Engineering
SURV 101 CSULA Complete This Surveying Exam

SURV 101

California State University - Los Angeles

SURV

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I’m studying for my Engineering class and need an explanation.

Please complete this surveying exam review and make sure you show all the work.

I have attached a copy of the book containing the chapters in the review.

you can use the formulas on the last page of the review to help with answers.

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SURV 101 – Exam #1 Formulas and Conversions 1 acre = 43,560 ft2 1 chain2 = (66 ft)2 1 mile = 5280 feet 1 meter = 39.37 in. tan   O / A cos   A / H a 2 + b2 = c 2 A  l  l'  CL   '  L  l  w2 L3S CS   24 P12 CP  ( P1  P) k  0.00000645 per unit length per degree F k  0.0000116 per unit length per degree C E  29, 000, 000 lb/in 2 1 bh (Triangle) 2 1 1 foot = 12 inches sin   O / H A=width(length) L AE  = (n-2)180 CT  k (T1  T ) L E  2, 000, 000 kg/cm 2 Surveying Principles and Applications NINTH EDITION Barry F. Kavanagh Seneca College, Emeritus Tom B. Mastin California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montréal Toronto Delhi Mexico City São Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo Editorial Director: Vernon R. Anthony Editorial Assistant: Nancy Kesterson Director of Marketing: David Gesell Senior Marketing Manager: Harper Coles Senior Marketing Coordinator: Alicia Wozniak Marketing Assistant: Les Roberts Senior Managing Editor: JoEllen Gohr Associate Managing Editor: Alexandrina Benedicto Wolf Production Project Manager: Maren L. Miller Production Manager: Susan Hannahs Art Director: Jayne Conte Image Permission Coordinator: Mike Lackey Photo Researcher: Kerri Wilson, PreMedia Global USA, Inc. Text Researcher: Jen Roach, PreMedia Global USA, Inc. Cover Designer: Bruce Kenselaar Full-Service Project Management: Abinaya Rajendran, Integra Software Services, Inc. Composition: Integra Software Services, Ltd. Cover and Text Printer/Bindery: Courier/Westford Text Font: 10/12, Minion Pro Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on the appropriate page within the text. Copyright © 2014, 2009, 2006 by Pearson, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458, or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290. Many of the designations by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Kavanagh, Barry F. Surveying : principles and applications.—Nineth edition / Barry F. Kavanagh, Seneca College, Emeritus, Tom B. Mastin, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo. pages cm ISBN 978-0-13-700940-4 (alk. paper)—ISBN 0-13-700940-2 (alk. paper) 1. Surveying. I. Mastin, Tom B. II. Title. TA545.K37 2014 526.9—dc23 2012027019 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 10: 0-13-700940-2 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-700940-4 Preface WHAT’S NEW IN THIS EDITION Responding to the advice of reviewers and faculty who have adopted this text for use in their programs, we have shortened and streamlined the text from seventeen to fourteen chapters. ● ● ● ● ● ● Optical theodolites, total stations, and total station applications have now been brought together in Chapter 5. Chapter 7, “Satellite Positioning Systems”; Chapter 9, “Geographic Information Systems”; and Chapter 11, “Remote Sensing,” have been substantially revised. The treatment of hydrographic surveying has been shortened and included at the end of Chapter 8, “Topographic Surveying.” Chapter 13, “Engineering Surveying,” has been revised to combine all the engineering work into one chapter. Chapter 14, “Land Surveys,” has been rewritten to reflect coauthor Tom Mastin’s knowledge and experience. In addition, all chapters were carefully reviewed and updated to ensure that the latest in technological advances were included. New end-of-chapter questions have been added and end-of-chapter problems have been expanded and refreshed. The websites given in selected chapters and in Appendix E have been updated and expanded. The text is divided into four parts: ● ● Part I, Surveying Principles, includes chapters on the basics of surveying, leveling, distance measurement (taping and electronic distance measurement), angles and directions, theodolites, total stations, traverse surveys, satellite positioning, topographic surveying and mapping, geographic information systems, and control surveys. Part II, Remote Sensing, includes chapters on satellite imagery and airborne imagery. ● ● Part III, Surveying Applications, includes chapters on engineering surveys and land surveys. Part IV, Appendices, includes the following information: random errors, trigonometric definitions and identities, glossary, answers to selected chapter problems, Internet websites, a color photo gallery (located at the end of the book), typical field projects, and early surveying. Finally, this edition introduces coauthor Tom B. Mastin of the California Polytechnical State University. Tom’s background includes many years of experience in academics, land surveying, and engineering surveying, and he is a great addition to the team producing this text. INSTRUCTOR SUPPLEMENTS The following online supplements are available for instructors: ● ● Online PowerPoints Online Instructor’s Manual To access supplementary materials online, instructors need to request an instructor access code. Go to http://www.pearsonhighered.com/irc to register for an instructor access code. Within 48 hours of registering, you will receive a confirming e-mail including an instructor access code. Once you have received your code, locate your text in the online catalog and click on the Instructor Resources button on the left side of the catalog product page. Select a supplement, and a login page will appear. Once you have logged in, you can access instructor material for all Prentice Hall textbooks. If you have any difficulties accessing the site or downloading a supplement, please contact Customer Service at http://247pearsoned.custhelp.com/. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are grateful for the comments and suggestions received from those who adopted previous editions of this text. iii iv Preface In addition, particular thanks are due to Kamal Ahmed, University of Washington; R. H. Birkett, PS, Macomb Community College, South Campus; Arvin Farid, Ph.D., P.E., Boise State University; Selvaraj S. Immanuel, University of Evansville; Mohamad Mustafa, Savannah State University; P. Warren Plugge, Ph.D., Central Washington University; Paul Pope, Ph.D., Los Alamos National Laboratory; and Brian Smith, University of Virginia, for their assistance with the ninth edition text review. The following surveying, engineering, and equipment manufacturers have provided generous assistance: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Applanix, Richmond Hill, Ontario Bird and Hale, Ltd., Toronto, Ontario Canadian Institute of Geomatics, Ottawa, Ontario Carl Zeiss, Inc., Thornwood, New York CST/Berger, Watseka, Illinois Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI), Redlands, California Geomagnetic Laboratory, Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa—Larry Newitt International Systemap Corp., Vancouver, British Columbia Laser Atlanta, Norcross, Georgia ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Leica Geosystems, Inc., Norcross, Georgia MicroSurvey International, Kelowna, British Columbia National Geodetic Survey (NGS), Silver Spring, Maryland National Society of Professional Surveyors OPTECH, Toronto, Ontario Pacific Crest Corporation, Santa Clara, California Position, Inc., Calgary, Alberta Sokkia Corporation, Olathe, Kansas Topcon Positioning Systems, Pleasanton, California Trimble, Sunnyvale, California Tripod Data Systems, Corvallis, Oregon U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, Colorado— John M. Quinn U.S. Geological Survey, Sioux Falls, South Dakota—Ron Beck Wahl, L. Jerry, Sun/Polaris Ephemeris Tables, http://www.cadastral.com Comments and suggestions about this text are welcome. Please contact us at: Barry F. Kavanagh barry.kavanagh@cogeco.ca Tom B. Mastin tmastin@calpoly.edu Contents PART I SURVEYING PRINCIPLES 1 CHAPTER 1 Basics of Surveying 2 1.1 Overview 1.2 Surveying Defined 1.3 Types of Surveys 1.4 Classes of Surveys 1.5 Definitions 1.6 Surveying Instrumentation 1.7 Overview of a Modern Surveying Data System—The Science of Geomatics 9 3 4 5 5 Survey Geographic Reference 12 1.9 Survey Grid Reference 1.10 Survey Legal Reference 1.11 Survey Vertical Reference 1.12 Distance Measurement 1.13 Units of Measurement 1.14 Location Methods 1.15 Accuracy and Precision 1.16 Accuracy Ratio 1.17 Errors 1.18 Mistakes 1.19 Stationing 1.20 Field Notes 1.21 Field Management Questions Curvature and Refraction 2.4 Types of Surveying Levels 2.5 Leveling Rods 2.6 Definitions for Differential Leveling 34 2.7 Techniques of Leveling 2.8 Benchmark Leveling (Vertical Control Surveys) 38 2.9 Profile and Cross-Section Leveling 41 2.10 Reciprocal Leveling 2.11 Peg Test 2.12 Three-Wire Leveling 2.13 Trigonometric Leveling 2.14 Level Loop Adjustments 2.15 Suggestions for Rod Work 2.16 Suggestions for Instrument Work 53 2.17 Mistakes in Leveling 2 1.8 ● 2.3 6 14 14 14 14 14 15 18 17 ● Problems 20 21 CHAPTER 2 Leveling 22 2.1 General Background 2.2 Theory of Differential Leveling 26 22 33 37 47 48 49 51 52 53 54 55 3.1 Methods of Distance Determination 60 3.2 Distance Measuring Techniques 60 3.3 Other Indirect Measuring Techniques 61 3.4 Gunter’s Chain 3.5 Taping 3.6 Taping Accessories 3.7 Taping Techniques 3.8 Standard Conditions for the Use of Steel Tapes 70 19 19 28 CHAPTER 3 Distance Measurement 60 18 18 27 62 62 65 66 v Contents vi 3.9 Taping Corrections: General Background 71 3.10 Systematic Slope Corrections 3.11 Erroneous Tape Length Corrections 73 3.12 Temperature Corrections 3.13 Tension and Sag Corrections 3.14 Random Errors Associated with Systematic Taping Errors 76 3.15 Random Taping Errors 3.16 Techniques for Ordinary Taping Precision 77 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Electronic Theodolites 3.17 Mistakes in Taping 5.3 Total Station 3.18 Electronic Distance Measurement 79 5.4 Instrument Setup 5.5 3.19 Electronic Angle Measurement Geometry of the Theodolite and the Total Station 118 3.20 Principles of Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) 82 5.6 Adjustment of the Theodolite and the Total Station 118 3.21 EDM Instrument Characteristics 84 5.7 Laying Off Angles 5.8 Prolonging a Straight Line 3.22 Prisms 5.9 Bucking-In 3.23 EDM Instrument Accuracies 5.10 3.24 EDM Instruments Without Reflecting Prisms 86 Intersection of Two Straight Lines 121 5.11 Prolonging a Measured Line by Triangulation over an Obstacle 122 71 73 74 78 85 Reverse Directions 4.9 Azimuth Computations 97 4.10 Bearing Computations 98 4.11 Comments on Bearings and Azimuths 102 4.12 Magnetic Direction ● Problems 96 104 109 CHAPTER 5 Total Stations and Theodolites 110 76 84 4.8 81 110 113 115 117 119 120 121 ● Questions 87 ● Problems 88 5.12 CHAPTER 4 Angles and Directions 91 Prolonging a Line Past an Obstacle 123 5.13 Total Station Field Techniques 5.14 Summary of Typical Total Station Characteristics 131 125 4.1 General Background 91 4.2 Reference Directions for Vertical Angles 91 5.15 Field Procedures for Total Stations 132 4.3 Meridians 5.16 Motorized Total Stations 144 4.4 Horizontal Angles 5.17 Handheld Total Stations 148 4.5 Azimuths 94 5.18 4.6 Bearings 94 Summary of Modern Total Station Characteristics 149 4.7 Relationships Between Bearings and Azimuths 94 5.19 Ground-Based LiDAR Imaging 151 91 91 Contents 5.20 ● Instruments Combining Total Station Capabilities and GPS Receiver Capabilities 154 Questions 154 CHAPTER 6 Traverse Surveys 156 7.3 GPS Codes, Signals, and Frequencies 197 7.4 Receivers 7.5 GPS Position Measurements 7.6 GPS Carrier Phase Measurement 204 7.7 Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS) 206 7.8 Canadian Active Control System 207 7.9 Survey Planning 7.10 GPS Field Procedures 197 6.1 General Background 6.2 Open Traverse 6.3 Closed Traverse 6.4 Balancing Angles 6.5 Latitudes and Departures 6.6 Computation of Latitudes and Departures to Determine the Error of Closure and the Precision of a Traverse 161 7.11 GPS Applications 7.12 Vertical Positioning 7.13 Conclusion Traverse Precision and Accuracy 168 7.14 GPS Glossary 7.15 Recommended Readings 6.7 156 157 157 159 160 198 208 213 220 222 225 225 227 6.8 Traverse Adjustments 6.9 Compass Rule Adjustment 6.10 Effects of Traverse Adjustments on the Original Data 170 6.11 Omitted Measurements 6.12 Rectangular Coordinates of Traverse Stations 175 8.1 General Background 8.2 Maps and Plans 6.13 Area of a Closed Traverse by the Coordinate Method 178 8.3 Scales and Precision 6.14 Review Problem 8.4 Plan Plotting 6.15 Geometry of Rectangular Coordinates 186 8.5 Introduction to Contours 8.6 6.16 Illustrative Problems in Rectangular Coordinates Summary of Contour Characteristics 243 8.7 Topographic (Planimetric) Surveys 246 8.8 Cross Sections and Profiles 8.9 Cross Sections, End Areas, and Volumes 252 8.10 Prismoidal Formula 8.11 Construction Volumes 8.12 Area Computations ● Problems 169 vii ● Questions 228 169 172 181 187 192 CHAPTER 7 Satellite Positioning Systems 195 7.1 General Background 195 7.2 United States’ Global Satellite Positioning System (GPS) 195 CHAPTER 8 Topographic and Hydrographic Surveying and Mapping 230 230 231 233 234 240 257 258 259 249 Contents viii 8.13 Area by Graphical Analysis 8.14 Hydrographic Surveys ● Problems 260 PART II 263 REMOTE SENSING 277 CHAPTER 9 Geographic Information Systems 280 9.1 Background 9.2 Scope of GIS 282 9.3 Day-to-Day GIS 9.4 What Surveyors Need to Know 9.5 Construction of Data 9.6 Basic Analysis of Data 9.7 Components of GIS 9.8 Types of Data 9.9 Glossary 9.10 Internet Websites 9.11 Publications ● Questions 280 283 284 291 CHAPTER 11 Satellite Imagery 300 303 304 305 305 CHAPTER 10 Control Surveys 307 356 11.1 General Background 11.2 Techniques of Remote Sensing 357 11.3 Electromagnetic Spectrum 11.4 Selection of Radiation Sensors 359 11.5 An Introduction to Image Analysis 360 11.6 Classification 11.7 Feature Extraction 11.8 Ground-Truth or Accuracy Assessment 366 11.9 U.S. National Land-Cover Data (NLCD) 2006 367 11.10 Remote-Sensing Satellites 11.11 Imaging Radar Satellites 11.12 Satellite Imagery Versus Airborne Imagery 371 296 296 355 356 357 366 366 368 370 10.1 General Background 307 10.2 Plane Coordinate Grids 10.3 Lambert Projection 320 11.13 10.4 Transverse Mercator Grid System 320 Remote Sensing Internet Websites and Further Reading 372 11.14 Further Reading 10.5 Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Grid System 322 10.6 Use of Grid Coordinates 10.7 Illustrative Examples 10.8 Horizontal Control Techniques 339 10.9 Project Control 315 328 335 342 10.10 Control Survey Markers 10.11 Direction of a Line by Gyrotheodolite 352 349 ● Questions 373 374 CHAPTER 12 Airborne Imagery 12.1 General Background 12.2 Aerial Camera Systems 12.3 Photographic Scale 12.4 Flying Heights and Altitude 12.5 Relief (Radial) Displacement 12.6 Flight Lines and Photograph Overlap 381 375 375 377 ● Questions 353 12.7 Ground Control for Mapping ● Problems 353 12.8 Mosaics 386 375 379 380 383 Contents ix 12.9 Stereoscopic Viewing and Parallax 387 13.12 Computation of the High or Low Point on a Vertical Curve 422 12.10 Photogrammetric Stereoscopic Plotting Techniques 392 13.13 Procedure for Computing a Vertical Curve 422 12.11 Airborne Digital Imagery 13.14 12.12 LiDAR Mapping Municipal Services Construction Practices 424 12.13 Aerial Surveying and Photogrammetric Mapping 13.15 Highway Construction 13.16 Sewer Construction 13.17 Pipeline Construction 13.18 Culvert Construction 13.19 Building Construction 13.20 Other Construction Surveys 454 13.21 Construction Survey Specifications 457 395 395 396 12.14 Aerial Photography Interpretation 399 12.15 Applications of Air Photo Interpretation for the Engineer and the Surveyor 399 12.16 Airborne Imaging Websites 12.17 Further Reading ● Questions 400 ● Problems 401 400 400 PART III ● Questions 458 ● Problems 458 437 445 452 453 453 CHAPTER 14 Land Surveys SURVEYING APPLICATIONS 403 CHAPTER 13 Engineering Surveys 404 14.1 General Background 461 14.2 Public Land Surveys 463 14.3 Property Conveyance 14.4 Surveys of Simultaneous Conveyances 482 478 13.1 Route Surveys and Highway Curves 404 14.5 13.2 Circular Curves: General Background 404 Surveys of Sequential Conveyances 483 14.6 13.3 Circular Curve Geometry Title or Mortgage Surveys 486 13.4 Circular Curve Deflections 14.7 Cadastral Surveying 13.5 Chord Calculations 14.8 Land Surveying Websites 405 409 410 411 461 ● Problems 487 488 13.6 Metric Considerations 13.7 Field Procedure 13.8 Moving Up on the Curve 13.9 Offset Curves 13.10 Vertical Curves: General Background 419 APPENDIX A Random Errors 13.11 Geometric Properties of the Parabola 421 APPENDIX B Trigonometric Definitions and Identities 502 412 413 414 487 PART IV APPENDICES 489 490 x Contents APPENDIX C Glossary 505 APPENDIX D Answers to Selected Chapter Problems 514 APPENDIX E Internet Websites 526 APPENDIX F Examples of Current Geomatics Technology 528 APPENDIX G Typical Field Projects 529 APPENDIX H Early Surveying Index 563 545 Field Note Index Page # Figure # Description 41 2-15 Leveling field notes and arithmetic check 43 2-18 Profile field notes 45 2-21 Cross-section notes (municipal format) 46 2-22 Cross-section notes (highway format) 50 2-28 Survey notes for three-wire leveling 114 5-5 Field notes for repeated angles 137 5-27 Field notes for total station graphics descriptors 158 6-3 Field notes for open traverse 214 7-13 Station visibility diagram 215 7-14 GPS field log 248 8-12 Topographic field notes for single baseline; split baseline 278 Table 8-7 Topography field notes (Problem 8.4) 345 10-23 Field notes for control point directions and distances 346 10-24 Prepared polar coordinate layout notes 430 13-23 House survey (plat) 431 13-24 Property markers used to establish centerline 477 14-11 Split-line field notes for township subdivision 487 14-14 Typical title or mortgage survey 529 G-1 Field book layout 530 G-2 Sample taping field notes for building dimensions—Project 1 532 G-3 Sample field notes for Project 3 (traverse distance) 534 G-4 Sample field notes for Project 4 (differential leveling) 535 G-5 Sample field notes for Project 5 (traverse angles) 537 G-6 Sample field notes for Project 6 (topography tie-ins) 538 G-7 Sample field notes for Project 6 (topography cross sections) 562 H-16 Field notes for directions xi This page intentionally left blank P A R T O N E SURVEYING PRINCIPLES ! CHAPTER 1 Basics of Surveying ! CHA ...
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Attached.

Running head: COMPLETE THIS SURVEYING EXAM REVIEW

Complete this Surveying Exam Review
Student’s name
Institution affiliation
Date

1

COMPLETE THIS SURVEYING EXAM REVIEW

2

Complete this Surveying Exam Review
Question 1
Option D
Explanation:
Plane survey: this is a type of survey in which the earth’s surface is perceived to be horizontal
for x and y values or dimensions.
Question 2
Option C
Explanation:
Geodetic survey: this is the type of survey in which the earth’s surface is taken or perceived to
be spherical for all the x and y values.
Question 3
Option A
Explanation:
Topographic survey: this is a type of survey that determines the locations of the different
natural and artificial features and elevations found in a map.
Question 4
Option B
Explanation:

COMPLETE THIS SURVEYING EXAM REVIEW

3

Topographic survey: a topographic survey is a preliminary survey that is used in locating and
mapping natural and artificial/ man-made features of a certain area. The different features are
found relative to one another through tying them all into similar control lines or grid.
Question 5
Option D
Explanation:
Construction surveys: construction surveys are used as layout surveys for many engineering
applications
Question 6
Option B
Explanation:
Accuracy: Accuracy in surveying defines the relationship between the value of a measurement
and the true value(S) of the dimension at hand or being measured.
Question 7
Option A
Explanation:
Because precision is how closely repeated observation or measurement nearly duplicates the
observed or measured values.
Question 8
Option B
E...

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