Writing
CMRJ 526 American Public WK6 Smuggling and Trafficking of Illegal Drugs Paper

CMRJ 526

American Public University System

CMRJ

Question Description

Need help with my Political Science question - I’m studying for my class.

250 words and 1 reference for support is also the minimal for each numbered paragraph below; this does not mean by meeting the minimal expectation that you will be awarded an "A." This is a Master's Degree program and course and the award of maximum credit is reserved only for those posts that are exemplary!

Also the content of the Forum Assignment will often ask the student to take a position on a particular topic. However, this is not a strict opinion paper in which you the student can just make a statement of what you think or what your experiences are on a topic. Instead, the student needs to support their opinion or experiences with qualifying research from academic source. APA 6th edition citations and references must be used always!

Hence, do not include statements such as great work, or excellent post. Try to include information that is challenging and respectful and that will stimulate debate. Additionally, please remember that simply posting the main post and a student colleague response post does not end the forum; the discussion forum should be dialogue that is continual until the Sunday deadline. Also, be mindful of including references and citations whenever citing facts to support your position.



1947-1959

It is almost difficult to envision a time period where cocaine was not illegal, yet before 1945, its production in small-scale remained legal. However, by 1947, smuggling from Peru began with corridors ranging from Chile, Cuba, Brazil, and Argentina rose to link to other Latin American cities (Gootenberg, 2007). The eastern-central town of Huanuco Peru is known as the cradle of cocaine, within the same time, cocaine- making became undoable due to the closedown of the Huanuco factory. From 1947-1949, a time when the UN came together came to the decision that cocaine needed to be banned and the cultivation, as well as the chewing of native coca, had to be significantly reduced. Peru took the initiative and barred cocaine in its entirety by issuing several punitive drug control methods. Bolivia, on the other hand, did not take this same approach and instead took another decade to comply with the campaign goals (Gootenberg, 2007). In 1949, U.S. law enforcement officials made the first international drug bust when they captured members of the Balarezo gang in New York City, a gang known to have solid connections to Peruvian dealers. Moving on to the 1950s, traffickers in Chile and Cuba played a major role in transporting illicit cocaine shipments from South America to the United States, and other Latin American nations followed in later decades. Cuban couriers also took an active role by Cuban labs preparing cocaine for distribution in the U.S. The rest of the 1950s took the spotlight off of Peru as the cocaine-making, while transforming regular crude cocaine into a new product known as the cocaine paste. By 1959, it was Chile that accounted for half the cocaine seizures at the U.S. Borders.

1959-1964

After 1960, it is reported that more cocaine moved via Mexico, as Chileans evolved into organized international drug rings (Gootenberg, 2007). American mafias also were reported to cease domestic markets to Cuba cocaine retailers. Gootenberg’s account of cocaine’s resurgence is composed of accounts around the world such as that of trafficker Alfredo Bello a Brazilian owner of several gaming houses and dens which was arrest for cocaine possession in 1961. In of it itself, every nation was facing exponential growth in drug smuggling in or out of their nation. For example, pressures on Bolivia came to a head after the 1961 Blanca Ibáñez fiasco, Bolivian cocaine seizures at U.S. borders, and the 1961 FBN survey of cocaine routing, which dramatized the new range of inter-American cocaine merchants (Gootenberg,2007). By the mids-1960s the Ades-Mexican routes were known as the main supply route for cocaine aimed at the underbelly of the United States and was also an introduction to the Sinaloan drug lords of the 80s. By the late 1960s, airport arrests show opportunistic Argentines tapping drug flights to Miami and Europe.

Question 2

The Mexican border is approximately 1,954 miles long, of which 700 miles have fencing barriers and another 300 has anti-vehicle barriers, leaving ample room for drug smuggling, human trafficking, among other crimes directly related to organized crime organizations (The Current State of the Border Fence Key Highlights, 2019). Mexican drug cartels have utilized several methods to transport narcotics into the U.S., one of the most common methods is illegal border crossings, including the use of tunnels, drones, and water. While the Trump administration has successfully moved towards elongating the physical wall to reduce illegal traffic into the country, a wall will not stop drug trafficking. The Mexican Drug Cartels have been known to make use of underground tunnels which can be equipped with rail systems that transport heavy packages up to thirty-five tons. To detect tunnels, a Tunnel Task Force is tasked with discovering tunnels across the country and sealing them, which since 2001, more than 60 tunnels have identified, many running as far as eight football fields in length (Solis, n.d.).

Mexican Cartels are not only linked to thousands of murders, but they have also expanded operations to include kidnapping, extortion, and human smuggling. Mexican Cartels have defied U.S. Drug Policies from the very beginning, this was first displayed through the prohibition of alcohol where Mexican gangs began trafficking alcohol for illegal consumption in our Country. The same defilement has continued as Mexican smuggling activities have adjusted to the demand of consumers as well as the legalization of marijuana. The Mexican Cartels present a staggering threat to its own country and U.S security by being one of the most powerful cartels that feed smaller gangs, addiction, and is directly related to increased crime rates. U.S. training provided by border patrol agents has been vital to ensuring that Mexican federal police officers are given the tools necessary to combat the violence that breeds from cartels; however, the efforts have not gone gar. The cartels have been successful in the intimidation of the Mexican forces, where weakness against organized crime proves to both the community and the cartel that they still pose over the government.

Operation Intercept was one of the earlier attempts to weaken Mexican drug cartels and drug use overall. During his administration, President Nixon experienced a crisis of drug use and believed that the Mexican government was not taking an aggressive enough approach in the prevention of drugs crossing into the U.S. The Operation was called on by former President Nixon and involved the searching of vehicles of those attempting to cross the southern border. The Operation, however, only lasted 17 days as the search of vehicles backed up the transportation of goods coming into the country and eventually impacted the economy on both ends. Operation Condor took place between 1976 to 1978 where Mexican authorities agreed to work with the US in an anti-drug offensive (Grillo, 2019). The US provided the Mexican government with Helicopters, aircraft, which were used by Mexico to spray crops in the Sierra Madre, while soldiers stormed into villages targeting alleged traffickers. While the cartels did take a significant loss throughout the operations, they continued to establish operations in Guadalajara. However, the Operation also became known for specializing in abductions, torture as a method of interrogation, and the creation of teams to conduct assassinations (McSherry, 2001).

References

Gootenberg, P. (2007). The “Pre-Colombian” Era of Drug Trafficking in the Americas: Cocaine, 1945-1965. The Americas, 64(2). Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy1.apus.edu/docv...

Grillo, I. (2019, October 18). How The Sinaloa Cartel Just Beat The Mexican Army . Time. Retrieved from https://time.com/5705358/sinaloa-cartel-mexico-cul...

McSherry, P. J. (2001). Operation Condor: Deciphering the U.S. Role. Retrieved from Crimes of War website: https://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/art...

Solis, G. (n.d.). Drug smuggling, and the endless battle to stop it. Retrieved from USA Today website: https://www.usatoday.com/border-wall/story/drug-tr...

The Current State of the Border Fence Key Highlights. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.fairus.org/sites/default/files/2019-05...

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566 journal of world history, september 2010 end of the book when the wealth of information they provide make her argument stronger and would have been more usefully deployed as footnotes. Be that as it may, the reader is advised to pay attention to them for they will repay the effort. In spite of these difficulties, this book is worth reading and makes a valuable contribution to the field, lending nuance and subtlety to a discussion that has suffered direly from the lack of such introspection. john p. turner Colby College Andean Cocaine: The Making of a Global Drug. By paul gootenberg. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2008. 464 pp. $65.00 (cloth); $24.95 (paper). From the coca fields of the Andean mountainsides to the laboratories of European chemists and eventually to the streets of U.S. cities, the history of cocaine has been long and complex. And until now the history of cocaine has been largely untold. In Andean Cocaine, Paul Gootenberg, relying on documentation from a panoply of diverse sources such as nineteenth-century medical journals, Amazonian land records, contemporary news accounts, and U.S. drug agency reports, crafts a narrative of cocaine that is firmly rooted in its Andean, and specifically Peruvian, origins. Using an approach that he calls the “new drug history,” Gootenberg is helping to replace the conversation about the history of illicit drugs, previously dominated by medical and journalistic accounts, with a historical and interdisciplinary examination of drugs and drug usage. His monograph on the history of Andean cocaine joins the ranks of other recent studies of legal and illegal stimulants, such as tobacco, alcohol, chocolate, and opium, that place global commodities and products within a specific local context. Gootenberg argues that while many global influences have shaped the history of cocaine, the evolution of coca and cocaine products and policies must also be considered from an Andean, and specifically a Peruvian, context. Gootenberg identifies three “long arcs” or historical trajectories that help to define the history of cocaine. The first period marked cocaine’s creation and the drug’s emergence as a “good drug” or medical commodity from 1850 to the early twentieth century, when legal products containing cocaine became affordable, accessible, and popular throughout the Western world. He takes great care in differentiating between the local medicinal and ritualistic uses of the coca leaf in Book Reviews 567 Andean cultures and the chemically altered stimulant, cocaine. European travelers to South America took great interest in coca leaves in the early nineteenth century, and researchers began experimenting to uncover the secrets of the magical plant. After German scientist Albert Niemann successfully isolated the alkaloid of the coca plant responsible for its stimulant effect in 1860, a global commodity market skyrocketed for the new drug, cocaine. Gootenberg recounts the well-known histories of numerous Western stimulant concoctions of the late nineteenth century that contained various amounts of cocaine, such as Vin Mariani, Coca-Cola, and the patent medicines that claimed to cure a number of maladies from depression to indigestion to migraines and other pains. But Gootenberg also chronicles the local attempts of Peruvian elites to transform coca into both a nationalistic expression and a global commodity. The Peruvian national coca movement outlined in the first two chapters is part of larger historical processes that arose out of a push for national self-identification and modernization throughout South America in the late nineteenth century. Promoting cocaine as a “modernizing good,” Peruvian leaders hoped to create a global market for cocaine products rivaling that of tea and coffee. During the second period, from the early twentieth century to the 1940s, the cocaine market declined as the United States pushed for greater regulation; cocaine itself eventually became a “pariah drug.” The Peruvian-based commodity networks that had emerged in the late nineteenth century dwindled after 1910. Several factors contributed to a decline in the market for Andean cocaine, including new medicines that provided alternative anesthetics to cocaine and growing competition from coca producers in Japan and the Dutch colonies. But the most substantial challenge came from new anticocaine laws passed in the United States and eventually in other nations in the early decades of the twentieth century. While U.S. imports of Peruvian cocaine declined precipitously during that time, scientists and other leaders in Peru attempted to salvage the struggling industry. Gootenberg recounts the campaigns of Dr. Carlos Enrique Paz Soldán, who blamed global cocaine blockades on local “cocamanía.” According to Paz Soldán, Peruvian Indians were descending into debauchery and ruin as they were left to consume the surplus of coca crops that had been marked for export in earlier decades. Paz Soldán recommended a Peruvian-run monopoly that would regulate the cocaine market for legal medicinal use, and he organized a nationalist coalition of prococaine interests within Peru to defend the industry against anticocaine pressures around the world. But an anticocaine movement gained strength in the United States, and U.S. leaders aggressively attempted to export 568 journal of world history, september 2010 those drug policies to other areas of the world. Gootenberg argues that World War II marked a major turning point for the Peruvian cocaine industry as closer cooperation with the United States and the creation of United Nations drug agencies limited and eventually ended the legal cocaine industry in Peru. Gootenberg’s third and final period in defining the history of cocaine takes place from 1945 to 1975, when an international market for cocaine as an illicit pleasure drug emerged. As cocaine prohibition became a worldwide norm in the 1940s and 1950s, small-scale smugglers from Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, and Brazil developed transportation networks to ship the illicit substance from South America to growing markets in U.S. cities. In 1949, U.S. law enforcement officials made the first international drug bust when they captured members of the Balarezo gang in New York City. The Balarezos had strong Peruvian connections, and allegations emerged tying the New York drug gang to Peruvian politics. In the 1950s, traffickers in Chile and Cuba played a major role in transporting illicit cocaine shipments from South America to the United States, and other Latin American nations followed in later decades. Significantly, Gootenberg illustrates that Colombian narcotics traffickers were not actively involved in the South American cocaine trade until after the 1970s. At that point, several developments converged to create a large local supply of illicit cocaine, an intricate trafficking network, and a growing demand for the recreational drug. Gootenberg explains local changes within Peru that pushed the peasantry into cocaine production. He outlines how Chilean cocaine trafficking eventually shifted to Colombian networks after the 1973 military coup that brought the rightwing military dictator Augusto Pinochet to power in Chile. Finally, Gootenberg examines the new cultural and political tensions within the United States that helped to fuel a growing drug culture and accelerated demand for cocaine. Andean Cocaine is a well-written and thoroughly researched study of the history of an important product in Andean history. The impressive array of sources and new interpretations of the role of cocaine in Peruvian and global histories make this a must-read for scholars in a number of fields, including Latin American history and politics, global and comparative histories, and cultural and economic studies. Gootenberg makes important contributions to the study of drug history in general, and the history of cocaine in particular, by placing the coca plant and cocaine in a global perspective while still maintaining a focus on the local context. monica rankin The University of Texas at Dallas Copyright of Journal of World History is the property of University of Hawaii Press and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. Central America Regional Security Initiative: Background and Policy Issues for Congress Peter J. Meyer Analyst in Latin American Affairs Clare Ribando Seelke Specialist in Latin American Affairs March 30, 2011 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R41731 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Central America Regional Security Initiative: Background and Policy Issues for Congress Summary Central America faces significant security challenges. Criminal threats, fragile political and judicial systems, and social hardships such as poverty and unemployment contribute to widespread insecurity in the region. Consequently, improving security conditions in these countries is a difficult, multifaceted endeavor. Because U.S. drug demand contributes to regional security challenges and the consequences of citizen insecurity in Central America are potentially far-reaching, the United States is collaborating with countries in the region to implement and refine security efforts. Criminal Threats Well-financed drug trafficking organizations (DTOs), along with transnational gangs and other organized criminal groups, threaten to overwhelm Central American governments. Counternarcotics efforts in Colombia and Mexico have put pressure on DTOs in those countries. As a result, many DTOs have increased their operations in Central America, a region with fewer resources and weaker institutions with which to combat drug trafficking and related criminality. Increasing flows of narcotics through Central America are contributing to rising levels of violence and the corruption of government officials, both of which are weakening citizens’ support for democratic governance and the rule of law. Given the transnational character of criminal organizations and their abilities to exploit ungoverned spaces, some analysts assert that insecurity in Central America poses a potential threat to the United States. Social and Political Factors Throughout Central America, underlying social conditions and structural weaknesses in governance inhibit efforts to improve security. Persistent poverty, inequality, and unemployment leave large portions of the population susceptible to crime. Given the limited opportunities other than emigration available to the expanding youth populations in Central America, young people are particularly vulnerable. At the same time, underfunded security forces and the failure to fully implement post-conflict institutional reforms initiated in several countries in the 1990s have left police, prisons, and judicial systems weak and susceptible to corruption. Approaches to Central American Security Despite these challenges, Central American governments have attempted to improve security conditions in a variety of ways. Governments in the “northern triangle” countries of Central America have tended to adopt more aggressive approaches, including deploying military forces to help police with public security functions and enacting tough anti-gang laws. Governments in other countries have emphasized prevention activities, such as intervention programs that focus on strengthening families of at-risk youth. Central American nations have also sought to improve regional cooperation, given the increasingly regional nature of the threats they face. U.S. Assistance To address growing security concerns, the Obama Administration has sought to develop collaborative partnerships with countries throughout the Western Hemisphere. In Central America, this has taken the form of the Central America Regional Security Initiative (CARSI). Congressional Research Service Central America Regional Security Initiative: Background and Policy Issues for Congress Originally created in FY2008 as part of the Mexico-focused counterdrug and anticrime assistance package known as the Mérida Initiative, CARSI takes a broad approach to the issue of security, funding various activities designed to support U.S. and Central American security objectives. In addition to providing the seven nations of Central America with equipment, training, and technical assistance to support immediate law enforcement and interdiction operations, CARSI seeks to strengthen the capacities of governmental institutions to address security challenges as well as the underlying economic and social conditions that contribute to them. Between FY2008 and FY2010, the United States provided Central America with $260 million through Mérida/CARSI. The Obama Administration requested $100 million for CARSI in FY2011 and an additional $100 million for CARSI in FY2012. Scope of This Report This report examines the extent of the security problems in Central America, the current efforts being undertaken by Central American governments to address them, and U.S. support for Central American efforts through the Central America Regional Security Initiative. It also raises potential policy issues for congressional consideration such as funding levels, human rights concerns, and how CARSI relates to other U.S. government policies. Congressional Research Service Central America Regional Security Initiative: Background and Policy Issues for Congress Contents Introduction ................................................................................................................................1 Background: Scope of the Problem .............................................................................................4 Underlying Societal Conditions.............................................................................................5 Structural Weaknesses in Governance....................................................................................6 Criminal Threats ...................................................................................................................7 Drug Trafficking Organizations .......................................................................................7 Gangs .............................................................................................................................9 Other Criminal Organizations........................................................................................ 10 Efforts Within Central America ................................................................................................. 11 Law Enforcement Approaches............................................................................................. 12 Prevention........................................................................................................................... 14 Counterdrug Efforts ............................................................................................................ 15 Regional Security Efforts .................................................................................................... 16 U.S. Policy................................................................................................................................ 17 Background on Assistance to Central America..................................................................... 18 Central America Regional Security Initiative....................................................................... 19 Formulation .................................................................................................................. 19 Funding from FY2008-FY2012..................................................................................... 20 Programs ...................................................................................................................... 22 Implementation ............................................................................................................. 25 Performance Measures .................................................................................................. 26 Additional Issues for Congressional Consideration.................................................................... 27 Funding Issues .................................................................................................................... 27 Human Rights Concerns...................................................................................................... 29 Relation to Other U.S. Government Policies........................................................................ 30 Outlook..................................................................................................................................... 32 Figures Figure 1. Map of Central America ............................................................................................... 3 Figure 2. Crime Victimization Rates in Mexico and Central America...........................................5 Figure 3. Central American Drug Trafficking Routes ...................................................................8 Tables Table 1. Estimated Homicide Rates in Central America and Mexico, 2005-2010..........................4 Table 2. Estimated Cocaine Seizures in 2010, by Country.......................................................... 16 Table 3. Funding for the Central America Regional Security Initiative, FY2008-FY2012........... 21 Table 4. Status of Central America Regional Security Initiative Funds, March 2011................... 26 Table A-1. Central America Development Indicators ................................................................. 34 Congressional Research Service Central America Regional Security Initiative: Background and Policy Issues for Congress Table A-2. Central America Poverty and Inequality Indicators ................................................... 35 Appendixes Appendix. Central America Social Indicators ............................................................................ 34 Contacts Author Contact Information ...................................................................................................... 35 Acknowledgments .................................................................................................................... 35 Congressional Research Service Central America Regional Security Initiative: Background and Policy Issues for Congress Introduction The security situation in Central America1 has deteriorated in recent years as gangs, drug traffickers, and other criminal groups have expanded their activities in the region, contributing to escalating levels of crime and violence that have alarmed citizens and threaten to overwhelm governments. Violence is particularly intense in the “northern triangle” countries of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras, which have some of the highest homicide rates in the world. Citizens of nearly every Central American nation now rank public insecurity as the top problem facing their countries.2 Moreover, some analysts maintain that the pervasive lack of security in the region not only threatens Central American governments and civil society, but presents a potential threat to the United States.3 Given the proximity of Central America, instability in the region— whether in the form of declining support for democracy as a result of corrupt governance, drug traffickers acting with impunity as a result of weak state presence, or increased emigration as a result of economic and physical insecurity—is likely to affect the United States. Although some analysts assert that the current situation in Central America presents a greater th ...
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I agree with you that smuggling and trafficking of illegal drugs in the United States has
been a long-standing problem for US society. Indeed, the problem of drug abuse and trafficking
became common between the 1960s and 1960s. By the 1960s majority of the youths have turned
to illegal drugs in the country, which facilitated an increase of crime and homicides as gang
groups fought over control of the drug territories. At this period, the drugs were believed to
originate from Peru, which was later smuggled in the US border through Cuba, Chile, Argentina,
and Brazil routes (Gootenberg, 2008). The smuggle and selling of cocaine was facilitated by
drug mafias.
Although it is difficult to trace the origin of cocaine, it is grown ubiquitously in Peru. In
the 1800s, cocaine, which is extracte...

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