Writing
CMRJ 526 American Public WK6 Postwar Decades of Cocaines Resurgence Paper

CMRJ 526

American Public University System

CMRJ

Question Description

Help me study for my Political Science class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.

1. After reading the attached article i.e., The “Pre-Colombian” Era of Drug Trafficking in the Americas: Cocaine, 1945-1965, please discuss the postwar decades of cocaine's resurgence into two stages, 1947-59 and 1959-64.

2. Please discuss in your own words (no quotes) the Mexican Cartels and how they have defied U.S. Drug Policies. In doing so, discuss Operation Intercept, and Operation Condor.

Instructions: The response to each question should be a "minimum" of 500 words of content (does not count references and or restating a question) and include "at least" two properly referenced sources, in accordance with APA 6th edition, for full credit. Please see the syllabus for what constitutes a "substantive" response.

Within your post, please place the first Forum response on top of the second, i.e., both Forum responses should be in the same post within the Forum.

It is essential that you realize that 500 words and 2 references for support per question contained in the primary forum assignment is the minimal expectation (if 2 questions are asked that means the primary post would be a minimum of 1,000 words not counting references or restating the questions); and, the student response posts (2 for each forum) 300 words and 1 reference for support is also the minimal expectation; this does not mean by meeting the minimal expectation that you will be awarded an "A." This is a Master's Degree program and course and the award of maximum credit is reserved only for those posts that are exemplary!

Also the content of the Forum Assignment will often ask the student to take a position on a particular topic. However, this is not a strict opinion paper in which you the student can just make a statement of what you think or what your experiences are on a topic. Instead, the student needs to support their opinion or experiences with qualifying research from academic source. APA 6th edition citations and references must be used always!

Forum Rubric

Zero Points

Beginning

Developing

Accomplished

Exemplary

Substance (Possible 40 points)

Zero points: Student failed to respond to the question(s)

25 points: Presentation is unclear; a basic understanding of the topic and issues is not evident; explanation is lacking; segments of the required answer are lacking; sources and supporting facts are not utilized; length requirements may not have been met.

30 points: Student’s initial posting did not meet the length and or source requirements; and/or presentation evidences some confusion concerning topics under discussion; analysis may be lacking and/or elements of the question are not answered; support and references may be lacking.

35 points: Student answered/addressed most aspects of the question/topic posed in the Forum; initial posting met length and source requirements; a basic understanding of relevant concepts/theories is demonstrated; relevant sources were located; minimal or no facts/examples were used in support of presentation.

40 points: Student answered/addressed all aspects of the topic/question posed in the Forum; initial posting met length and source requirements; analysis of concepts and theories clearly demonstrates superior knowledge and a clear understanding of the topic; relevant and scholarly resources were located and used appropriately; facts and examples are used in support of presentation.

Collaboration (Possible 30 points)

Zero points: Student filed none of the required replies.

15 points: Student filed only one of the required replies OR filed the required replies but failed to meet length and or source requirements.

25 points: Student filed the minimum number of replies, meeting the length and source requirements and evidencing an understanding of the issues under discussion and the views of colleagues. Student failed to respond to specific queries posed to him by colleagues or by the Instructor. Student did not take initiative in advancing the discussion throughout the week.

30 points: Student filed at least the number of required replies and they met the length and source requirements; the replies were substantive, thoughtful responses and contributed to the discussion; student exceeded minimum requirements by answering all queries posed to him by others and remained present and actively engaged in the discussion throughout the week; student led the discussion by raising complex issues, connecting concepts, and illuminating the discussion with examples.

Timeliness (Possible 10 points)

Zero points: Student filed more than two required postings in an untimely manner.

2 points: Student filed two required postings in an untimely manner.

7 points: Student filed one required posting in an untimely manner.

10 points: Student filed all required postings in a timely manner.

Writing (Possible 10 points)

Zero points: Student failed to respond to the essay question

4 points: Writing contains several grammatical, punctuation, and/or spelling errors. Language lacks clarity or includes some use of jargon and /or conversational tone; sentence structure is awkward.

6 points: Student demonstrates consistent and correct use of the rules of grammar usage, punctuation and spelling, with a few errors; there is room for improvement in writing style and organization.

8 points: Student demonstrates consistent and correct use of the rules of grammar usage, punctuation, and spelling. Language is clear and precise throughout all submissions. Sentences display consistently strong, varied structure and organization is excellent.

10 points: Student demonstrates a quality of writing consistent with scholarly works in the relevant discipline; student is facile in the use of subject-matter vocabulary and terminology consistent with the level of instruction; student applies concepts with ease; writing style and organization are designed to successfully convey the message and the related information to the reader with maximum effect.

Citations (Possible 10 points)

Zero points: Student failed to include citations and/or references

4 points: Citations of reference sources exist; citations apparently correspond to the correct source but do not enable the reader to locate the source. APA 6th edition format not evident.

6 points: Attempts to cite reference sources are made, but the reader has difficulty finding the sources; attempts to use APA 6th edition format are evident but poorly executed

8 points: Reference sources are cited as necessary, but some components of the citations are missing and/or APA 6th edition format is faulty in some respects.

10 points: Reference sources relied on by the student are cited appropriately and accurately. No writing of others is left without quotation and/or attribution, as appropriate. APA 6th edition format is used correctly and consistently.

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566 journal of world history, september 2010 end of the book when the wealth of information they provide make her argument stronger and would have been more usefully deployed as footnotes. Be that as it may, the reader is advised to pay attention to them for they will repay the effort. In spite of these difficulties, this book is worth reading and makes a valuable contribution to the field, lending nuance and subtlety to a discussion that has suffered direly from the lack of such introspection. john p. turner Colby College Andean Cocaine: The Making of a Global Drug. By paul gootenberg. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2008. 464 pp. $65.00 (cloth); $24.95 (paper). From the coca fields of the Andean mountainsides to the laboratories of European chemists and eventually to the streets of U.S. cities, the history of cocaine has been long and complex. And until now the history of cocaine has been largely untold. In Andean Cocaine, Paul Gootenberg, relying on documentation from a panoply of diverse sources such as nineteenth-century medical journals, Amazonian land records, contemporary news accounts, and U.S. drug agency reports, crafts a narrative of cocaine that is firmly rooted in its Andean, and specifically Peruvian, origins. Using an approach that he calls the “new drug history,” Gootenberg is helping to replace the conversation about the history of illicit drugs, previously dominated by medical and journalistic accounts, with a historical and interdisciplinary examination of drugs and drug usage. His monograph on the history of Andean cocaine joins the ranks of other recent studies of legal and illegal stimulants, such as tobacco, alcohol, chocolate, and opium, that place global commodities and products within a specific local context. Gootenberg argues that while many global influences have shaped the history of cocaine, the evolution of coca and cocaine products and policies must also be considered from an Andean, and specifically a Peruvian, context. Gootenberg identifies three “long arcs” or historical trajectories that help to define the history of cocaine. The first period marked cocaine’s creation and the drug’s emergence as a “good drug” or medical commodity from 1850 to the early twentieth century, when legal products containing cocaine became affordable, accessible, and popular throughout the Western world. He takes great care in differentiating between the local medicinal and ritualistic uses of the coca leaf in Book Reviews 567 Andean cultures and the chemically altered stimulant, cocaine. European travelers to South America took great interest in coca leaves in the early nineteenth century, and researchers began experimenting to uncover the secrets of the magical plant. After German scientist Albert Niemann successfully isolated the alkaloid of the coca plant responsible for its stimulant effect in 1860, a global commodity market skyrocketed for the new drug, cocaine. Gootenberg recounts the well-known histories of numerous Western stimulant concoctions of the late nineteenth century that contained various amounts of cocaine, such as Vin Mariani, Coca-Cola, and the patent medicines that claimed to cure a number of maladies from depression to indigestion to migraines and other pains. But Gootenberg also chronicles the local attempts of Peruvian elites to transform coca into both a nationalistic expression and a global commodity. The Peruvian national coca movement outlined in the first two chapters is part of larger historical processes that arose out of a push for national self-identification and modernization throughout South America in the late nineteenth century. Promoting cocaine as a “modernizing good,” Peruvian leaders hoped to create a global market for cocaine products rivaling that of tea and coffee. During the second period, from the early twentieth century to the 1940s, the cocaine market declined as the United States pushed for greater regulation; cocaine itself eventually became a “pariah drug.” The Peruvian-based commodity networks that had emerged in the late nineteenth century dwindled after 1910. Several factors contributed to a decline in the market for Andean cocaine, including new medicines that provided alternative anesthetics to cocaine and growing competition from coca producers in Japan and the Dutch colonies. But the most substantial challenge came from new anticocaine laws passed in the United States and eventually in other nations in the early decades of the twentieth century. While U.S. imports of Peruvian cocaine declined precipitously during that time, scientists and other leaders in Peru attempted to salvage the struggling industry. Gootenberg recounts the campaigns of Dr. Carlos Enrique Paz Soldán, who blamed global cocaine blockades on local “cocamanía.” According to Paz Soldán, Peruvian Indians were descending into debauchery and ruin as they were left to consume the surplus of coca crops that had been marked for export in earlier decades. Paz Soldán recommended a Peruvian-run monopoly that would regulate the cocaine market for legal medicinal use, and he organized a nationalist coalition of prococaine interests within Peru to defend the industry against anticocaine pressures around the world. But an anticocaine movement gained strength in the United States, and U.S. leaders aggressively attempted to export 568 journal of world history, september 2010 those drug policies to other areas of the world. Gootenberg argues that World War II marked a major turning point for the Peruvian cocaine industry as closer cooperation with the United States and the creation of United Nations drug agencies limited and eventually ended the legal cocaine industry in Peru. Gootenberg’s third and final period in defining the history of cocaine takes place from 1945 to 1975, when an international market for cocaine as an illicit pleasure drug emerged. As cocaine prohibition became a worldwide norm in the 1940s and 1950s, small-scale smugglers from Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, and Brazil developed transportation networks to ship the illicit substance from South America to growing markets in U.S. cities. In 1949, U.S. law enforcement officials made the first international drug bust when they captured members of the Balarezo gang in New York City. The Balarezos had strong Peruvian connections, and allegations emerged tying the New York drug gang to Peruvian politics. In the 1950s, traffickers in Chile and Cuba played a major role in transporting illicit cocaine shipments from South America to the United States, and other Latin American nations followed in later decades. Significantly, Gootenberg illustrates that Colombian narcotics traffickers were not actively involved in the South American cocaine trade until after the 1970s. At that point, several developments converged to create a large local supply of illicit cocaine, an intricate trafficking network, and a growing demand for the recreational drug. Gootenberg explains local changes within Peru that pushed the peasantry into cocaine production. He outlines how Chilean cocaine trafficking eventually shifted to Colombian networks after the 1973 military coup that brought the rightwing military dictator Augusto Pinochet to power in Chile. Finally, Gootenberg examines the new cultural and political tensions within the United States that helped to fuel a growing drug culture and accelerated demand for cocaine. Andean Cocaine is a well-written and thoroughly researched study of the history of an important product in Andean history. The impressive array of sources and new interpretations of the role of cocaine in Peruvian and global histories make this a must-read for scholars in a number of fields, including Latin American history and politics, global and comparative histories, and cultural and economic studies. Gootenberg makes important contributions to the study of drug history in general, and the history of cocaine in particular, by placing the coca plant and cocaine in a global perspective while still maintaining a focus on the local context. monica rankin The University of Texas at Dallas Copyright of Journal of World History is the property of University of Hawaii Press and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. Central America Regional Security Initiative: Background and Policy Issues for Congress Peter J. Meyer Analyst in Latin American Affairs Clare Ribando Seelke Specialist in Latin American Affairs March 30, 2011 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R41731 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Central America Regional Security Initiative: Background and Policy Issues for Congress Summary Central America faces significant security challenges. Criminal threats, fragile political and judicial systems, and social hardships such as poverty and unemployment contribute to widespread insecurity in the region. Consequently, improving security conditions in these countries is a difficult, multifaceted endeavor. Because U.S. drug demand contributes to regional security challenges and the consequences of citizen insecurity in Central America are potentially far-reaching, the United States is collaborating with countries in the region to implement and refine security efforts. Criminal Threats Well-financed drug trafficking organizations (DTOs), along with transnational gangs and other organized criminal groups, threaten to overwhelm Central American governments. Counternarcotics efforts in Colombia and Mexico have put pressure on DTOs in those countries. As a result, many DTOs have increased their operations in Central America, a region with fewer resources and weaker institutions with which to combat drug trafficking and related criminality. Increasing flows of narcotics through Central America are contributing to rising levels of violence and the corruption of government officials, both of which are weakening citizens’ support for democratic governance and the rule of law. Given the transnational character of criminal organizations and their abilities to exploit ungoverned spaces, some analysts assert that insecurity in Central America poses a potential threat to the United States. Social and Political Factors Throughout Central America, underlying social conditions and structural weaknesses in governance inhibit efforts to improve security. Persistent poverty, inequality, and unemployment leave large portions of the population susceptible to crime. Given the limited opportunities other than emigration available to the expanding youth populations in Central America, young people are particularly vulnerable. At the same time, underfunded security forces and the failure to fully implement post-conflict institutional reforms initiated in several countries in the 1990s have left police, prisons, and judicial systems weak and susceptible to corruption. Approaches to Central American Security Despite these challenges, Central American governments have attempted to improve security conditions in a variety of ways. Governments in the “northern triangle” countries of Central America have tended to adopt more aggressive approaches, including deploying military forces to help police with public security functions and enacting tough anti-gang laws. Governments in other countries have emphasized prevention activities, such as intervention programs that focus on strengthening families of at-risk youth. Central American nations have also sought to improve regional cooperation, given the increasingly regional nature of the threats they face. U.S. Assistance To address growing security concerns, the Obama Administration has sought to develop collaborative partnerships with countries throughout the Western Hemisphere. In Central America, this has taken the form of the Central America Regional Security Initiative (CARSI). Congressional Research Service Central America Regional Security Initiative: Background and Policy Issues for Congress Originally created in FY2008 as part of the Mexico-focused counterdrug and anticrime assistance package known as the Mérida Initiative, CARSI takes a broad approach to the issue of security, funding various activities designed to support U.S. and Central American security objectives. In addition to providing the seven nations of Central America with equipment, training, and technical assistance to support immediate law enforcement and interdiction operations, CARSI seeks to strengthen the capacities of governmental institutions to address security challenges as well as the underlying economic and social conditions that contribute to them. Between FY2008 and FY2010, the United States provided Central America with $260 million through Mérida/CARSI. The Obama Administration requested $100 million for CARSI in FY2011 and an additional $100 million for CARSI in FY2012. Scope of This Report This report examines the extent of the security problems in Central America, the current efforts being undertaken by Central American governments to address them, and U.S. support for Central American efforts through the Central America Regional Security Initiative. It also raises potential policy issues for congressional consideration such as funding levels, human rights concerns, and how CARSI relates to other U.S. government policies. Congressional Research Service Central America Regional Security Initiative: Background and Policy Issues for Congress Contents Introduction ................................................................................................................................1 Background: Scope of the Problem .............................................................................................4 Underlying Societal Conditions.............................................................................................5 Structural Weaknesses in Governance....................................................................................6 Criminal Threats ...................................................................................................................7 Drug Trafficking Organizations .......................................................................................7 Gangs .............................................................................................................................9 Other Criminal Organizations........................................................................................ 10 Efforts Within Central America ................................................................................................. 11 Law Enforcement Approaches............................................................................................. 12 Prevention........................................................................................................................... 14 Counterdrug Efforts ............................................................................................................ 15 Regional Security Efforts .................................................................................................... 16 U.S. Policy................................................................................................................................ 17 Background on Assistance to Central America..................................................................... 18 Central America Regional Security Initiative....................................................................... 19 Formulation .................................................................................................................. 19 Funding from FY2008-FY2012..................................................................................... 20 Programs ...................................................................................................................... 22 Implementation ............................................................................................................. 25 Performance Measures .................................................................................................. 26 Additional Issues for Congressional Consideration.................................................................... 27 Funding Issues .................................................................................................................... 27 Human Rights Concerns...................................................................................................... 29 Relation to Other U.S. Government Policies........................................................................ 30 Outlook..................................................................................................................................... 32 Figures Figure 1. Map of Central America ............................................................................................... 3 Figure 2. Crime Victimization Rates in Mexico and Central America...........................................5 Figure 3. Central American Drug Trafficking Routes ...................................................................8 Tables Table 1. Estimated Homicide Rates in Central America and Mexico, 2005-2010..........................4 Table 2. Estimated Cocaine Seizures in 2010, by Country.......................................................... 16 Table 3. Funding for the Central America Regional Security Initiative, FY2008-FY2012........... 21 Table 4. Status of Central America Regional Security Initiative Funds, March 2011................... 26 Table A-1. Central America Development Indicators ................................................................. 34 Congressional Research Service Central America Regional Security Initiative: Background and Policy Issues for Congress Table A-2. Central America Poverty and Inequality Indicators ................................................... 35 Appendixes Appendix. Central America Social Indicators ............................................................................ 34 Contacts Author Contact Information ...................................................................................................... 35 Acknowledgments .................................................................................................................... 35 Congressional Research Service Central America Regional Security Initiative: Background and Policy Issues for Congress Introduction The security situation in Central America1 has deteriorated in recent years as gangs, drug traffickers, and other criminal groups have expanded their activities in the region, contributing to escalating levels of crime and violence that have alarmed citizens and threaten to overwhelm governments. Violence is particularly intense in the “northern triangle” countries of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras, which have some of the highest homicide rates in the world. Citizens of nearly every Central American nation now rank public insecurity as the top problem facing their countries.2 Moreover, some analysts maintain that the pervasive lack of security in the region not only threatens Central American governments and civil society, but presents a potential threat to the United States.3 Given the proximity of Central America, instability in the region— whether in the form of declining support for democracy as a result of corrupt governance, drug traffickers acting with impunity as a result of weak state presence, or increased emigration as a result of economic and physical insecurity—is likely to affect the United States. Although some analysts assert that the current situation in Central America presents a greater th ...
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Running head: DISCUSSION POST

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Discussion Post
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DISCUSSION POST

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QUESTION ONE:

Postwar Decades of Cocaine's Resurgence into Two Stages, 1947-59 and 1959-64.
The cocaine trade, which culminated in what is now known as the biggest cartels and
drug resurgence errors in history, can be dated back to the early 1940s. Cocaine trafficking,
which was led by many traffickers in the business, profoundly grew from 1947 to 1964. The
trade was led by the Peruvians, Bolivians, Chileans, Brazilians, Argentines, Mexicans, and
Cubans. Drug trafficking reached a high in this era, with many daring men and women
participating in the business (Gootenberg, 2007). There were middlemen involved in the trade
the distribution of the drug from the coca farms to markets. The cocaine business hit a whole
time high in this error and led to the emergence of drug cartels such as the infamous Pablo
Escobar. These drug cartels leveraged billions of dollars that up until recently, their
accomplices have not been discovered.
Stage one: 1947 to 1959
The war on cocaine begun in the year 1947 with the contribution of the American
government. Many laws, measures, and policies were put in place with the reinforcement of
the Federal Bureau of Narcotics and the Drug Enforcement Agencies (Gootenberg, 2007).
They dedicated to ending the war on drugs. In this era, drug trafficking incidences were very
high, with many markets targeting the youth in Miami and New York. From 1947 to 1959, is
what is regarded as the birth of the illicit in Peru. Before the war years on cocaine, the
country Peru had no rules on the drug, and measures were not in place to curb the trade and
farming of the drug. This gave more room for the growth of the drug.
The shift of the idea of cocaine was changed thanks to the international pressu...

ProfJamesmiller (20516)
UT Austin

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