Writing
The University of Chicago Shlieren Optic Calculations Project Research Paper

The University of Chicago

Question Description

Help me study for my Physics class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.

I havnt done the setup for this project yet however I also needed to double check the parts I have selected for my setup and doing the research paper.

- I need to know if I did select the right lens for the camera, so need to show calculations for that.

- After I get confirmation and calculations on the lens can you sent me a reply and I have resources in the word doc for doing the research paper.

- I will also attach a PDF for the format of how the research paper should be.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

Part Mirror Camera Telephoto Lense 3w LED bulb Total Price Description $75 Focal length 160mm $250 Cannon EOS Rebel T1i EOS 500D 15.1MP $110 Cannon EF 75-300 mm f/4-5.6 III $2.50 $438 Parts List: (1) Mirror: https://shop.opticsplanet.com/cassini-spherical-primary-mirror.html?_iv_code=ZC-TASPHRP-PM-160&utm_source=google&utm_medium=cpc&utm_campaign=plusboxbeta&gclsrc=aw.ds&&gclid=Cj0KCQjw9ZzzBRCKARIsANwXaeIkEA_zC6HdHGRpvntppMSCAAlccbs TMV5edDi4VFLa4xEzQLyCz8saAut_EALw_wcB Description: Diameter is 160 mm Has long focal length of 1300mm. -----------------------(2) Camera with detachable lenses: --------------------------(3) Telephoto Lens: Max focal length of 300mm. --------------------------(4) Razor Blade: Small sharp edge object. ( Will be hard to find) Point Light source: ( Smaller and brighter source of light= better results). 3W LED. Have it near to where the light is generated as possible, intensity scales with 1/r^2. FOR THE PARTS I AM PLANING TO USE FOR THIS PROJECT, VIEW EXCEL FILE IT HAS LINKS ON EACH ITEMS NAME AS WELL. • First thing I needed help with is the right selection of lens, showing it with calculations. --------------------------------- Abstract: This paper describes a research study done in the University of Texas at Tyler by an undergrad student and supportive faculty advisor to further understand how ultrasonic standing wave works. Standing wave is when there are two wavelengths both having the same amplitude and frequency: however, traveling in the opposite direction. To further understand this study, the research team put together a setup to demonstrate schlieren optics. Introduction: Figure1: Setup overview Work Cited: https://www.instructables.com/id/Phone-Camera-Schlieren-Optical-Setup/ Figure 1: https://sciencedemonstrations.fas.harvard.edu/presentations/schlieren-optics https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=px3oVGXr4mo https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/tunvschlrn.html Step by step and parts Website: (Using a DSLR Camera). https://www.instructables.com/id/Schlieren-Imaging-How-to-see-air-flow/ Technical Report Writing Guide for Students in Mechanical Engineering The University of Texas at Tyler Fall 2019. Version 1.0 This student Technical Report writing guide contains the adopted examples, approved for the reuse by the original author, Dr. William Durfee, from the Department of Mechanical Engineering (ME) at the University of Minnesota (http://www.me.umn.edu/education/undergraduate/writing/MESWGLab.1.5.pdf). The adopted examples were further modified by Dr. Shih-Feng Chou, Dr. Nelson Fumo, and Dr. Hussain Rizvi from the ME Department at the University of Texas at Tyler (UT Tyler). The ME Department at UT Tyler approves the following guidelines on 8/22/2019 for courses required technical writing. Table of Contents 1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................. 1 2. Writing a Report ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 2.1. Report Elements ................................................................................................................................................. 2 2.1.1. Title Page .............................................................................................................................................................. 2 2.1.2. Abstract................................................................................................................................................................. 2 2.1.3. Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 3 2.1.4. Setup and Procedures/Methodology ............................................................................................................... 4 2.1.5. Results ................................................................................................................................................................... 6 2.1.6. Discussion ............................................................................................................................................................ 8 2.1.7. Conclusions ........................................................................................................................................................10 2.1.8. References ..........................................................................................................................................................10 2.1.9. Appendix ............................................................................................................................................................10 3. Writing Tips ............................................................................................................................................................... 10 4. Common Mistakes .................................................................................................................................................... 11 5. Examples of Grading Rubrics ................................................................................................................................ 12 6. Example Reports ...................................................................................................................................................... 12 i 1. Introduction Technical writing is both science and art. No matter how good an experiment or how brilliant a discovery is, it is worthless unless the information is communicated to other people. This communication must be as clear and unambiguous as possible. Usually, the general objective of a report, or a technical paper, in Engineering and Science disciplines is to communicate the ideas and information gained in an experimental work. The care and skill with which the discussion and conclusion are drawn will determine the overall success of the report. An old rule in army communication always applies in report writing, which is: Tell them what you are going to tell them; tell them; and then tell them what you have told them. There are many methods and techniques available and accepted for technical writing. The method provided in this document is a very common one and is recommended as a guideline for technical report writing involving specific parts in a technical report. There can be other format and methods for technical writing based on the requirements of the organization receiving or sponsoring the written material. In that case, the writer should follow the writing guidelines set by the entity to which the communication material is intended. In addition, a course instructor might choose to keep or eliminate portions of this document, or select a completely different method, as a requirement in written material submitted by students in that particular course. 2. Writing a Report The severity of any task is lessened when you take a moment to understand the purpose of your work. Before you begin writing, establish the issues you are going to address, who you are going to address them to, and why you need to do it at all. • A lab report is: a detailed account of an experiment, its methods, results, and conclusions, which answers an engineering or scientific question. • Define your engineering or scientific question by: write down one or two primary “big picture” questions your report addresses, which become the focal point as you write your report. For example, an engineering or scientific question can be “What size of electric heating element is installed in a given water heater?” • Your audience is/are expecting the lab report to have the following purpose: Explanations Audience a. Engineers (peers): Engineers interested in similar work will base their experiment on yours. b. Instructors: Supervisors want to know about the work you have done. c. TA(s): If TA(s) is/are involved in grading, he/she can also be your audience. Purpose a. To inform: People on want you have done and what you know or have learned. b. To persuade: The audience with your answer to the engineering or scientific question by using raw data. If raw data do c. not support the answer, you must convince your audience scientifically on why the data are unexpected (avoid using “human error”). • According to the mission statement of the Mechanical Engineering Department at UT Tyler (https://www.uttyler.edu/me/chairmessage.php), the reason for our students to write the technical report well is to understand the importance on how to sell the work/results. Students sometimes have difficulty understanding what needs to be explained to the audience and what does not. Most of the time, students assume the audience knows what they know. • In addition, your instructors expect you to write technical reports not as students but with an Engineering mindset as of those who are writing it in a company. The training is to help you write better after graduation without having the need to create a bridge between college and industry writing. 1 2.1. Report Elements The following subsections show example of the elements that a lab report should consider † . In each example, BLUE indicates the required components, YELLOW are suggestions to successfully write those parts, RED are common mistakes. 2.1.1. Title Page Include course name, title of experiment, your name(s), date, where the work was performed, etc. Please consult with your Instructor on the format/template of the title page. 2.1.2. Abstract‡ • • • • • • The abstract’s purpose is to summarize the information contained in the report for someone who doesn’t have the time or resources to read the full report. In many ways, the abstract is a document all on its own; it should contain parts from each major section of your report and its major findings. 25% of the abstract should focus on the Introduction part by identifying the object of the lab and its importance; 25% on the Methods to describe what you did in the lab; 35% on the Results, which is the most important part of the abstract, containing some quantitative data; and 15% of the abstract on the implication of the results or linking its significance to other applications. Check with your instructor on format requirement of the word limit in abstract. Example: Things that can be improved from the example: (1) A more generalized sentence can be placed at the beginning to guide the reader, such as “The first law of thermodynamics deals with energy conservation for a closed volume system, which can be applied to the design and engineering of various mechanical systems.” (2) For some lab activities, information of uncertainty analysis will not be available. Students are encouraged to make effort to discuss the experimental results and the topics/theories learned in the class. (3) Statement for future work might not be needed as often time students justified human error on equipment. Rather, it is better to round up with statements on how current findings (outcomes of the experiment) answer the engineering or scientific question and/or show potential implications on other similar mechanical systems (link the significance of the results to other applications). (4) It is better to reword the ideas/statements than copy-paste them from different parts of the report. The contents in the example element are adopted from the University of Minnesota Mechanical Engineering Student Writing Guide (http://www.me.umn.edu/education/undergraduate/writing/MESWG-Lab.1.5.pdf). Comments on the example elements are generated by the ME writing committee at the University of Texas at Tyler. ‡ Abstract: Some engineering reports are required to have an abstract or an executive summary. The rule is: there can be either an executive summary or an abstract in the report but not both. The abstract describes the nature of the project/experiment, major tasks, and outcomes. It should include some background information and the circumstances leading to the project/experiment. Check with your instructor on the requirement of the abstract and its format, if applicable. † 2 2.1.3. Introduction In this section: • Describe the purposes of the lab exercise, including objectives/background/motivations. For example, describe what you are trying to find and why it is important. • Background and motivation are used to provide the reader(s) with a reason to read the report further. • Use present tense. • Example: • Things that can be improved from the example: (1) For background/theory, start from general statements then move to specific statements related to the experiment. Use only background/theory information that are supportive and/or can be justified to the experiment. Students are encouraged to do literature search to support background/theory. (2) The hypothesis that answers the engineering or scientific question may not be a specific solution (a number), but could be a specific question/statement. For example, we hypothesize that adding sodium chloride in deionized water will increase the conductivity of the solution. 3 2.1.4. Setup and Procedures/Methodology In this section: • Identify equipment and material used by name, manufacturer, and model number. A list of equipment and material in a table is acceptable, but there must be some narrative to support it. • Describe how equipment was set up and used. • Include Diagrams, Figures and Digital Photos as necessary. • Describe conditions under which the work was performed. • Describe how the results were recorded and analyzed. • Use past tense and passive voice. • Example: • Things that can be improved from the example: (1) Figure and table captions can be more detailed. For example, “Figure 1. Schematic representation of the experimental apparatus used in demonstration of the first law of thermodynamics.” and “Table 1. Equipment used in the experiment, including their corresponding manufacturer, model, and uncertainty.” (2) Hand-sketch of apparatus is not recommended. If schematic representations are required, such as a flow chart, it is expected that students work on computer-aided art designs. 4 (3) When using digital pictures for equipment, it is recommended that students work on format editing (array them) rather than just inserting a bunch of pictures and making the report extremely long. (4) Pictures should be placed if they help someone to replicate the experiment. Therefore, pictures of ancillary apparatuses such as a multimeter are not needed. (5) Avoid mentioning tools and materials that are not relevant to what is the experiment; for example, you do not have to say that you used wires (at least that is a special kind that without it the lab cannot be completed), calipers, etc. 5 2.1.5. Results In this section: • Present experimental data and results of data reduction. Include a Sample Calculation for data reduction. • Tabulate and/or graph raw and reduced/processed data (if extensive, summarize). • Just talk about your data here, Do NOT discuss data here. • Use past tense. • Example: 6 • Things that can be improved from the example: (1) This result section has several drawbacks, especially in the Table/Figure captions. For example, Table 2 caption is missing and Figure 2 caption, missing a dot at the end, can be more detailed. In addition, the results are not clearly mentioned (by value) in the text, whereas there appears to be a discussion portion at the end of the section (line 24 – 27). (2) Students are recommended to work carefully on plots done in Excel before importing them to the Word document. Use clear markers and avoid lines. Remove the frame and title generated automatically by Excel. Do not forget labels and units for the variables used in X and Y axes. 7 2.1.6. Discussion In this section: • Discussion refers to the discussion of the Results. • Review and analyze the data presented in Results section (may include additional graphical presentation). • Describe meaning, significance, and importance of the results. • Present theory, principles, relationships, equations, and generalizations supported by the results (as outlined in the Introduction). • Compare with expected results or results of others in literature (as outlined in the Introduction). • Point out exceptions or lack of correlation (explain). • Describe difficulties (if any) encountered in the experiment. • Use present tense in the discussion, past tense when describing what was done. • Example: 8 • Things that can be improved from the example: (1) In Materials Science & Manufacturing, instructor is looking for discussion/explanation of the results with understanding of the course materials, which is the science behind what you see experimentally. For example: The trend in Figure X can be explained by XYZ. Also, students are encouraged to compare the results to the literature values (e.g. our findings are consistent with X’s or in contrast to X’s findings due to reason XYZ – avoid using human error). (2) In Experimental Measurements & Techniques, past experiences showed that students tended to write about the experimental setup and procedure in the discussion section. Discussion can also include issues found during the experiment that may have affected the results. (3) If you have a hypothesis and/or engineering or scientific question to be answered in the Introduction, Discussion is the place to evaluate either it contradicts or supports the hypothesis. 9 2.1.7. Conclusions In this section: • Summarize the work done and the findings. • Connect the experimental data with theoretical background mentioned in the Introduction. • Use present tense in the statements, past tense when describing what was done. • Example: • Things that can be improved from the example: (1) Students may consider of putting future experiments, such as improvement of equipment and experimental techniques for measuring of certain property, in the Discussion. 2.1.8. References • • • List references from the literature, manuals, internet, and other external documentation. Check with your instructor on the preferences of the above sources as well as the required reference format. Every reference must be cited somewhere in the body of the report. 2.1.9. Appendix Appendix is used to support information that is too long or cumbersome for the body of the report. Some examples are: raw data (e.g. photocopies of lab notebook pages); computer printouts; extensive mathematical derivations or calculations; equipment test protocols, performance or calibration data; extensive tables, figures, photographs, and etc. For multiple appendices use Appendix A, Appendix B, Appendix C, etc. Information on Appendixes should have their own numbering and it is not sequential with the tables, figures, photographs placed in the body of the report. 3. Writing Tips • • Be concise and specific. Extra words actually detract from meaning. Ensure consistency and logical flow of the complete report as well as each paragraph individually. In the report, and each individual part, ideas should flow from general to specific and tie up to the parts preceding and succeeding it. Be professional (use third person and passive voice) and get to the point. Technical writing is not prose writing or novel writing. 10 • • • • • • Ø A BAD example of Introduction from a course project report submitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Texas at Tyler, “Technologies in XXX and YYY are very important in designing and manufacturing a ZZZ. Design and development of modern mechanical components are the ...
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Final Answer

Attached.

SHLIEREN OPTIC PROJECT

1

Schlieren Optics: Come to See Air Flow!
Course
Date

2
Abstract
This paper describes a research study done in the University of Texas at Tyler by an
undergraduate student and supportive faculty advisor to understand further how ultrasonic
standing wave works. A standing wave is when there are two wavelengths, both having the same
amplitude and frequency: however, travelling in the opposite direction. To further understand
this study, the research team put together a setup to demonstrate Schlieren Optics. In a previous
study (Campbell, J., 2017, para. 4) described Schlieren as optical inhomogeneities in a
transparent material, not necessarily visible to the human eye. Among the above mentioned
include the factors that come as a result of the refraction of light. This paper consists of a brief
introduction to this phenomenon, its applications on engineering and other industries, and an
explanation of the simple linear link that falls between the air density and the refractive index.
This paper also covers a section for the selection of the material and the procedure of setting up a
similar system under the same conditions described in this previous study.
Keywords: Children, optics, system, refractive, index, density, deflection

3
Schlieren Optics: Come to See Air Flow!
Introduction

Schlieren Optics are systems built on an optical technique with the ability to enable one to
see and measures the changes in the refractive index of either air as well as transparent media
flows. This technique has evolved from the most basic types to more advanced systems, that are
developed to bring new applications on engineering and aerospace industries, allowing not only
determine the characteristics of the airflow itself but also to evaluate how an object behaves in
specific airflow environments. As pointed in another article (Critchley, 2018), the actual
applications of Schlieren systems are: testing models of proposed aircraft and engine components
in the aerospace, checking for variations in thickness at different points across the surface of
glass panels, measuring various aspects and processes in combustion engines and determining...

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