emission damage (% of GNI) Adjusted savings: particulate emission damage (current US$) Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 women ages206.2974 15-19) 205.1512 204.005 Adolescents out of school (% of lower secondary school age) Adolescents out of school, female (% of female lower secondary school age) Adolescents out of school, male (% of male lower secondary school age) Adults (ages 15+) and children (ages 0-14) newly infected with HIV Adults (ages 15+) newly infected with HIV Age dependency ratio (% of working-age population) 91.02811 91.88596 92.35779 Age dependency ratio, old (% of working-age population) 5.24047 5.383507 5.51025 Age dependency ratio, young (% of working-age population) 85.78764 86.50246 86.84754 Agricultural irrigated land (% of total agricultural land) Agricultural land (% of land area) 74.49489 74.47953 76.75348 Agricultural land (sq. km) 96970 96950 99910 Agricultural machinery, tractors 2072 2270 2470 Agricultural machinery, tractors per 100 sq. km of arable 2.344687 land 2.568745 2.704478 Agricultural methane emissions (% of total) 89.34079 88.55977 88.43867 Agricultural methane emissions (thousand metric tons81572.52 of CO2 equivalent) 76564.17 77876.62 Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions (% of total) 76.49557 76.99738 76.92002 Agricultural nitrous oxide emissions (thousand metric 7520.919 tons of CO2 7284.28 equivalent)7641.554 Agricultural raw materials exports (% of merchandise exports) Agricultural raw materials imports (% of merchandise imports) Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (% of GDP) 54.5615 51.03131 59.60991 Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (annual5.422769 % growth) -4.5081 -10.7066 Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (constant 7.91E+09 2010 US$) 7.55E+09 6.74E+09 Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (constant4.3E+11 LCU) 4.1E+11 3.66E+11 Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (current2.36E+10 LCU) 2.14E+10 2.25E+10 Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (current4.91E+09 US$) 4.47E+09 3.75E+09 Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added per worker (constant 2010 US$) Air transport, freight (million ton-km) Air transport, passengers carried Air transport, registered carrier departures worldwide All education staff compensation, primary (% of total expenditure in primary public institutions) All education staff compensation, secondary (% of total expenditure in secondary public institutions) All education staff compensation, tertiary (% of total expenditure in tertiary public institutions) All education staff compensation, total (% of total expenditure in public institutions) Alternative and nuclear energy (% of total energy use) 0.264691 0.256265 Annual freshwater withdrawals, agriculture (% of total freshwater withdrawal) Annual freshwater withdrawals, domestic (% of total freshwater withdrawal) Annual freshwater withdrawals, industry (% of total freshwater withdrawal) Annual freshwater withdrawals, total (% of internal resources) Annual freshwater withdrawals, total (billion cubic meters) Annualized average growth rate in per capita real survey mean consumption or income, bottom 40% of po Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Annualized average growth rate in per capita real survey mean consumption or income, total population ( Antiretroviral therapy coverage (% of people living with HIV) Antiretroviral therapy coverage for PMTCT (% of pregnant women living with HIV) Aquaculture production (metric tons) 64716 68080 68508 Arable land (% of land area) 67.88815 67.88815 70.1621 Arable land (hectares per person) 0.135854 0.133038 0.135109 Arable land (hectares) 8837000 8837000 9133000 ARI treatment (% of children under 5 taken to a health provider) Armed forces personnel (% of total labor force) Armed forces personnel, total Arms exports (SIPRI trend indicator values) Arms imports (SIPRI trend indicator values) 9000000 2000000 Automated teller machines (ATMs) (per 100,000 adults) Average grace period on new external debt commitments (years) 0 0 5.1885 Average grace period on new external debt commitments, official 0 (years) 0 5.1942 Average grace period on new external debt commitments, private 0 (years)0 2.8081 Average grant element on new external debt commitments (%) 0 0 52.1871 Average grant element on new external debt commitments, official 0 (%) 0 52.212 Average grant element on new external debt commitments, private 0 (%) 0 41.7882 Average interest on new external debt commitments (%) 0 0 2.2923 Average interest on new external debt commitments, official (%) 0 0 2.293 Average interest on new external debt commitments, private 0(%) 0 2 Average maturity on new external debt commitments (years) 0 0 23.9367 Average maturity on new external debt commitments, official0(years) 0 23.9609 Average maturity on new external debt commitments, private0(years) 0 13.8081 Average precipitation in depth (mm per year) 2666 Average time to clear exports through customs (days) Average transaction cost of sending remittances from a specific country (%) Average transaction cost of sending remittances to a specific country (%) Average working hours of children, study and work, ages 7-14 (hours per week) Average working hours of children, study and work, female, ages 7-14 (hours per week) Average working hours of children, study and work, male, ages 7-14 (hours per week) Average working hours of children, working only, ages 7-14 (hours per week) Average working hours of children, working only, female, ages 7-14 (hours per week) Average working hours of children, working only, male, ages 7-14 (hours per week) Bank capital to assets ratio (%) Bank liquid reserves to bank assets ratio (%) Bank nonperforming loans to total gross loans (%) Battle-related deaths (number of people) Benefit incidence of social insurance programs to poorest quintile (% of total social insurance benefits) Benefit incidence of social protection and labor programs to poorest quintile (% of total SPL benefits) Benefit incidence of social safety net programs to poorest quintile (% of total safety net benefits) Benefit incidence of unemployment benefits and ALMP to poorest quintile (% of total U/ALMP benefits) Binding coverage, all products (%) Binding coverage, manufactured products (%) Binding coverage, primary products (%) Bird species, threatened Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Birth rate, crude (per 1,000 people) 47.832 47.478 47.096 Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total) Borrowers from commercial banks (per 1,000 adults) Bound rate, simple mean, all products (%) Bound rate, simple mean, manufactured products (%) Bound rate, simple mean, primary products (%) Bribery incidence (% of firms experiencing at least one bribe payment request) Broad money (% of GDP) Broad money (current LCU) Broad money growth (annual %) Broad money to total reserves ratio Burden of customs procedure, WEF (1=extremely inefficient to 7=extremely efficient) Business extent of disclosure index (0=less disclosure to 10=more disclosure) Capture fisheries production (metric tons) 625384 672020 749592 Cause of death, by communicable diseases and maternal, prenatal and nutrition conditions (% of total) Cause of death, by injury (% of total) Cause of death, by non-communicable diseases (% of total) Central government debt, total (% of GDP) Central government debt, total (current LCU) Cereal production (metric tons) 16905215 15088878 15323537 Cereal yield (kg per hectare) 1666.2 1583.1 1554.5 Changes in inventories (constant LCU) Changes in inventories (current LCU) Changes in inventories (current US$) Charges for the use of intellectual property, payments (BoP, current US$) Charges for the use of intellectual property, receipts (BoP, current US$) Chemicals (% of value added in manufacturing) 11.01739 12.11235 15.20494 Child employment in agriculture (% of economically active children ages 7-14) Child employment in agriculture, female (% of female economically active children ages 7-14) Child employment in agriculture, male (% of male economically active children ages 7-14) Child employment in manufacturing (% of economically active children ages 7-14) Child employment in manufacturing, female (% of female economically active children ages 7-14) Child employment in manufacturing, male (% of male economically active children ages 7-14) Child employment in services (% of economically active children ages 7-14) Child employment in services, female (% of female economically active children ages 7-14) Child employment in services, male (% of male economically active children ages 7-14) Children (0-14) living with HIV Children (ages 0-14) newly infected with HIV Children in employment, female (% of female children ages 7-14) Children in employment, male (% of male children ages 7-14) Children in employment, self-employed (% of children in employment, ages 7-14) Children in employment, self-employed, female (% of female children in employment, ages 7-14) Children in employment, self-employed, male (% of male children in employment, ages 7-14) Children in employment, study and work (% of children in employment, ages 7-14) Children in employment, study and work, female (% of female children in employment, ages 7-14) Children in employment, study and work, male (% of male children in employment, ages 7-14) Children in employment, total (% of children ages 7-14) Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Children in employment, unpaid family workers (% of children in employment, ages 7-14) Children in employment, unpaid family workers, female (% of female children in employment, ages 7-14) Children in employment, unpaid family workers, male (% of male children in employment, ages 7-14) Children in employment, wage workers (% of children in employment, ages 7-14) Children in employment, wage workers, female (% of female children in employment, ages 7-14) Children in employment, wage workers, male (% of male children in employment, ages 7-14) Children in employment, work only (% of children in employment, ages 7-14) Children in employment, work only, female (% of female children in employment, ages 7-14) Children in employment, work only, male (% of male children in employment, ages 7-14) Children out of school (% of primary school age) 49.15306 Children out of school, female (% of female primary school 66.0621 age) Children out of school, male (% of male primary school32.7887 age) Children out of school, primary 4686463 Children out of school, primary, female 3097767 Children out of school, primary, male 1588696 Children with fever receiving antimalarial drugs (% of children under age 5 with fever) Claims on central government (annual growth as % of broad money) Claims on central government, etc. (% GDP) Claims on other sectors of the domestic economy (% of GDP) Claims on other sectors of the domestic economy (annual growth as % of broad money) Claims on private sector (annual growth as % of broad money) CO2 emissions (kg per 2010 US$ of GDP) 0.163408 CO2 emissions (kg per 2011 PPP $ of GDP) CO2 emissions (kg per PPP $ of GDP) CO2 emissions (kt) 3509.319 CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita) 0.051915 CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (% of total 27.77778 fuel combustion) 27.77778 CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (% of total) 20.37618 CO2 emissions from gaseous fuel consumption (kt) 715.065 CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (% of total) 69.1745 CO2 emissions from liquid fuel consumption (kt) 2427.554 CO2 emissions from manufacturing industries and construction (%32.98611 of total fuel 32.98611 combustion) CO2 emissions from other sectors, excluding residential buildings1.388889 and commercial 1.388889 and public services (% o CO2 emissions from residential buildings and commercial and public 29.16667 services29.16667 (% of total fuel combustion) CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (% of total) 10.13584 CO2 emissions from solid fuel consumption (kt) 355.699 CO2 emissions from transport (% of total fuel combustion) 8.680556 8.680556 CO2 intensity (kg per kg of oil equivalent energy use) 0.597552 Coal rents (% of GDP) 0 0 Combustible renewables and waste (% of total energy) 78.3556 79.03731 Commercial bank branches (per 100,000 adults) Commercial banks and other lending (PPG + PNG) (NFL, current 0 US$) 0 605000 Commercial service exports (current US$) Commercial service imports (current US$) Commitments, IBRD (COM, current US$) 0 0 0 Commitments, IDA (COM, current US$) 0 0 57465000 Commitments, official creditors (COM, current US$) 0 0 3.18E+08 Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Bangladesh Commitments, private creditors (COM, current US$) 0 0 760838.2 Commitments, public and publicly guaranteed (COM, current US$) 0 0 3.19E+08 Communications, computer, etc. (% of service exports, BoP) Communications, computer, etc. (% of service imports, BoP) Community health workers (per 1,000 people) Compensation of employees (% of expense) Compensation of employees (current LCU) Completeness of birth registration (%) Completeness of birth registration, female (%) Completeness of birth registration, male (%) Completeness of birth registration, rural (%) Completeness of birth registration, urban (%) Completeness of death registration with cause-of-death information (%) Completeness of infant death reporting (% of reported infant deaths to estimated infant deaths) Completeness of total death reporting (% of reported total deaths to estimat ...
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Final Answer

Hello buddy, here is the completed assignment. I will be around to help
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Running Head: POVERTY IN BOTH BANGLADESH AND CHINA

Poverty in Both Bangladesh and China
Student’s Name
Institution Affiliations

1

POVERTY IN BOTH BANGLADESH AND CHINA

2

Poverty in Both Bangladesh and China: Contrast and Similarity
Acknowledgement
This paper has been written for American University's course: ECON-110 – The Global
Majority. I have read, understood, and followed the instructions provided in the Guidance Notes.
I understand that
1.) the preliminary draft title and draft abstract,
2.) the draft R.P., and
3.) the final version of the R.P.
Will not be accepted without this cover page and acknowledgement and that such a nonacceptance will imply a three-points-deduction for non-compliance. This three-points-deduction
will be in addition to any possible late deduction (detailed in Section C of the Guidance Notes).

Yanzhe (Rex) Wang

January 30, 2020

POVERTY IN BOTH BANGLADESH AND CHINA

3

Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the similarity and differences between
Bangladesh and China. After Chinese Independence Day, China has suffered high poverty back
to the 19th century. However, after Bangladesh separated from Pakistan, Bangladesh has also
sustained the debt. In this case, poverty has played a significant issue in both countries. There are
several similarities in both of these countries, especially after suffered tremendous hardship.
Nowadays, Bangladesh has one of the highest economic growth rates, and China is also falling
into this category. Ever since the declaration of independence of Bangladesh, the GPD in
Bangladesh has grown 118%. In 2008, the economic growth of Bangladesh was 8.1%. Also, the
annual growth rate of GDP in 2018 was 7.9%.

POVERTY IN BOTH BANGLADESH AND CHINA

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Introduction
China has obtained one of the highest GDP growth rates in the last decade. In 2009, the
annual GDP growth rates were 9.21%. Also, in 2010, China had 10.45% of GDP growth rates.
The average prices of China range around 6% each year for the past decade. In the later part of
this research paper, we will focus on the factors of poverty and how it was eliminated. Also,
what might cause misery due to issues such as political issues, population growth rates, and
gender differences (Nation Master. 2015). Poverty is a situation of lacking enough income or
material possession for an individual's use. Poverty may consist of economic, social, and
political elements. When a person is in absolute poverty, it means that they lack basic needs such
as shelter, food, and clothing. Relative poverty in a country means that the household income is
less than a specific percentage, usually 50% to 60% of the country’s median income. About 1.85
billion people around the world, which is 36% of the global population, live in poverty.
According to a study done by the World Bank in 2008, in developing nations, about half of the
population live in $1.25 income per day, which is the international poverty line (Wang, Feng,
Xia & Alkire, 2016).
Bangladesh has transitioned from a low-income country to a lower-middle-income
country. Statistics show that there was 31.5 % of people living in poverty in 2010 and the
percentage fell to 24.5% in 2016. China has also lifted its people living under the poverty line,
where it was able to remove her 850 million people from extreme poverty (World Bank. 2020).
My research paper will compare the similarity and the differences between the poverty levels in
China and Bangladesh. The research paper will indicate the measures taken to see that the two
countries can transition over the years and reach their current status in poverty levels.

POVERTY IN BOTH BANGLADESH AND CHINA

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The paper is structured in a way that shows the social, economic, and political aspects of
the two countries. It also shows how these factors contribute to the level of poverty in their
respective countries. I will also look into issues that indicate that a country is poor. The paper
will also show the GDP of each country and compare the growth and development levels
between the two developing countries. Finally, the paper will discuss the factors that contribute
to poverty in each state and measures that have been taken and can still be implemented to
reduce poverty in both countries.
Literature review
The people of northern Bangladesh are victims of economic disparities. Countless studies
have been carried out to show the poverty levels in China and Bangladesh. In most of the
literature, the author(s) talks of the measures that the countries have been taking to fight poverty,
and as such, poverty levels have been decreasing over time. Chowdhury & Hossain (2018), talk
of poverty in Bangladesh, Li (2018) indicates that China has millions of people who live in
poverty and an article by Nation Master (2018) has compared the economy of both countries.
Chowdhury & Hossain (2018) opine that the unequal and slower household consumption
growth slows down the rate at which poverty levels are reduced. The study indicated that poverty
levels in Bangladesh have reduced with more than 100% from 2000 to 2016, but then in recent
years, the reduction of poverty has slowed. In Bangladesh, around 24.3 % of its people live
below the poverty line, while12.3 % live in extreme poverty. Women are among the people who
are affected by poverty in Bangladesh (World Bank. 2016). Research shows that a CEO from the
top five companies in the world may be earning more than what a woman in Bangladesh can
make in her entire life.

POVERTY IN BOTH BANGLADESH AND CHINA

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Li (2018) focuses on China's eco...

ProfHenryM (16520)
Cornell University

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