1) What is a Miasma and how was it believed to contribute to the occurrence of disease in a
A miasma is an unpleasant and/or poisonous gas thought to arise from sewers, garbage pits, open
graves and other decaying organic matter.
Epidemics such as cholera, chlamydia and Black Death were believed to originate from miasma
which emerged from rotting organic matter.
2) What observation did John Snow make during the
1831 Cholera outbreak in a mining community
which made him question the Miasma as a cause
(You may watch the video to answer this
During the 1831 cholera outbreak in London, John
Snow observed that water pollution was the main
cause of cholera rather than the long pre-assumed miasma. He noticed that many miners were
struck with cholera while working deep underground where there were no sewers or swamps. To
John Snow, the miners spread the disease via invisible germs on their hands since they did not
have water for handwashing.
3) A schematic of the Scientific Method is provided:
Please provide (in your words) definitions of the three primary steps:
This is the active acquisition of information from primary sources through the human senses, or
recording information using scientific tools.
This is an unconfirmed explanation for an observation.
These are systematic expositions which involve measurements and/or observations and which
are conducted under controlled conditions.
d) What are the key differences between a Scientific Law and a Scientific Theory?
A scientific law is unlikely to change over time unless an error is discovered. On the other hand,
a scientific theory is incomplete ...
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