Ohio State University Global Development and Social Change Questions

Ohio State University

Question Description

Need help with my English question - I’m studying for my class.

Reading: Chapter 6 McMichael, Philip. 2017. Development and Social Change: A Global Perspective. 6 th Edition. Los Angeles: Sage

Use a standard, 12 point font; o Single-space your work; o Have one-inch margins all around; o For the headings on the assignments, see the assignment instructions. o Proofread and revise your work to ensure a minimum of errors.

1. In what sense is global development realized through inequality? Does this change the meaning of development, or confirm that development is a process for the long term (as in the idea of a ‘development ladder’)?

2. What do you see as the most aspects of Agricultural Biodiversity?

3. What are the similarities and differences between the 1960’s green revolution and the second green revolution? What model of development does each promote. How and why?

4. How did operation of the food aid regime contribute to the development project? In what ways did it transform it?

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THE DEVELOPING WORLD Module 8: The Globalization Project in Practice  Read the Introduction to Module 8  Readings: o McMichael: Chapter 6: The Globalization Project in Practice o Assignment 3: Due: 11:59 pm, Saturday March 28 Welcome to Module 8 of The Developing World. This week builds on McMichael’s earlier chapters on development, the development project, and the globalization project. I have included a chapter summary and a detailed outline of the chapter. You may find these helpful in studying the chapter. Note that I have also posted PowerPoint slides for each chapter in McMichael. Chapter 6 The Globalization Project in Practice Chapter Summary: This chapter examines the social and political consequences of the globalization project. Specifically it focuses on poverty governance, outsourcing, displacement, informalization and recolonization, five processes that have occurred in previous eras but never on the scale found today. These five dimensions are part of a single process of global restructuring that affects all countries, but varies locally. Poverty Governance is the response by IFIs to “humanize” and “democratize” global policies and to stave off a legitimacy crisis by elaborating “governance” mechanisms that continue to this day as poverty elimination remains unfulfilled. Poverty governance shifts responsibility by embedding impoverishing policies in states themselves. Outsourcing is the relocation of goods and services production to reduce costs and increase firm flexibility. It requires appropriation of rural lands, social stratification, and is realized through local class, gender, racial and ethnic relations. It creates clusters of prosperity more often across national borders, not within them. Displacement is caused by SAP-mandated dismantling of ISI sectors, forced resettlement by infrastructure projects, civil wars, and the destabilization of rural communities by market forces, due to dumping cheap food, corporatization of agriculture, and the decline of farm subsidies. The neoliberal concept of food security favors imports over local farming, but globalizing food sourcing forces people to move too. Stratification across national borders provokes xenophobia and racist violence. Displacement involves care workers, exported from South to North, economic refugees, including migrant workers, environmental refugees, and sex trafficking. Globalization is represented as multicultural, but that depiction does not reveal the tensions arising from the inequalities it produces. At the same time as the globalization project emphasizes the importance of markets, it intensifies a growing culture of informal, marginal activity. This informalization includes both the development of new forms of individual and collective livelihood strategies and casualization of labor via corporate restructuring. Traditional and collective forms of mutual aid were expected to disappear with development but when they do not, the World Bank redefines the culture of informality as an economic resource, called social capital. In this context, NGOs let outsiders access the value of informal social networks for capitalist firms. Recolonization is the process by which former colonies’ territories are re-appropriated for extractive purposes. The continent of Africa particularly suffers from extreme poverty as a result of extraction of raw materials, debt payments, and profits to TNCs. Africa is designated as an extractive zone through recolonization through the historic structuring of postcolonial African states and resource grab in an era of China’s ascendancy and rising demand for world resources. The globalization project may have a universal vision, but it is often unequal in its outcomes. Chapter Outline: I. Introduction a. Exacerbation of global inequality: By 1997, the richest 20% of the population has 74 times the income of the poorest 20% i. Makes legitimacy management a priority for the development establishment to justify staying the course with liberalization and the corporate agenda b. 1994 Chiapas uprising c. 1999 “Anti-globalization” protest at WTO Ministerial in Seattle d. 2000 “Globalization with a human face” UN offered Millennium Development Goals e. Two faces of globalization: i. Unprecedented prosperity for minority of consumers and investors ii. Poverty, displacement, job and food insecurity, health crisis, informal activity f. This chapter addresses the characteristic practices of globalization: poverty governance, outsourcing, displacement, informalization, and recolonization Poverty Governance a. 1988: Recognizing the increased vulnerability of the poor caused by SAPs, IFIs create Social Emergency Fund (World Bank) and new Compensatory and Contingency Financing Facility (IMF) b. 1990s IFIs create “humanizing” global policies i. HIPC Initiative 1996 c. d. e. f. g. ii. IFIs’ goal was to stave off a legitimacy crisis by elaborating “governance” mechanisms that continue to this day as poverty elimination remains unfulfilled iii. Crucial since IFIs depend increasingly on loan repayment by borrowing countries to bankroll their operations “Democratizing” SAPs i. Encouraged countries and NGO’s to take “ownership” of policy formation and implementation ii. 1999 Enhanced HIPC was created with African debtor states in mind iii. “Voices of the Poor” project iv. From 1996-1999, HIPC-eligible country debt had quadrupled, from $59 to $205 billion 1. Sparks activism in the North (Jubilee 2000 Organization for debt forgiveness) Crisis Management: Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) i. Unpopular SAPs were refashioned as “partnerships” with states ii. IFIs now insist that other stakeholders, such as NGOs, churches, unions, and business, rather than just governments, are involved in writing the plans iii. Hold states accountable for poverty reduction, embed public priorities in private relationships iv. Embraces WTO prescriptions for countries to “trade themselves out of poverty.” Poverty governance also involves coordinating international NGOs with access to information and resources, enabling them to leverage initiatives within states i. The privatization of states is also shaped by Transnational Policy Networks (TPNs) 1. Created by the Bank to serve as professional training program centers, and serving as sites for preparation of PRSPs 2. Privatization no longer means simply selling off public assets, but integrating states into TPNs as global market intermediaries Promoting market access reconstructs the state–civil society relation by complementing the state’s authority with the authority of “civil society” i. “Budget monitoring” to secure conditionality ii. “Surveillance Architecture” capable of disciplining democracy 1. Extending microloans through NGO intermediaries to the poor 2. Rationale is that microlending will redirect existing survival networks, viewed as “social capital,” into entrepreneurial activities Poverty governance enhances institutional legitimacy at the same time as it subjects societies to the market calculus Outsourcing g. Outsourcing relocates goods and services production as a cost-reduction strategy and a means to increase operational flexibility for an organization i. Includes offshoring, as firms shift production overseas. ii. Has become significant for two reasons: h. i. j. k. l. 1. Hypermobility of capital in an era of deregulation and expanding access to cheap/flexible labor 2. Privatization of states iii. Governments also outsource services and “governance” to NGOs Three characteristic effects of neoliberal health policy i. Access to health care for the poor shrinks while investments grow ii. Outsourcing and cutbacks in public sector budgets reduce preventative programs; banished diseases reemerge as epidemics iii. After profiting through privatizing health care, managed care and health insurance companies move on when profits fall Case Study: Sourcing Outsourcing in the Philippines i. Philippine state partners with firms to help circumvent unions, and recruit along gendered and ethno-racial lines to gain labor-force loyalty and labor skills necessary to the demands of technology-intensive assembly and test manufacturing of semiconductors and computer hard disk drives. ii. Firms invest in particular places and strategically localize elements of their work regimes to lower production costs, and/or better secure labor control and worker commitment 1. Regularizing, rather than casualizing, high-tech jobs Global Division of Labor i. Outsourcing of production depends on deepening information and communication technologies and “compression of space by time” ii. Service jobs began migrating from North to South in 1990s 1. 1996-2000 U.S. corporate outsourcing grew from $100 billion to $345 billion 2. Concentrate in call centers, graphic design, computer programming, and accountancy 3. “We can hire three Indians for the price of one Swiss.” 4. India now outsources outsourcing in order to capture an expanding back office industry as: a. Indian wages rise b. China, Morocco and Mexico challenge India’s successful model iii. Thomas Friedman identifies the “democratization of technology,” and the “flat world,” implying that technology creates a level playing field for the South Case Study: High Heels and High Tech in Global Barbados i. Discourse of global capitalism is as an objective “economic” order with income hierarchies, but it is realized through complex local combinations of class and gender relations ii. In informatics industry in Barbados, Jamaica and Trinidad, “pink collar jobs” are deskilled, gendered but attractive iii. Barbados Development Plan guarantees maternity and sick leave and paid vacation Service outsourcing in India due to comparative advantage of English language i. After liberalization in 1991, jobs were outsourced to India in IT, financial services, business processes, pharmaceuticals, and auto components ii. IT sector generates less than 2 percent of national income 1. Employs 1 million in an economy where 8 million join the labor force annually and 230 million reside in publicly neglected and deteriorating rural habitats iii. Outsourcing generates clusters of prosperity networked more often across national borders than within them m. Rural land appropriated for outsourcing i. Local farmers live off factory rents ii. Datang, China, a rice farming village in 1970s, is “Socks City” as it produces 9 billion socks annually iii. Pressures to cut costs are passed down from buyers to factory owner to workforce, forced to work up to 40 hour shifts to meet “just in time” orders n. Global supermarket revolution founded on an outsourcing model of “buyer-driven commodity chains” i. Link contract farmers with centralized food processing and retailing operations 1. TNCs control 70-80% of top five supermarket chains in Latin America 2. TNCs consolidate procurement 3. Supermarkets leave millions of small farmers struggling o. Standards are critical to outsourcing (especially with perishables) i. Private regulation of production standards of quality, safety, packaging and convenience ii. “Audit culture” generates certification schemes that surpass publicly required standards iii. Risk management encourages production consolidation Displacement p. Structural unemployment: casualization of work, redundancy of people with automation and outsourcing of work i. Unemployed in global North rose from 10 to almost 50 million from 1973 and early 21st century ii. 2000: One billion workers (1/3 of world labor force, mainly southern) unemployed or underemployed q. Displacement across the world due to i. SAP-mandated dismantling of ISI sectors and privatization of public enterprise ii. Forced resettlement by infrastructure projects iii. Civil wars iv. Destabilization of rural communities by market forces (dumping cheap food, land concentration, corporatization of agriculture, decline of farm subsidies) r. Depeasantization (begins with displacement) i. Agriculture is the main source of food and income for the majority of the world’s poor ii. Women produce 60-80% of food grown in most developing countries iii. Long-term food security depends on diversity of crop species iv. Agribusiness and global retailing driving peasants into an exploding global slum v. Neoliberal concept of food security is to privilege imports over local farming 1. But movement of food around the world forces people to move too 2. WTO Agreement on Agriculture established low world prices for agricultural commodities, favoring traders and food processors, hurting farmers vi. Liberalization required by SAPs 1. Free markets required for grain in formerly self-sufficient countries (Malawi, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia) 2. Indian government: “Agriculture has become a relatively unrewarding profession due to an unfavorable price regime and low value addition” 3. Neoliberal paradox: “free” markets exclude populations dispossessed by their implementation s. Immigration i. Global economy stratifies populations across national borders, not just within them ii. Rich nomads (“consumer-citizens of the privileged regions”) vs. poor nomads (“boat people on planetary scale” iii. Fears of migrants provoke spread of “gated communities,” fear of terrorism, rollback of civil rights in the global North, and Norwegian tragedy of 2011 iv. Racist violence toward “guest workers” whose rights are not protected v. Feminization and export of care workers from South to North 1. In the interest of those needing cheap labor for servants 2. Terminology used: Displacement of love, global heart transplant, care drain, chains of love, global nannies vi. Economic refugees – 175 million live as expatriate laborers around the world vii. Environmental refugees – 1 billion people could be displaced by climate change by 2050 t. Labor: The New Export i. Mobility rights for capital guaranteed by neoliberalism do not extend to labor, although labor circulates ii. Migration is not new to this century, but feminization of global migration is: today 75% of refugees and displaced people are women and children iii. 1980s debt regime restructurings provoked internal migration in former Third World of 300-400 million people iv. 100 million people depend on remittances (See figure 6.1) v. Remittances supplement or subsidize public ventures vi. “Kerala Model” with its social priorities trumping the market-driven development model, nevertheless depends for 25 percent of its revenues on remittances vii. Labor export has become a significant foreign currency earner u. Case Study: Trafficking in Women – The Global Sex Trade Versus Human Rights i. Human trafficking is fastest growing form of bonded labor and leading human rights violation 1. 700,000 to 2 million women and children trafficked annually 2. 3rd largest illegal trade (after drugs and guns) 3. Dwarfs the trans-Atlantic slave trade by a magnitude of 10 4. Rise in trafficking related to feminization of global poverty and use of internet as sex forum ii. Example: Thailand where 28% of household income is remitted by absent daughters iii. Action against trafficking hampered by collusion between source families and agents, by underground employers, and governments avoiding adverse publicity v. International labor circulation i. Combines formal policies with informal working conditions 1. Migrant workers lack human rights ii. International labor organizations have been ineffectual iii. Labor migrates from all over the world into the United States and maintain cultural and linguistic traditions iv. Multicultural effect: immigrants exploiting other immigrants v. Amplification of “Ethnicism,” “nativism:” U.S. political discourse blame individuals and ignore structured policies vi. Multiculturalism has been made a fragile ideal through the conditions in which labor circulation has intensified 1. Labor export arrangements deny rights and representation to migrant workforces 2. Deteriorating economies and communities in global-economic centers spark exclusionist politics that scapegoat cultural minorities Informalization w. The globalization project exaggerates market culture at the same time as it intensifies a growing culture of informal, marginal activity i. Casual, unregulated labor: cooperatives, street vending, or illegal activity ii. Is it a real alternative or unrecognized margin of formal culture? Depends on context iii. Formal vs. informal economy has legal/moral connotations; the distinction is either artificial or political iv. Informalization reveals limits of official development strategy and identifies alternative, informal livelihood strategies x. y. z. aa. v. “By ignoring informal activity, development policy discounts and marginalizes important mechanisms of social reproduction, on which the formal “productive economy” depends” Two domains of informal economy: i. Forms of social reproduction that complement production ii. Informal “productive activity” off the books Neoliberal development and “planet of slums” go together i. Slumdwellers are 1/3 of the global urban population; nearly 50% of population of the global South ii. Highest percentages of slumdwellers are in Ethiopia, Chad, Afghanistan and Nepal iii. Greatest numbers are in Mumbai, Mexico City, Dhaka, Lagos, Cairo, Karachi, etc. iv. Slumdwellers in Dharavi generate $1.25 billion per year by recycling waste in Mumbai v. Slumdwellers face violence of demolition vi. Pavement dwellers aim for invisibility while always being on display Two aspects of informalization: i. New forms of individual and collective livelihood strategies ii. Global casualization of labor via corporate restructuring 1. Labor weakened and disorganized 2. Variation in the percentage of informalization of non-agricultural employment 3. China: Interesting variation on labor informalization a. 1996-2000: 176 million peasants migrated to cities, but without the social benefits extended to urban residents b. Female percentage of informal workers rose from 45 to over 65% iii. Agricultural informalization 1. Women comprise 50-90% of workers in export agriculture jobs of processing, producing, and retailing high-value horticultural crops 2. Labor rights for agricultural labor are weak: low wages, long hours, lax health and safety practices, gender stereotyping, sexual harassment 3. Rights also violated in child labor 4. Growth of “shadow economy” comprising over 50 percent of the population of the global South Case Study: Informalization Versus the African State – The Other Side of “Globalization” i. Informal sector in Africa as a form of resistance – as creative responses to failures of development states 1. Urban farming in absence of food subsidies (68% of families grow own food in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania) 2. Hometown development associations build schools, orphanages, clinics, roads, conserve the environment, provide solar electricity and water, loan funds for women’s businesses, raise funds for flood relief services 3. Traditions revived by women: midwifery and craftwork 4. “Moral economy:” community interests, not markets, define values of economic activity bb. Traditional/collective forms of mutual aid expected to disappear with development but do not i. These include livelihood strategies, “new commons,” and social networks ii. Culture of informality redefined by World Bank as an economic resource, called social capital, targeted by microlending iii. Microenterprise reinforce gender hierarchies, which means individual empowerment needs complementing with gender relations transformation iv. Microcredit schemes deplete mutual aid networks needed by the poorest, increasing anomie and deepening exploitation through organ selling and child prostitution v. Slum ...
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Global Development
Global development is a vitally important factor that promotes human development by
the reduction of poverty and inequality and improving vital necessities such as health, education,
and employment for the people. Globalization involves various ethnic groups within a society,
and within the ethnic groups arises the inequalities produced by globalization (McMichael.
2016). However, this factor does not change the meaning of globalization. Globalization focuses
on the importance of markets. It promotes growth in the “informal eco...

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University of Maryland

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