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VCU Challenges of Chinese Silk Road Research Methodology

Virginia Commonwealth University

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I’m working on a Political Science exercise and need support.

Overview - Specify qualitative or quantitative focus - Provides clear description of how you will answer/investigate the research question - Explains the dependent and different independent variables, their conceptualization and measurement 30 Data - Clearly mentions the sources of data for different variables - Unit of variables 10 Organization & Layout: Writing style – formal language Good use of citation & references Logical layout - Coherent arguments to answer research question asked Length – 4 to 5 pages single spaced

VCU Challenges of Chinese Silk Road Research Methodology
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Running Head: CHALLENGES OF CHINESE SILK ROAD: LITERATURE REVIEW Challenges of Chinese Silk Road: Literature Review Name: Ahmed Almuways The University of Toledo Course Code: 3150 Date: 3/17/2020 1 CHALLENGES OF CHINESE SILK ROAD: LITERATURE REVIEW 2 Challenges of Chinese Silk Road: Literature Review Introduction In the past, the Silk Road related to a network comprising of trade routes connecting the east to the west (Mathews, 2019). The system extensively affected interactions that occurred economically, culturally, politically and religiously up to the 18th century. The Han dynasty facilitated its development from 206 B.C.E to 220 C.E and it eventually expanded over the region (Chatzky & McBride, 2020). Modern-day China has embarked on efforts to recreate a new silk road that facilitates development in different targeted regions. The current paper endeavors to evaluate the challenges attributable to developing the new Silk Road as well as its intended benefits. Background The rapid growth of the Silk Road became apparent in the 114 B.C.E owing to Zhang Qian’s explorations and military conquests. Its continued operation led to civilizations such as Arabia, China, Iran and Japan. Furthermore, it also positively affected India’s and Europe’s growth. Thus, China relied on the routes created to export silk in exchange for precious metals such as gold and products made from glass as well as ivory. In addition, it provided an impetus for commercial activities featuring other commodities such as spices and the dissemination of technologies that facilitated the creation of gunpowder as well as papers. Interactions on the Silk Road also lead to religious and philosophical exchanges. President Xi Jinping initiatives for contemporary China launched the Belt Road Initiative in 2013. The New Silk Road endeavors to achieve better outcomes as opposed to traditional routes developed by China to facilitate the sale of its merchandise while increasing the nation’s assertiveness in global arenas. The New Silk Road offers benefits for other nations inform of efficient border crossings, expansive energy pipelines and railway networks to the west, south and in republics affiliated with the Soviet Union. As such, it would increase the Renminbi's prominence in trade activities that occur internationally and in the acquisition of financial resources (Chan, 2017). Albeit the benefits anticipated, BRI projects rely on loans with low interest. Under such circumstances the Chinese firms involved inflate costs that culminate in cancelled projects while paving the way for political backlash. In addition, China must meet developmental standards stipulated by countries such as Europe (Gleave et al., 2018). The hurdles associated with the project portend increased difficulties in achieving the desired benefits while making it difficult to achieve political harmony in the targeted regions. Scholarly Review According to Chan (2017), the New Silk Road faces challenges with respect to the financial resources required for its completion. From 2013, estimates indicate that Chinese investments in BRI projects amounted to US$60 billion. Future projections indicate the propensity of increasing gradually. More specifically, prospects indicated the requirement of financial resources totaling US$ 120 to 130 billion annually. Under such circumstances, risks pertaining to poorly executed projects become apparent. An evaluation of the available domestic resources underscores some difficulties with respect to their capacity to cater for any prevalent CHALLENGES OF CHINESE SILK ROAD: LITERATURE REVIEW 3 financial needs particularly with respect to putting up the necessary infrastructure over the longterm. The estimates provided by the Asian Development Bank indicated that the region suffers financing shortfalls designated to infrastructure annually by $ 800 billion (Chatzky & McBride, 2020). The Silk Road faces some challenges as a result of the perspective attributable to respective countries on the financial resources China provides. Over the years, most nations have incurred massive financial debts as a means of executing various infrastructural projects domestically (Leavy, 2018). As such, they consider China’s loans designated towards establishing the Silk Road impede economic development. Furthermore, some of the contractors resort to cost inflation culminating in the cancellation of projects as well as political backlash. For example, Mahathir bin Mohamad- Malaysia's Prime Minister- dissuaded the people against BRI initiatives owing to their high prices after his election in 2018. In addition, he stopped BRI projects valued at $22 billion (Chatzky & McBride, 2020). In 2019, Kazakhstan became subject to widespread protests with respect to the Chinese factories that began developing in various regions of the country. Furthermore, countries such as the United States remain skeptical with respect to China's intentions. As a result of such occurrences, Chinese leaders highlight an overall slump in the rate of execution for their targeted BRI projects. Furthermore, Cornet (2018) elaborates that the Silk Road provides an avenue of linking regions rife with terrorism activities. Under such circumstances, it would become difficult for China to protect its interests. The dissolution of the Islamic state in Mesopotamia, radical jihadists indicate an increased interest in China with the intent of instigating “Holy War”. In addition, places such as Baluchistan, Afghanistan in addition to Kashmir act as their primary hideouts. Moreover, indicate the prevalence of political instability which fails to support China’s BRI initiatives. Other countries such as Tajikistan in addition to Kirgizstan suffer from endemic fragility that threatens the viability of China’s projects. It also increases the propensity that the instability would spill over to other regions that initially enjoyed peaceful coexistence. Such aspects portend numerous difficulties for the development of the New Silk Road. Scholars such as Eperle, Bradley & Tafero (2019) indicate that cultural provisions evident in specific regions determine the propensity of misunderstandings to breakout which culminates in conflict. Thus, culture act as a significant trade barrier in trading activities that involve different nations. Countries indicate some increased sensitivity particularly where China exerts extensive control over their operations. The studies conducted by other scholars indicate that cultural variations have negatively influenced export markets over the years. In addition, they culminate in an overall improvement in trade-related costs while impairing strategies developed for contract enforcement. As such, it becomes difficult to achieve the level of cooperation necessary for the acquisition of desirable outcomes. The targets developed by China highlight the significance of Urumqi in developing a route that passes through Teheran proceeding to Turkey. Such considerations mandate an evaluation of unique situations attributable to the regions involved. Similarly, Ghiasy & Zhou (2017) highlight security threats as a predominant factor that would impede the success of the New Silk Road. Some countries suffer from interstate tensions that threaten the viability of their political stability. More specifically, unsettled disagreements as well as arguments that played China's interaction with other nations impede its capacity to develop maritime trade routes. For example, disputes pertaining to the South China Sea and sovereignty over paracel islands pose significant CHALLENGES OF CHINESE SILK ROAD: LITERATURE REVIEW 4 challenges to the development of the New Silk Road. Even so, the similarity in cultural practices would increase efficiency attributable to the execution of the plans developed by China. The southern part of Asia indicates the prevalence of political instability as a result of developing the China-Pakistan economic corridor. The countries affected in the political tensions include India as well as Pakistan. The regions predominantly compete to exert their influence over the southern part of Asia. Regardless of the benefits portended by BRI initiatives, it would still face numerous difficulties in enabling nations such as Pakistan and its counterpart Afghanistan to coexist. Zhang (2015) explains that Kazakhstan and its counterpart Urbekistan developed and agreement in 1994 aimed at economically intergration the regions involved. However, internal differences led to the plan’s failure. As a result, it became difficult for the targeted projects to come into operation. Similarly, the evidence available from scholarly sources indicates that China’s Silk Road would face similar hurdles with respect to its completion. In adation, China's geopolitics are likely to affect the project and the economy at large. This is because Geopolitical around in China involved raises security concerns which may affect the progress of the project (Meidan & Patey, 2016). Furthermore, some countries suffer from systems that offer poor governance thus paving the way for the economic challenges that they encounter (Ghiasy & Zhou, 2017). As such, it would reduce the effectiveness accruing to the execution of BRI initiatives. According to Ghiasy & Zhou (2017), the central and northern parts of Asia of the experience an overall increment in governance problems with regards to ensuring economic accountability in addition to efforts geared towards eliminating corruption. Furthermore, it would provide an impetus of retaining regions that disregard democracy or with a propensity of cultivating political instability. Despite the challenges anticipated as a result of developing the Silk Road, scholars indicate that some regions would benefit immensely (Ghiasy & Zhou, 2017). For instance, it will provide an avenue for central Asia to carefully evaluate regional hazards as an essential Factor in facilitating the acquisition economic benefits. The belts development would culminate in the availability of public goods necessary in paving the way for socioeconomic progress (See the figure below. Even so, the countries involved anticipate an overall increment in investment initiatives geared towards catapulting their infrastructural development (Meidan & Patey, 2016). In some cases, the nations involved would have to develop the appropriate cultural values necessary in ensuring that they benefit from the system. Furthermore, most nations that align their national objectives with China acquire loans ). The Silk Road portends numerous benefits for its partners. Among the areas that would benefit include the sector dealing with tourism, the provision of health services and an overall improvement in connectivity. BRI-related initiatives have provided an impetus for China to develop agreements with various Asian countries. In addition, port development has become rampant for cities bordering the Indian Ocean. The contracts formed have catapulted increased business activities and investments for the nations involved. CHALLENGES OF CHINESE SILK ROAD: LITERATURE REVIEW 5 Figure 1: Silk Road Economic Belt Source: (Meidan & Patey, 2016). Literature Gap The research available fails to highlight the most appropriate methods of restricting Central Asia as a means of eliminating some of the challenges evident with respect to developing co-operation for the provinces located in the western part of China. Current literature fails to indicate the necessary reforms that governments must make to facilitate the Silk Road’s efficient operations. In addition, it excludes underscoring the strategies that would ensure the acquisition of infrastructural financing from private organizations. Despite the increased budgets that countries such as Philippines as well as Indonesia have developed, the findings available owing to research effort fail to highlight the most effective techniques of overcoming the prevalent bureaucratic hurdles. Such challenges act as factors that negatively affect the pace at which the New Silk Road develops. Furthermore, future research efforts must highlight effective strategies of promoting as well as integrating the Asian Bond Market Initiative. Thus, it would become easier to overcome funding related deficits evident in regions targeted for the Silk Road. Conclusion The Chinese Silk Road portends numerous benefits for China particularly with respect to asserting its economic power globally. The regions targeted can benefit from the acquisition of additional funds necessary for their prosperity. As such, they can engage in infrastructural CHALLENGES OF CHINESE SILK ROAD: LITERATURE REVIEW development to facilitate their economic stability. However, it faces numerous challenges pertaining to the availability of funds and the security of the connected areas. In addition, ineffective governance threatens the initiative’s overall viability. 6 CHALLENGES OF CHINESE SILK ROAD: LITERATURE REVIEW 7 References Chan, S. (2017). The belt and road initiative: implications for China and East Asian economies. The Copenhagen Journal of Asian Studies, 35(2), 52-78. Chatzky, A., & McBride, J. (2020, January 28). China’s Massive Belt and Road Initiative | Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved from https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/chinasmassive-belt-and-road-initiative Cornet, A. (2018). The Strategic Challenges of the Silk Roads Interview with Emmanuel Lincot. Retrieved from https://www.iris-france.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/Asia-Focus79.pdf Eberle, P. B., Bradley, T. L., & Tafero, A. (2019). A Cultural Perspective of China's Belt and Road Initiative: Impacts, Insights, and Implications. Journal of International Business and Cultural Studies, 12. Retrieved from https://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/193067.pdf Ghiasy, R., & Zhou, J. (2017). THE SILK ROAD ECONOMIC BELT: Considering security implications and EU–China cooperation prospects. Retrieved from Stockholm International Peace Research Institute website: https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/The-Silk-Road-Economic-Belt.pdf Gleave, S. D., Cosentino, B., Dunmore, D., Ellis, S., Preti, A., Ranghetti, D., & Routaboul, C. (2018). Research for TRAN Committee: The new Silk Route–opportunities and challenges for EU transport. European Parliament, Policy Department for Structural and Cohesion Policies, Brussels. Leavy, B. (2018). China’s “New Silk Road” initiative–implications for competitors and partners, near and far. Strategy & Leadership. Mathews, J. A. (2019). China‟ s Long Term Trade and Currency Goals: The Belt & Road Initiative. Asia-Pacific Journal-Japan Focus, 17(1). Meidan, M., & Patey, L. (2016). China's New Global Investment Strategy, The Challenges Facing China's Belt and Road Initiative. DIIS Policy Brief (Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies, 2016), 1-4. Zhang, H. (2015). Building the Silk Road economic belt: Challenges in Central Asia. ...
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Running head: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Challenges of Chinese Silk Road: Research Methodology
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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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The success of the Chinese Silk Road strategized in 2013 in some of the nations that it
will pass through, such as China, Russia, Italy, Kenya, India, and Indonesia, has become far from
possible over the years. Notably, financial barriers due to strained resources required for its
completion and the existing cultural differences and misunderstandings result in conflict between
different states, hence, hindering the project. Various governments, such as the Chinese and
European administrators, among others who have heavily invested in the project attempt to curb
these barriers to enable the productivity of the Chinese Silk Road framework. However, their
efforts are yet to yield any significant results. The purpose of this qualitative research
methodology is to show how different stakeholders of the Chinese Silk Road project classify the
causes of financial barriers and cultural hindrances to the productivity of the project, and how to
mitigate the risk factors that counteract its success.
Overview
The proposed research will utilize qualitative data collection techniques to acquire
essential information from the 60 participants. The phenomenological method of qualitative
research will be useful in the study since the investigator seeks to understand why the Chinese
Silk Road project faces financial and cultural setbacks in different states. Moreover, the
researcher will use interviews and questionnaires which are excellent ways of collecting data
using the phenomenological approach. 30 respondents will answer the questionnaires, while the
other 30 will answer the interview questions. This way, the researcher will gauge if there is any
significant variance in the answers given by the respondents using these different tactics. Both
the questionnaires and interviews will have 10 similar questions.
Investigating the Research Question
The study population includes political officials and cross-cultural experts from China,
Russia, Italy, Kenya, India, and Indonesia. Political administrators directly affect the decisionmaking process concerning the finances injected in Chinese Silk Road. On the other hand, crosscultural experts attempt to decipher the causes of conflict and misunderstandings among people
of different cultures. There will be 60 participants equally selected from China, Russia, Italy,
Kenya, India, and Indonesia. Among the 10 respondents from each state, 5 will be political
leaders and 5 will be cross-cultural experts. Since there are many political decision-makers on
the subject matter and cultural experts, the researcher will focus on the politic...

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