Health Medical
City University of Seattle 1831 Cholera Outbreak in London & John Snow Questions

PUBH 140

City University of Seattle

PUBH

Question Description

I’m stuck on a Health & Medical question and need an explanation.

1- There is a pdf for all the details below

2- Be careful about plagiarize , less than 5 % plz

Unformatted Attachment Preview

1) What is a Miasma and how was it believed to contribute to the occurrence of disease in a population? 2) What observation did John Snow make during the 1831 Cholera outbreak in a mining community which made him question the Miasma as a cause for cholera? (You may watch the video to answer this question) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TLpzHHbFrHY 3) A schematic of the Scientific Method is provided: Please Provide (in Your words) definitions of the three primary steps: a) Observation: b) Hypothesis: c) Experiment: d) What are the key differences between a Scientific Law and a Scientific Theory? 4) Dr. John Snow was a pioneer in applying the Scientific Method to the study of disease in populations establishing the foundations of the study of Epidemiology. His seminal work was conducted studying cholera outbreaks in London in the mid-19th Century. In class we discussed 3 of his investigations in London: ➢ 1848 – Initial study of cholera transmission when he formulated his hypothesis. ➢ 1854 – The Grand Experiment he conducted to test his hypothesis. ➢ 1854 – The Broad Street outbreak – where he used his findings to recommend public health interventions to stop/reduce the spread of disease. a) During the 1848 London Cholera outbreak, Dr. Snow investigated the source of the cholera outbreak and possible methods of contagion. What were his three key observations? b) Please describe the 3 main elements of his hypothesized mode for contagion: c) How did Dr. Snow test this hypothesis in 1854 during his Grand Experiment? 5) The study of disease requires an understanding of the disease rate. In measuring disease Frequency one needs not only to count the number of cases, but also determine the size of the population which is under study, this is the population at risk. There are two measures of frequency used in Epidemiologic studies: Incidence and Prevalence. Please define these terms. a. Incidence: b. Prevalence 6) Use the following information to report the incidence and prevalence of Covid-19 in Florida. FDOH has provided an interactive map of both total cases and cases determined each day. (https://fdoh.maps.arcgis.com/apps/opsdashboard/index.html#/8d0de33f260d444c852a615dc783 7c86 You will need to find the total number of Cov-d-19 tests, and the positive tests for a specified unit of time. (Assume the population of Florida is 21.3 million) 7) What are the 3 types of error in epidemiologic studies? Please state and define each. 8). Current Health Department sampling for Covid-19 focuses on citizens with severe symptoms, those over the age of 65 with symptoms and medical works/first responders. Which of the above forms of error might this procedure create? Why? 9). Please review the below table and answer the following questions: Results Patients with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Total patients Healthy Individuals (no NonHodgkin Lymphoma) 500 453 Odds Epstein-Barr positive PCB exposure Chlordane exposure Odds 357 123 450 480 20 3 Odds Ratio a) Complete the table calculating Odds and Odds Ratios. b) What Type of Epidemiological study is shown above? Briefly describe the study group(s). c) Which risk factor(s) are being studied? d) Which risk factor occurs at the greatest frequency in the studied population? e) Which risk factor is most closely associated to the studied health outcome? Why? ...
Purchase answer to see full attachment
Student has agreed that all tutoring, explanations, and answers provided by the tutor will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool's honor code & terms of service.

Final Answer

Attached.

1) What is a Miasma and how was it believed to contribute to the occurrence of disease in a
population?
A miasma is an unpleasant and/or poisonous gas thought to arise from sewers, garbage pits, open
graves and other decaying organic matter.

Epidemics such as cholera, chlamydia and Black Death were believed to originate from miasma
which emerged from rotting organic matter.

2) What observation did John Snow make during the
1831 Cholera outbreak in a mining community
which made him question the Miasma as a cause
for cholera?
(You may watch the video to answer this
question)

During the 1831 cholera outbreak in London, John
Snow observed that water pollution was the main
cause of cholera rather than the long pre-assumed miasma. He noticed that many miners were
struck with cholera while working deep underground where there were no sewers or swamps. To
John Snow, the miners spread the disease via invisible germs on their hands since they did not
have water for handwashing.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TLpzHHbFrHY

3) A schematic of the Scientific Method is provided:

Please provide (in your words) definitions of the three primary steps:

a) Observation:
This is the active acquisition of information from primary sources through the human senses, or
recording information using scientific tools.

b) Hypothesis:
This is an unconfirmed explanation for an observation.

c) Experiment:
These are systematic expositions which involve measurements and/or observations and which
are conducted under controlled conditions.

d) What are the key differences between a Scientific Law and a Scientific Theory?
A scientific law is unlikely to change over time unless an error is discovered. On the other hand,
a scientific theory is incomplete ...

Bliss_Powell (4223)
University of Maryland

Anonymous
The tutor managed to follow the requirements for my assignment and helped me understand the concepts on it.

Anonymous
The tutor was knowledgeable, will be using the service again.

Anonymous
Awesome quality of the tutor. They were helpful and accommodating given my needs.

Studypool
4.7
Trustpilot
4.5
Sitejabber
4.4
Similar Questions
Related Tags