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MGT 323 Saudi Electronic Chapter 11 Failing to Plan Is Planning to Fail Paper

Saudi electronic university

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“Failing to plan is planning to fail”, is the proverb that affect project planning. Based on this proverb you are required to answer the questions given below. For better understanding, please refer your textbook chapter-11 and answer accordingly.

1. List few consequences, which arises due to poor planning, and explain them in your words. Give an example of any product, which failed, in the market due to poor planning. (2.5 Marks)

2. Do you think systematic planning help in setting goals and making decisions? Give reasons to support your answer by choosing any event (e.g. product launch, conducting exhibitions etc). (2.5 Marks)

3. Describe the above given proverb with an example based on your understanding. (2 Marks)

4. Identify the type of planning required to establish effective monitoring and controlling in the display of products in Supermarkets and explain the process with any example of your choice. (Refer Pg-413, Figure-11-1 for your understanding). (3 Marks)

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c11.qxd 1/21/09 2:52 PM Page 411 11 Related Case Studies (from Kerzner/Project Management Case Studies, 3rd Edition) • Quantum Telecom • Concrete Masonry • Corporation* • Margo Company • Project Overrun • The Two-Boss Problem • Denver International • Airport (DIA) Planning Related Workbook Exercises (from Kerzner/Project Management Workbook and PMP ®/CAPM ® Exam Study Guide, 10th Edition) • The Statement of Work • Technology Forecasting • The Noncompliance Project • Multiple Choice Exam • Crossword Puzzle on Scope • Management PMBOK® Guide, 4th Edition, Reference Section for the PMP® Certification Exam • Scope • Management 11.0 INTRODUCTION PMBOK® Guide, 4th Edition Chapter 5 Scope Management 5.2 Define Scope The most important responsibilities of a project manager are planning, integrating, and executing plans. Almost all projects, because of their relatively short duration and often prioritized control of resources, require formal, detailed planning. The integration of the planning activities is * Case Study also appears in Workbook. 411 c11.qxd 1/21/09 2:52 PM Page 412 412 PLANNING necessary because each functional unit may develop its own planning documentation with little regard for other functional units. Planning, in general, can best be described as the function of selecting the enterprise objectives and establishing the policies, procedures, and programs necessary for achieving them. Planning in a project environment may be described as establishing a predetermined course of action within a forecasted environment. The project’s requirements set the major milestones. If line managers cannot commit because the milestones are perceived as unrealistic, the project manager may have to develop alternatives, one of which may be to move the milestones. Upper-level management must become involved in the selection of alternatives. The project manager is the key to successful project planning. It is desirable that the project manager be involved from project conception through execution. Project planning must be systematic, flexible enough to handle unique activities, disciplined through reviews and controls, and capable of accepting multifunctional inputs. Successful project managers realize that project planning is an iterative process and must be performed throughout the life of the project. One of the objectives of project planning is to completely define all ® work required (possibly through the development of a documented project PMBOK Guide, 4th Edition plan) so that it will be readily identifiable to each project participant. This 5.2 Define Scope is a necessity in a project environment because: ● ● ● If the task is well understood prior to being performed, much of the work can be preplanned. If the task is not understood, then during the actual task execution more knowledge is gained that, in turn, leads to changes in resource allocations, schedules, and priorities. The more uncertain the task, the greater the amount of information that must be processed in order to ensure effective performance. These considerations are important in a project environment because each project can be different from the others, requiring a variety of different resources, but having to be performed under time, cost, and performance constraints with little margin for error. Figure 11–1 identifies the type of project planning required to establish an effective monitoring and control system. The boxes at the top represent the planning activities, and the lower boxes identify the “tracking” or monitoring of the planned activities. There are two proverbs that affect project planning: ● ● Failing to plan is planning to fail. The primary benefit of not planning is that failure will then come as a complete surprise rather than being preceded by periods of worry and depression. Without proper planning, programs and projects can start off “behind the eight ball.” Consequences of poor planning include: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Project initiation without defined requirements Wild enthusiasm Disillusionment Chaos Search for the guilty Punishment of the innocent Promotion of the nonparticipants FIGURE 11–1. SOW WBS • TIME • COST • PERFORMANCE • RELIABILITY • MAINTAINABILITY • EFFECTIVENESS SYSTEM REPORTS SPECS The project planning and control system. FEEDBACK PAYOFF TABLES STATES OF NATURE MANAGEMENT DECISION-MAKING • COMPANY LEVEL • SYSTEM LEVEL GOALS/OBJECTIVES TIME/COST/PERFORMANCE TRACKING PERT/CPM NETWORK SCHEDULING TIME BUDGETS MASTER/DETAILED SCHEDULES 2:52 PM WORK DESCRIPTION AND INSTRUCTIONS 1/21/09 STRATEGIES c11.qxd Page 413 $ 413 c11.qxd 1/21/09 2:52 PM Page 414 414 PLANNING There are four basic reasons for project planning: ● ● ● ● To eliminate or reduce uncertainty To improve efficiency of the operation To obtain a better understanding of the objectives To provide a basis for monitoring and controlling work Planning is a continuous process of making entrepreneurial decisions with an eye to the future, and methodically organizing the effort needed to carry out these decisions. Furthermore, systematic planning allows an organization of set goals. The alternative to systematic planning is decision-making based on history. This generally results in reactive management leading to crisis management, conflict management, and fire fighting. 11.1 VALIDATING THE ASSUMPTIONS Planning begins with an understanding of the assumptions. Quite often, the assumptions are made by marketing and sales personnel and then approved by senior management as part of the project selection and approval process. The expectations for the final results are based upon the assumptions made. Why is it that, more often than not, the final results of a project do not satisfy senior management’s expectations? At the beginning of a project, it is impossible to ensure that the benefits expected by senior management will be realized at project completion. While project length is a critical factor, the real culprit is changing assumptions. Assumptions must be documented at project initiation using the project charter as a possible means. Throughout the project, the project manager must revalidate and challenge the assumptions. Changing assumptions may mandate that the project be terminated or redirected toward a different set of objectives. A project management plan is based upon the assumptions described in the project charter. But there are additional assumptions made by the team that are inputs to the project management plan.1 One of the primary reasons companies use a project charter is that project managers were most often brought on board well after the project selection process and approval process were completed. As a result, project managers were needed to know what assumptions were considered. Enterprise Environmental Factors These are assumptions about the external environmental conditions that can affect the success of the project, such as interest rates, market conditions, changing customer demands and requirements, changes in technology, and even government policies. 1. See A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge®, 4th ed., 2008, Figure 4-4. c11.qxd 1/21/09 2:52 PM Page 415 415 General Planning Organizational Process Assets These are assumptions about present or future company assets that can impact the success of the project such as the capability of your enterprise project management methodology, the project management information system, forms, templates, guidelines, checklists, and the ability to capture and use lessons learned data and best practices. 11.2 GENERAL PLANNING PMBOK® Guide, 4th Edition Chapter 5 Scope Management 1.6 General Management Knowledge and Skills ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Planning is determining what needs to be done, by whom, and by when, in order to fulfill one’s assigned responsibility. There are nine major components of the planning phase: ● Objective: a goal, target, or quota to be achieved by a certain time Program: the strategy to be followed and major actions to be taken in order to achieve or exceed objectives Schedule: a plan showing when individual or group activities or accomplishments will be started and/or completed Budget: planned expenditures required to achieve or exceed objectives Forecast: a projection of what will happen by a certain time Organization: design of the number and kinds of positions, along with corresponding duties and responsibilities, required to achieve or exceed objectives Policy: a general guide for decision-making and individual actions Procedure: a detailed method for carrying out a policy Standard: a level of individual or group performance defined as adequate or acceptable An item that has become important in recent years is documenting assumptions that go into the objectives or the project/subsidiary plans. As projects progress, even for shortterm projects, assumptions can change because of the economy, technological advances, or market conditions. These changes can invalidate original assumptions or require that new assumptions be made. These changes could also mandate that projects be canceled. Companies are now validating assumptions during gate review meetings. Project charters now contain sections for documenting assumptions. Several of these factors require additional comment. Forecasting what will happen may not be easy, especially if predictions of environmental reactions are required. For example, planning is customarily defined as either strategic, tactical, or operational. Strategic planning is generally for five years or more, tactical can be for one to five years, and operational is the here and now of six months to one year. Although most projects are operational, they can be considered as strategic, especially if spin-offs or follow-up work is promising. Forecasting also requires an understanding of strengths and weaknesses as found in: ● ● The competitive situation Marketing c11.qxd 1/21/09 2:52 PM Page 416 416 PLANNING ● ● ● ● ● Research and development Production Financing Personnel The management structure If project planning is strictly operational, then these factors may be clearly definable. However, if strategic or long-range planning is necessary, then the future economic outlook can vary, say, from year to year, and replanning must be done at regular intervals because the goals and objectives can change. (The procedure for this can be seen in Figure 11–1.) The last three factors, policies, procedures, and standards, can vary from project to project because of their uniqueness. Each project manager can establish project policies, provided that they fall within the broad limits set forth by top management. Project policies must often conform closely to company policies, and are usually similar in nature from project to project. Procedures, on the other hand, can be drastically different from project to project, even if the same activity is performed. For example, the signing off of manufacturing plans may require different signatures on two selected projects even though the same end-item is being produced. Planning varies at each level of the organization. At the individual level, planning is required so that cognitive simulation can be established before irrevocable actions are taken. At the working group or functional level, planning must include: ● ● ● ● ● Agreement on purpose Assignment and acceptance of individual responsibilities Coordination of work activities Increased commitment to group goals Lateral communications At the organizational or project level, planning must include: ● ● ● ● ● Recognition and resolution of group conflict on goals Assignment and acceptance of group responsibilities Increased motivation and commitment to organizational goals Vertical and lateral communications Coordination of activities between groups The logic of planning requires answers to several questions in order for the alternatives and constraints to be fully understood. A list of questions would include: ● Prepare environmental analysis Where are we? ● How and why did we get here? ● c11.qxd 1/21/09 2:52 PM Page 417 417 General Planning ● Set objectives Is this where we want to be? ● Where would we like to be? In a year? In five years? List alternative strategies ● Where will we go if we continue as before? ● Is that where we want to go? ● How could we get to where we want to go? List threats and opportunities ● What might prevent us from getting there? ● What might help us to get there? Prepare forecasts ● Where are we capable of going? ● What do we need to take us where we want to go? Select strategy portfolio ● What is the best course for us to take? ● What are the potential benefits? ● What are the risks? Prepare action programs ● What do we need to do? ● When do we need to do it? ● How will we do it? ● Who will do it? Monitor and control ● Are we on course? If not, why? ● What do we need to do to be on course? ● Can we do it? ● ● ● ● ● ● ● One of the most difficult activities in the project environment is to keep the planning on target. These procedures can assist project managers during planning activities: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Let functional managers do their own planning. Too often operators are operators, planners are planners, and never the twain shall meet. Establish goals before you plan. Otherwise short-term thinking takes over. Set goals for the planners. This will guard against the nonessentials and places your effort where there is payoff. Stay flexible. Use people-to-people contact, and stress fast response. Keep a balanced outlook. Don’t overreact, and position yourself for an upturn. Welcome top-management participation. Top management has the capability to make or break a plan, and may well be the single most important variable. Beware of future spending plans. This may eliminate the tendency to underestimate. Test the assumptions behind the forecasts. This is necessary because professionals are generally too optimistic. Do not depend solely on one set of data. c11.qxd 1/21/09 2:52 PM Page 418 418 PLANNING ● ● Don’t focus on today’s problems. Try to get away from crisis management and fire fighting. Reward those who dispel illusions. Avoid the Persian messenger syndrome (i.e., beheading the bearer of bad tidings). Reward the first to come forth with bad news. 11.3 LIFE-CYCLE PHASES Project planning takes place at two levels. The first level is the corporate cultural approach; the second method is the individual’s approach. The corpoChapter 2 Project Life Cycle and rate cultural approach breaks the project down into life-cycle phases, such as Organization those shown in Table 2–6. The life-cycle phase approach is not an attempt to 2.1 Characteristics of Project put handcuffs on the project manager but to provide a methodology for uniPhases formity in project planning. Many companies, including government agencies, prepare checklists of activities that should be considered in each phase. These checklists are for consistency in planning. The project manager can still exercise his own planning initiatives within each phase. A second benefit of life-cycle phases is control. At the end of each phase there is a meeting of the project manager, sponsor, senior management, and even the customer, to assess the accomplishments of this life-cycle phase and to get approval for the next phase. These meetings are often called critical design reviews, “on-off ramps,” and “gates.” In some companies, these meetings are used to firm up budgets and schedules for the followon phases. In addition to monetary considerations, life-cycle phases can be used for manpower deployment and equipment/facility utilization. Some companies go so far as to prepare project management policy and procedure manuals where all information is subdivided according to life-cycle phasing. Life-cycle phase decision points eliminate the problem where project managers do not ask for phase funding, but rather ask for funds for the whole project before the true scope of the project is known. Several companies have even gone so far as to identify the types of decisions that can be made at each end-of-phase review meeting. They include: PMBOK® Guide, 4th Edition ● ● ● ● Proceed with the next phase based on an approved funding level Proceed to the next phase but with a new or modified set of objectives Postpone approval to proceed based on a need for additional information Terminate project Consider a company that utilizes the following life-cycle phases: ● ● ● ● ● ● Conceptualization Feasibility Preliminary planning Detail planning Execution Testing and commissioning c11.qxd 1/21/09 2:52 PM Page 419 419 Life-Cycle Phases The conceptualization phase includes brainstorming and common sense and involves two critical factors: (1) identify and define the problem, and (2) identify and define potential solutions. In a brainstorming session, all ideas are recorded and none are discarded. The brainstorming session works best if there is no formal authority present and if it lasts thirty to sixty minutes. Sessions over sixty minutes will produce ideas that may resemble science fiction. The feasibility study phase considers the technical aspects of the conceptual alternatives and provides a firmer basis on which to decide whether to undertake the project. The purpose of the feasibility phase is to: ● ● ● Plan the project development and implementation activities. Estimate the probable elapsed time, staffing, and equipment requirements. Identify the probable costs and consequences of investing in the new project. If practical, the feasibility study results should evaluate the alternative conceptual solutions along with associated benefits and costs. The objective of this step is to provide management with the predictable results of implementing a specific project and to provide generalized project requirements. This, in the form of a feasibility study report, is used as the basis on which to decide whether to proceed with the costly requirements, development, and implementation phases. User involvement during the feasibility study is critical. The user must supply much of the required effort and information, and, in addition, must be able to judge the impact of alternative approaches. Solutions must be operationally, technically, and economically feasible. Much of the economic evaluation must be substantiated by the user. Therefore, the primary user must be highly qualified and intimately familiar with the workings of the organization and should come from the line operation. The feasibility study also deals with the technical aspects of the proposed project and requires the development of conceptual solutions. Considerable experience and technical expertise are required to gather the proper information, analyze it, and reach practical conclusions. Improper technical or operating decisions made during this step may go undetected or unchallenged throughout the remainder of the process. In the worst case, such an error could result in the termination of a valid project—or the continuation of a project that is not economically or technically feasible. In the feasibility study phase, it is necessary to define the project’s basic approaches and its boundaries or scope. A typical feasibility study checklist might include: ● Summary level Evaluate alternatives Evaluate market potential Evaluate cost effectiveness Evaluate producibility Evaluate technical base Detail level ● A more specific determination of the problem ● Analysis of the state-of-the-art technology ● ● ● ● ● ● c11.qxd 1/21/09 2:52 PM P ...
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Course Name: Project Management

Student’s Name:

Course Code: MGT323

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Semester: II

CRN: 20870
Academic Year: 1440/1441 H




Failing to Plan Is Planning To Fail
1. List few consequences, which arise due to poor planning, and explain them in your
a) Poorly managing time
A lazy atmosphere is expected to be created among team members working on a project
in the event the schedule to be followed is not set out (Papke-Shields, & Boyer-Wright,
2017). This will mean they have no clear picture of what to do thus the project will not be
completed on time.
b) Project objectives will be poorly defined
In the event the planning is not done right, the team members will not know what they are
working on and as a result will not work efficiently towards the success of the project.
c) May result to dissatisfied customers
A business or organization is set to record huge losses in the event its customers are
dissatisfied with the work done due to poor planning. Additionally, the project will have
failed in nurturing good relations with potential clients.
d) Stakeholders withdrawing support
Stakeholders often support a project based on the plan tabled before them and from this
they are able to draw certain expectations. Poor planning is likely to result to negative
results and thus stakeholders will not be willing to sponsor a project they aren’t sure of its
Betamax is a good example of a product that failed due to lack of proper planning.
It was introduced to the market in the 1970s by the Sony company but little follow up



was made on how to improv...

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