American University The Things They Carried by Tim O Brien Reflection Paper

American University

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Fight Club What I Carry Due: Paper Due March 19 with Oral Presentations over three classes in March “The things they carried were largely determined by necessity. Among the necessities or near-necessities were P-38 can openers, pocket knives, heat tabs, wristwatches, dog tags, mosquito repellent, chewing gum, candy, cigarettes, salt tablets, packets of Kool-Aid, lighters, matches, sewing kits, Military Payment Certificates, C rations, and two or three canteens of water. They carried the standard fatigue jackets and trousers. Very few carried underwear. On their feet, they carried jungle boots—2.1 pounds—and Dave Jensen carried three pairs of socks and a can of Dr. Scholl’s foot powder as a precaution against trench foot. Until he was shot, Ted Lavender carried six or seven ounces of premium dope, which for him was a necessity. Mitchell Sanders, the RTO, carried condoms. Norman Bowker carried a diary. Rat Kiley carried comic books. Kiowa, a devout Baptist, carried an illustrated New Testament that had been presented to him by his father, who taught Sunday school in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. As a hedge against bad times, however, Kiowa also carried his grandmother’s distrust of the white man, his grandfather’s old hunting hatchet. Necessity dictated” (pp. 4-5). The men profiled in Tim O’Brien’s The Things They Carried took or wore tangible items out of necessity for both emotional and physical support and comfort. They also carried psychological issues, childhood traumas, superstitions, and family lore born from their own lives and experiences shaped before and during their time serving in the Vietnam War. For this midterm project, you will consider what YOU carry with you on a daily basis—some of it tangible, physical and emotional. Questions to consider: What do you carry physically and emotionally? Why? In what ways do you carry items out of necessity? What are they? And, then, consider how what you carry might change if and when you served overseas during a 21st century war. How would you decide what to bring, knowing you had limited space? What emotional burdens or superstitions would you also bring? How do those affect you? How might they affect others? Requirements: Paper (80%) • Write a 4-5 page paper that explains your reactions to these questions as you simultaneously consider and reflect on your reactions to O’Brien’s book. Please make sure you write an essay, that is, that you don’t just write a list of answers to questions. These questions are important to consider, but remember this is a college essay so it should 1) make connections to relevant readings 2) include a thesis statement and paper organization 3) use outside sources and 4) use correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation. o Hard copies due at the start of the March 19 class period. They should: o Use 12-point font. Be double spaced. Double sided is OK. Include your name in top corner. Please include a Works Cited page—it will NOT COUNT toward page limit. • Make sure you explain in your essay what you would carry and how you would carry it. This will be key to your oral presentations in March. Reading List War and Peace • Thursday, Jan. 23 Read: “What Every Person Should Know About War” by Chris Hedges (Bb) War and Peace • • Read: “Lessons of non-violence on Martin Luther King Day” by Sara Homayouni (Bb) Read: “War is a Force That Gives Us Meaning” by Chris Hedges (Bb) Week 3 Monday, Jan. 27 D.C institutions, memorials, and agencies Thursday, Jan. 30 D.C. institutions, memorials, and agencies Week 4 Monday, Feb. 3 Thursday, Feb. 6 War, Media and Propaganda In class: Watch Frank Capra’s Why We Fight War, Media and Propaganda • • • Week 5 Monday, Feb. 10 War, Media and Propaganda • • Thursday, Feb. 13 Read: “Those Who Can’t Forget” in The New York Times (Bb) Read: “Who is Edward Gallagher…” by Dave Phillips (Bb) At War • Week 10 Monday, March 16 Read: “Suffer the Little Children” from The Face of War Read: Private First Class Reginald “Malik” Edwards from Bloods At War • • Thursday, March 5 Read: “The War in Vietnam” from The Face of War Read: Specialist 5 Harold “Light Bulb” Bryant from Bloods Read: Col. Fred V. Cherry from Bloods At War • • Thursday, Feb. 27 Read: “Dachau” from The Face of War Read: John Hershey’s “Hiroshima” (Bb) At War • • • Week 7 Monday, Feb. 24 Read: Captain Norman Alexander McDaniel from Bloods Read: Sergeant Robert L. Daniels from Bloods Read: Specialist Arthur “Gene” Woodley Jr. from Bloods Due: Reflection Paper #1 At War • • Thursday, Feb. 20 Guest speaker: Bill Putnam, retired Army veteran and photojournalist Read: “This Combat Vet…” (Bb) Who goes to war? • • • • Week 6 Monday, Feb. 17 Read: “A New Kind of War” from The Face of War Read: Specialist Stephen A. Howard from Bloods Read: Captain Joseph P. Anderson Jr. from Bloods In Class: Watch Dear America: Letters Home from Vietnam Finish Reading: The Things They Carried 'What Every Person Should Know About War' - The New York Times 1/7/20, 3)03 PM FIRST CHAPTER 'What Every Person Should Know About War' By Chris Hedges July 6, 2003 What is a war? War is defined as an active conflict that has claimed more than 1,000 lives. Has the world ever been at peace? Of the past 3,400 years, humans have been entirely at peace for 268 of them, or just 8 percent of recorded history. How many people have died in war? At least 108 million people were killed in wars in the twentieth century. Estimates for the total number killed in wars throughout all of human history range from 150 million to 1 billion. War has several other effects on population, including decreasing the birthrate by taking men away from their wives. The reduced birthrate during World War II is estimated to have caused a population deficit of more than 20 million people. How many people around the world serve in the military? https://www.nytimes.com/2003/07/06/books/chapters/what-every-person-should-know-about-war.html Page 1 of 10 'What Every Person Should Know About War' - The New York Times 1/7/20, 3)03 PM The combined armed forces of the world have 21.3 million people. China has the world's largest, with 2.4 million. America is second with 1.4 million. India has 1.3 million, North Korea 1 million, and Russia 900,000. Of the world's 20 largest militaries, 14 are in developing nations? How many wars are taking place right now? At the beginning of 2003 there were 30 wars going on around the world. These included conflicts in Afghanistan, Algeria, Burundi, China, Colombia, the Congo, India, Indonesia, Israel, Iraq, Liberia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, the Philippines, Russia, Somalia, Sudan, and Uganda. Is there a genetic reason why we fight? There is no single "war gene." Combinations of genes can predispose a person to violence. However, aggression is a product of biology and environment. In America, sources of aggressive dispositions include domestic violence, the portrayal of violence in the media, threats from enemies, and combat training. Is war essentially male? Worldwide, 97 percent of today's military personnel are male. This is thought to be a reflection of culture and biology. Fifteen percent (204,000) of American military personnel are female. Can women fight as effectively as men do? Yes. While fewer women are "natural killers," and women are on average smaller than men, there are many women who have the psychological makeup and the physical ability to fight. There are many men without either. Women have shown valor in combat. Dr. Mary Walker won the Medal of Honor during the Civil War. https://www.nytimes.com/2003/07/06/books/chapters/what-every-person-should-know-about-war.html Page 2 of 10 'What Every Person Should Know About War' - The New York Times 1/7/20, 3)03 PM Why are civilians so attracted to war? War is often regarded by observers as honorable and noble. It can be viewed as a contest between nations, a chance to compete and be declared the victor. Does the American public support war? Between 65 and 85 percent of the American public will support a military action when it begins. Vietnam had 64 percent support in 1965. As American casualties mount, support often decreases. The Korean and Vietnam Wars ended with support levels near 30 percent. World War II support levels never fell below 77 percent, despite the prolonged and damaging nature of the conflict. The Gulf War enjoyed similar levels of support. How large is the American military? The active peacetime force of the U.S. armed services includes 1.4 million people, with the Army making up almost 500,000 of that number. The Navy has approximately 380,000 men and women on active duty. The Air Force has approximately 365,000, and the Marines have approximately 175,000. Approximately 1.3 million Americans serve in Reserve and National Guard branches that can be activated in time of war. How many Americans have died in wars? More than 650,000 Americans have been killed in combat. Another 243,000 have died while wars were being fought, due to training accidents, injury, and disease. In the twentieth century, approximately 53,000 Americans were killed in combat in World War I, 291,000 in World War II, 33,000 in the Korean War, 47,000 in Vietnam, and 148 in the Gulf War. Including deaths from disease, accidents, and https://www.nytimes.com/2003/07/06/books/chapters/what-every-person-should-know-about-war.html Page 3 of 10 'What Every Person Should Know About War' - The New York Times 1/7/20, 3)03 PM other factors, each war's total was much higher: approximately 116,000 died in World War I, 400,000 in World War II, 53,000 in the Korean War, 90,000 in Vietnam, and almost 400 in the Gulf War. How deadly is the American military? It is difficult to measure how many enemy deaths American armed forces have inflicted. Americans and their allies typically cause 10 to 20 times more combat casualties than American forces suffer. Estimates of Iraqi soldiers killed in the Gulf War range from 1,500 to 100,000. The lowest figure would still be 10 times the number of Americans killed in the war. Approximately 850,000 Vietcong died in the Vietnam War, 18 times the 47,000 U.S. dead. More than 600,000 North Korean and 1 million Chinese fighters died in the Korean War, almost 50 times the 33,000 American dead. In World War II, 3,250,000 German and 1,507,000 Japanese soldiers, sailors, and pilots were killed, 16 times the 291,000 American servicemen who were killed. How much does it cost the United States to maintain its armed forces? Since 1975, America has spent between 3 and 6 percent of its gross domestic product on national defense, or approximately 15 to 30 percent of each year's federal budget. In the first years of the twenty-first century, this meant spending roughly $350 billion per year. In comparison, annual spending for other programs included roughly $15 billion on state and international assistance and $60 billion on education. From 1940 to 1996 (a period that includes several cycles of war and peace, including the arms race of the cold war), America spent $16.23 trillion on the military ($5.82 trillion of that on nuclear weapons), versus $1.70 trillion on health care and $1.24 trillion on international affairs. How much does war cost? https://www.nytimes.com/2003/07/06/books/chapters/what-every-person-should-know-about-war.html Page 4 of 10 'What Every Person Should Know About War' - The New York Times 1/7/20, 3)03 PM The cost of the Gulf War was approximately $76 billion. Vietnam cost $500 billion; the Korean War, $336 billion; and World War II, almost $3 trillion. Put another way, the Gulf War cost each person in the United States $306; Vietnam, $2,204 per person; Korea, $2,266 per person; and World War II, $20,388 per person. At its outset, estimates for the cost of the Iraqi War were $50 to $140 billion, and an additional $75 to $500 billion for occupation and peacekeeping, or from $444 to $2,274 per person. How big is the military industry in the United States? Besides the 1.4 million active duty personnel, the military employs 627,000 civilians. The defense industry employs another 3 million. In total, the military and its supporting manufacturing base employs 3.5 percent of the U.S. labor force. In 2002, the Department of Defense spent $170.8 billion with military contractors such as Boeing and Lockheed Martin. How has the size of the industry changed over time? The 2003 level of 3.5 percent of the labor force is historically low. In 1987, toward the end of the cold war, defense (including the military) made up 5.7 percent of the U.S. labor market; in 1968, during Vietnam, 9.8 percent; in 1943, during World War II, 39 percent. After World War II, defense employment dropped to 4.5 percent, but jumped back to 11 percent in 1951 with the Korean War and the start of the cold war. Does the military industry help make defense spending decisions? Yes. In 2000, defense lobbying groups spent approximately $60 million. Defense political action committees also contribute roughly $14 million per congressional election cycle. Defense aerospace, defense electronics, and miscellaneous defense are the 31st-, 44th-, and 46th-ranking industries, respectively. https://www.nytimes.com/2003/07/06/books/chapters/what-every-person-should-know-about-war.html Page 5 of 10 'What Every Person Should Know About War' - The New York Times 1/7/20, 3)03 PM How many weapons does the U.S. military industry export each year? In 2001, U.S. arms manufacturers exported $9.7 billion in weapons worldwide. The United Kingdom was second in international exports with $4 billion. In addition, the United States made new sales of $12.1 billion. Russia was second with $5.8 billion. The United States is the world's largest arms manufacturer, supplying almost half of all the arms sold on the world market. What kinds of arms does the United States export? In 2002, U.S. manufacturers planned to export arms including Cobra and Apache attack helicopters, Black Hawk helicopters, KC-135A Stratotanker air-to-air tanker/transport aircraft, Hellfire and Hellfire II air-to-surface antiarmor missiles, Sidewinder air-to-air missiles, TOW 2A and 2B missiles, M-16 rifles, M60 machine guns, grenade launchers, MK-82 (500 lb.) and MK-83 (1,000 lb.) bombs, Sentinel radar systems, GBU12 Paveway series laser-guided bombs, standard assault amphibious personnel vehicles, assault amphibious command vehicles, and CBU-97 sensor fused weapon antitank cluster bombs. How many of the weapons U.S. companies export go to developing countries? Approximately half. From 1994 to 2001, the United States exported $131 billion in arms, with $59 billion going to developing nations. The United States is the leading exporter to developing countries, with Russia and France second and third. How do American arms exports affect the American people? Arms exports are an important source of American jobs and help maintain U.S. military manufacturing capacity. They also have some negative consequences. When American weapons are used in a conflict-for example, by Israel against https://www.nytimes.com/2003/07/06/books/chapters/what-every-person-should-know-about-war.html Page 6 of 10 'What Every Person Should Know About War' - The New York Times 1/7/20, 3)03 PM the Palestinians-America is also blamed for the attacks. U.S. forces regularly find themselves up against sophisticated weaponry of American origin, which is harder to defend against. How dangerous is war for civilians? Very dangerous. Between 1900 and 1990, 43 million soldiers died in wars. During the same period, 62 million civilians were killed. More than 34 million civilians died in World War II. One million died in North Korea. Hundreds of thousands were killed in South Korea, and 200,000 to 400,000 in Vietnam. In the wars of the 1990s, civilian deaths constituted between 75 and 90 percent of all war deaths. What is the civilian experience in war? They are shot, bombed, raped, starved, and driven from their homes. During World War II, 135,000 civilians died in two days in the firebombing of Dresden. A week later, in Pforzheim, Germany, 17,800 people were killed in 22 minutes. In Russia, after the three-year battle of Leningrad, only 600,000 civilians remained in a city that had held a population of 2.5 million. One million were evacuated, 100,000 were conscripted into the Red Army, and 800,000 died. In April 2003, during the Iraqi War, half of the 1.3 million civilians in Basra, Iraq, were trapped for days without food and water in temperatures in excess of 100 degrees. How many refugees axe there? In 2001, 40 million people were displaced from their homes because of armed conflict or human rights violations. Refugees have been a concern throughout the twentieth century. Five million Europeans were uprooted from 1919 to 1939. World War II displaced 40 million non-Germans in Europe, and 13 million Germans were expelled from countries in Eastern Europe. Approximately 2.5 million of the 4.4 million people in Bosnia and Herzegovina were driven from https://www.nytimes.com/2003/07/06/books/chapters/what-every-person-should-know-about-war.html Page 7 of 10 'What Every Person Should Know About War' - The New York Times 1/7/20, 3)03 PM their homes during that region's war in the early 1990s. More than 2 million Rwandans left their country in 1994. In 2001, 200,000 people were driven from Afghanistan to Pakistan. In early 2003, 45,000 Liberians were displaced from their homes. What are the consequences of becoming a refugee? Refugees have very high mortality rates, due primarily to malnutrition and infectious disease. Rwandan refugees in Zaire in 1994 had a death rate 25 to 50 times higher than prewar Rwandans. Iraqi Kurdish refugees in Turkey in 1991 had a death rate 18 times higher than usual. How does war affect children? More than 2 million children were killed in wars during the 1990s. Three times that number were disabled or seriously injured. Twenty million children were displaced from their homes in 2001. Many were forced into prostitution. A large percentage of those will contract AIDS. Children born to mothers who are raped or forced into prostitution often become outcasts. How many child soldiers are there? More than 300,000 worldwide. Soldiers are sometimes recruited at age 10 and younger. The youngest carry heavy packs, or sweep roads with brooms and branches to test for landmines. When children are hostile, the opposing army is more likely to consider every civilian a potential enemy. Why do children join armies? They are often forced to. Some are given alcohol or drugs, or exposed to atrocities, to desensitize them to violence. Some join to help feed or protect their families. Some are offered up by their parents in exchange for protection. https://www.nytimes.com/2003/07/06/books/chapters/what-every-person-should-know-about-war.html Page 8 of 10 'What Every Person Should Know About War' - The New York Times 1/7/20, 3)03 PM Children can be fearless because they lack a clear concept of death. How can war affect women? Women often take on larger economic roles in wartime. They must find ways to compensate for their husband's military deployment or unemployment. Those in war zones must search for food, water, medicine, and fuel despite shortages. Some women in war zones are forced into prostitution to provide for their family. Famine and stress cause increased stillbirth and early infant death. AIDS risk increases for many women in war, from prostitution, husbands who return from military duty with HIV, or rape. What is genocide? Genocide is any number of acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group, according to the United Nations. Others include political and social groups in ...
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Reflection of The Things they carried by Tim O'Brien



As evident in Tim O'Brien’s work, war is among the most trying episodes that one
can endure in life. It is among the events that leave an indelible mark on an individual’s life.
This experience is more pronounced especially when an individual is at the war front. During
such a period, people learn a plethora of lessons that are aimed at improving their survival as
well as keeping them focused and undistracted from the mission. This is because failure to do
so can result in long term regrets, shame and guilt even after the culmination of the war as is
the case of Jimmy Cross. However, among the most important lessons that can be learned
from engaging in war is setting one’s priorities right, especially with regards to what one
should carry not only during war periods but also during their day to day life. Learning to set
priorities is a lesson that one learns seamlessly since war trains people on how to remain
focused and avoid anything that can result in distraction (O'brien, 2009). Thus, what to carry
and what to prioritize during the war are determined by necessity and not want or pleasure.
Things they carried by Tim O'Brien has been resourceful to me. The text has provided
noteworthy lessons to me, especially regarding setting my priorities right. This paper is a
midterm project in which I shall consider what I carry with me daily, including tangible,
physical and emotional things. The essay will seek to answer several questions, including
what I carry physically and emotionally, ways in which I carry items out of necessity and
how what I carry might change if I served overseas during a 21st-century war, among other
From Things they carried by Tim O'Brien, I have realized that there are several things
that we unconsciously carry daily. However, these things play a great role in our lives. In
most cases, they communicate our level of preparedness in handling various challenges that
we are likely to encounter in our day to day lives. I am not an exception. After a thorough



reflection, I have realized that there are certain things that I carry on a daily basis even though
in most cases I do so unconsciously.
To start with, a pen and a notebook are among the things that I carry physically with
me on a daily basis. Generally, I carry a pen whose ink does not evaporate even during the
sunny days. In order to ensure that I carry a pen every day,...

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