Due date: 6th December
1. Executive Summary
The most powerful finding in the study of evolutionary psychology is gender
differences, which are mainly manifested in temperament and cognitive ability. Gender
differences in temperament and cognitive abilities may be the product of evolution,
which are the roots of both sexes engaging in different professional activities (Savić,
2007). In fact, there are many differences in temperament and cognitive abilities
between men and women, and there are mainly those that have an impact on
professional activities. Firstly, competition and domination. Male prefer to participate
in competition than women, and when competitive factors are added to the task, male's
behavioral motivation is enhanced (Tiefer & Kring, 1995). Secondly, male prefer
sexive behaviors to female, and gain power, influence, or resources through these
actions to achieve or maintain a relatively high status. Thirdly, take risks. Men are more
adventurous than women in physical or social terms. For example, in racing, diving,
gliding and other activities, the proportion of men is higher. In the risky occupational
field, the proportion of women is also lower (Tiefer & Kring, 1995). Fourthly, social
orientation. Women are more “human-oriented, more sensitive to relationships with
others, and men are more “object-oriented”, they are more concerned with job
performance, skills, independence and overcoming others (Tiefer & Kring, 1995).
Gender differences in competition, domination, risk-taking, society and various
cognitive abilities can have great impacts on career interests and career choices.
In the sports industry dominated by competition, dominance, and risk-taking, male
athletes are clearly receiving more attention and even preferential treatment than female
athletes. Based on the discrimination of tennis player Serena Williams remonstrates,
this paper analyzes the impact of gender inequality on organizational behavior
(Litchfield et al, 2018). Serena Williams's move at the women's singles final of the US
Open in early September sparked widespread debate. 20-year-old Japanese player
Osaka Naomi defeated her idol Serena Williams to win the championship with a total
score of 2:0 (Litchfield et al, 2018). However, Serena Williams had a fierce dispute
with the referee because she suspected that the referee had unfairly sentenced her three
times and that there was gender discrimination (Litchfield et al, 2018). The two sides
were out of control, and the chaos on the field caused the game to be interrupted.
For players and referees, different identities lead them to different perspectives. There
are many disputes and differences in the tennis world today, whether it is the ATP Men's
Tour and the WTA Women's Tour, or the Grand Slam and Low Level events. Whether
all tennis matches should be the same as the United States, with five wins and three
wins; should male athletes, like female athletes, stipulate high temperature lines to
determine whether the competition is going on; should athletes be allowed to dress
freely, for example, Wimbledon Championships strictly require athletes to wear white
clothes (Litchfield et al, 2018). The French Open has no regulations, but Serena
Williams used to wear black tights on the French Open. She was officially criticized.
Whether a female athlete can change a jersey at a specific position on the court like a
male athlete, need a fair determination. The sports industry needs a professional
supervisor to solve these problems. He is neither an athlete nor a referee. His task is to
ensure the fairness and fairness of the game from the perspective of a third party.
Psychologists define emotion as a complex pattern of physical and mental changes,
including physical arousal, sensation, cognitive processes, and behavioral responses,
which are responses to a unique situation perceived by the individual. People from
individualistic cultures are more likely to express their negative emotions than from
collectivist cultures. In order to analyze the impact of gender inequality on
organizational behavior, this paper also introduces the concept of Stress. Stress is a
reaction mode. When a stimulus event breaks the balance and load capacity of an
organism, or exceeds the individual's ability, it is reflected in stress. Anticipatory
coping means that coping behavior can occur before a potential stressful event. Problem
pointing (directly facing the problem) and emotional pointing (to alleviate the
discomfort caused by stress) are two different solutions. There are two ways to cope
with stress psychologically. One is to re-evaluate the nature of the stressor itself, and
the other is to reorganize your cognitive structure of stress response.
Transactional theory of stress explains how stressful demands are primarily perceived
and appraised, and how people respond to these perceptions.
The table shows that coping can involve many different types of activities to deal with
stress, these activities can be grouped into four broad categories based on two
dimensions. The first dimension refers to the method of coping (behavioral vs
Cognitive), and the second dimension focuses on coping (through problem solving vs
regulations of emotions)
There are four distinct responses that correspond to our primary behavioral tendencies.
These are: Fight, Flight, Freeze
Stress diagram with impact on body, mind, behavior and emotions
Consequences of Stress are as follows. Physiological Symptoms mean that specialists
in the health and medical sciences. Psychological Symptoms mean that the simplest
and most obvious psychological effect. Behavioral Symptoms mean that changes in
productivity, absence and turnover
3. OB and You
3.1 Reflection on Assessments/Exercises
With the development of society and the increasingly fierce competition, the
completion of many tasks has increasingly relied on collective wisdom and strength.
As the “only child” in China, the concept of teamwork is unfamiliar to me. In fact, team
building requires personal benefits to be realized through the realization of team
benefits. This requires members of the team to have a high level of professional ethics
and teamwork. In this assessment, the deepest feeling I feel is team awareness. A team
is the lowest-level organization that can produce positive synergies through the joint
efforts of its members. The combat effectiveness of a team depends not only on the
level of each member, but also on the closeness of collaboration and cooperation
between members and members, and the platform that the team provides to members
is also crucial.
Secondly, the same purpose as our group presentation, I also gained insights about
gender discrimination in this assignment. The number of women in higher education in
the world is increasing, and the number is getting closer to men. However, even though
women have the same higher education and the same workplace experience, in the
business world, women at the top of the company are still very rare (Brewer, Mitchell
& Weber, 2002). The number of women employed is unprecedented, but the two major
gaps between genders still exist: Firstly, the pay gap. Even with the same qualifications,
from the same background, there is still a pay gap between men and women (Brewer,
Mitchell & Weber, 2002). The second is the gap in leadership positions. No matter from
what angle, the ratio of male to female in the workplace is unbalanced. Although
organizational behavior analyzes the impact of gender differences on organizational
behavior from a physiological and psychological perspective, gender inequality in the
field of work is due to the fact that some corporate systems and corporate structures
were designed primarily for male. Not only in the sports world, companies also have to
make adjustments to make them more flexible, innovative, and more contemporary, in
order to better adapt to today's gender-diverse workplace.
3.2 Description of Job experience that links to an OB concept
The success or failure of the retail and catering industries is largely determined by its
level of service, which has the lowest attendant income and the highest liquidity (Lewis
& Fagenson-Eland, 1998). Reputation, which in turn affects business performance. I
used to work part-time at Starbucks. I found that Starbucks used a two-factor model of
organizational behavior very well. Health care is the factor about work conditions and
environment, including remuneration package, management level, physical work
environment, interpersonal relationships and company policy (Poulin & Boivin, 2000).
Incentive is the factor about the work, including work challenges, work achievement,
development of job, opportunities for promotion and personal success. Firstly, the
Starbucks work environment is comfortable, and it has a working atmosphere that
makes people feel relaxed and happy. In addition, Starbucks' salary is better than its
peers. Secondly, for incentives, Starbucks encourages employees to express ideas and
taking employees’ suggestions seriously, which reflects a kind of respect for employees,
thus enhancing their sense of ownership.
4. OB and the world
I chose a case in which American universities discriminate against Chinese and Asian
students. According to a Princeton University study, Asian students need 140 points
higher than whites to be admitted to the same university in a college entrance exam
with a total score of 1600. The five most famous high school Asian students in New
York City account for a high proportion. For example, the most famous Stuyvesant
High School, the proportion of Asian students is 72.5% (Tsai, 2008). New York City
Mayor has therefore requested changes in the law and admissions policies, thereby
reducing the proportion of Asian students. No country is perfect, and no system or
society can handle affairs perfectly, as is the United States. If countries can interfere
with each other, then on certain issues, Asian governments have reason to pressure the
United States to improve.
I also chose Baltimore resident Clifford to be accused of rape six times, but four times
without a case of conviction. It is generally believed that the so-called "fair trial" is
more important than arresting and punishing real criminals. The United States has such
a judicial rule: the jury should not hear other crimes and allegations involving the
accused (Ogren, 2015). The reason is that if the jury hears the murder of the accused
committing other horrendous crimes (such as rape or theft), the jury may assume that
the accused is guilty, even if he has not committed murder, the jury will convict him.
Facts have proved that this principle has many loopholes and has led to many serious
In the third case I chose Affirmative Action. The so-called Affirmative Action was born
in the 1960s. An administrative order against discrimination, which began in 1961 with
President Kennedy, was later revised and became an important bill affecting countless
Americans today. In the early 70s of the last century, the University of California, Davis
Medical School proposed a dual enrollment plan to increase the proportion of
vulnerable groups (Friedenberg, 1997). Alan Bakke, a white man who filed an
application with the school's medical school, was rejected. Bakke believes that the
enrollment plan violates the equal protection clause and treats people differently. In
fact, the University of California has the right to implement special policies that
diversify student sources and campus academic environments. This does not violate the
equality protection clause. Races can be considered as a factor when recruiting
freshmen, but race cannot be the only factor.
Brewer, N., Mitchell, P., & Weber, N. (2002). Gender role, organization status, and
conflict management styles. International Journal of Conflict Management, 13(1),
Friedenberg, R. M. (1997). Affirmative action. Radiology, 202(1), 246-255.
Lewis, A. E., & Fagenson-Eland, E. A. (1998). The influence of gender and
organization level on perceptions of leadership behaviors: a self and supervisor
comparison. Sex Roles, 39(5-6), 479-502.
Litchfield, C., Kavanagh, E., Osborne, J., & Jones, I. (2018). Social media and the
politics of gender, race and identity: the case of serena williams. European Journal
for Sport and Society, 1-17.
Ogren, C. A. (2015). Geraldine j. clifford. those good gertrudes: a social history of
women teachers in america. History of Education Quarterly, 55(4), 500–503.
Poulin, F., & Boivin, M. (2000). Reactive and proactive aggression: evidence of a twofactor model. Psychological Assessment, 12(2), 115-22.
Savić, L. (2007). Commitment to gender policy, commitment to organization and
innovative behavior: some unexpected linkages in korea. International Journal of
Public Administration, 30(12-14), 1485-1502.
Tiefer, L., & Kring, B. (1995). Gender and the organization of sexual
behavior. Psychiatr Clin North Am, 18(1), 25-37.
Tsai, J. (2008). 'too many Asians at this school': racialized perceptions and identity
formation. Social Science Electronic Publishing.
Journal Portfolio Guidelines
Sections and Instructions
First, it will consist of small assignments, like describing your job
and linking it to a relevant framework
And taking photographs that capture important concepts (~5 -7)
Other things I may assign…
Secondly, you should include the results of any of the exercises
and assessments that we do in the class. It is particularly
important to do the Learning about yourself exercise that
accompanies each chapter. While I do not expect you to reflect
deeply about each exercise, it is worthwhile for you to briefly
outline your thoughts on the results and what might gain from
this knowledge. Not every exercise need be included in the
journal, but you should be able to present a portfolio that
captures knowledge about yourself, and some of these exercises
should display an authentic attempt at reflection.
Third, it will contain your individual executive summary of your
• Getting creative
• Other interesting links you wish to explore
• OB and you
• Reflection on Assessments/Exercises
• Description of an experience that links to an OB concept (mini case)
• OB and the world
• 3 short articles summaries connecting OB to a news story
• Upon reflection
• We are all treaty people
• As it is personal you have some freedom in formatting (i.e. not overly concerned about APA)
• Try and link a picture to an important concept
• There is no wrong way to do this, the picture can be simple and meaningful to
you or conceptual and interesting to you
• Encourages a different way of thinking about concepts
• Provide a short explanation of your reasoning one or two sentences
• Approximately ~ 5 pictures
• Make connections between material and…
• Cultural content
• Provide a short explanation of your reasoning one or two sentences
Assessments and exercises
OB and you
Assessments and exercise
• In class we will do a number of exercises each of these provides an opportunity to reflect on how
the material in the course relates to your experience
• The textbook and the slides associated with the text book have a number of assessments and
learning about your self exercises. Each of these provide an opportunity to learn about yourself
and your interaction with others.
• There is no real minimum or maximum for this. You could do technically do all them, and do so in
a manner the exercise has no value, or you could do one and have it be of tremendous value.
• You might do many small multiple write ups, or you may do one bigger one.
• ~ 7 exercises and/or assessments is probably the minimum (2/3 exercises and 4/5 assessments)
• Describe an event in your life where the concepts from OB help you make
sense of what occurred
OB and the world
• Briefly summarize and connect material from the course to articles dealing with course concepts. This
summary does not have to be extensive and I would expect the total number of sentences to be
between ~5 and 10. A couple of sentences describing what the article is about, a couple of sentences
that connect the material to the article, and a concluding sentence. You may reference more than one
concept, and certainly some concepts may need more explanation.
• You should do at least three articles, one should relate to a chapter from the first part of the course,
one should related to a chapter from the second part of the course, and one can relate to the case you
are preparing as part of a group.
• Doing so effectively does a number of things, first it provides a way to study the material, second it helps
you use material to make sense of events, third it forces you to engage with current events.
• Ideally you find an interesting article and make a clear connection, when this is done effectively it is
something that could be used in class as an interesting example of for discussion.
• Please have a copy of the article in the appendix.
Good sources of articles
• The guardian
• Vanity Fair
• Globe and mail
• The economist
• Fast Company
• The library
• The Walrus
Review portfolio/journal from 2303
• Review your portfolio from 2303
• 4 months later anything that makes you think
• Anything that could help you answer a question for an interview
• I am not looking for a long write up, but there should be one thing that will
enhance your answer to questions
• If you did not take 2303 this fall, this is not required, though reflecting briefly
on that material may be beneficial
We are all treaty people
We are all treaty people
• Find the name of the place where you were born (or the nearest community) and learn
what it was called and why by the first nation community in the area
• If you are not from Canada, you can choose the place where you now live, where you first
arrived, or where you most want to visit
• Then with your group, put the names of those places on a map of Canada.
• If many members are from the same place, substitute places you have visited that are your
favorite, where you want to visit, want live, or live now
• This map should be the last slide in your group presentation. When we discuss your
presentation this slide should be the background.
• Include your group’s map in your portfolio. You are free to reflect on this exercise, but it
is not explicitly required.
• All assignments will be handed in via a drop box on the course
website. Only assignments submitted as a pdf and that begin with
your last name first will be evaluated.
• For example if I were to complete an assignment it would be
stecderyk(title of assignment).
• I would also appreciate it if you would include a picture of yourself
in these files, so it is easier for me to learn your names.
• If available, you must also include the evaluation form as the last
page of your pdf.
3rd Canadian Edition
Chapter 10: Are you an active Listener?
Chapter 11: Interdependence
Learning Outcome #2
Learning Outcome #2
Chapter 12: Political Skill
Learning Outcome #1
Leader-Member Exchange Quality
Chapter 13: Initiating Structure
Chapter 13: Consideration
Learning Outcome #5
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