Writing
GCU Artificial Intelligence Technology and Its Significance to American Society Paper

Grand Canyon University

Question Description

Need help with my Writing question - I’m studying for my class.

700-800 words

Consider technological innovations and developments in your field or other fields and address both of the following questions. First, examine the social consequences of one such innovation and describe how this innovation has either increased or decreased social justice and inequality in the U.S. Then, discuss whether and/or how this will influence constructive and deconstructive interactions between people from different cultural, racial, and ethnic groups within the U.S. Please integrate course material (concepts, theories, discussions, lectures, readings). Please cite at least one course reading and one appropriate source from outside class. All course materials are posted on the course homepage.

Instruction: Please review the rubrics before you start writing the paper. Your paper should have a clear structure, including a thesis, body paragraphs with clear topic sentences and focused discussions, and a conclusion. You can use any major citation format (APA, IEEE, Chicago, MLA), but should include an intext citation and a reference list for each citation.

Format: double space, 12 font size

Class information: My major is software engineering. The course is a senior project course mixed with English and Engineering knowledge.

Please don’t forget to cite at least one course reading (lecture slides attached) and atleast two appropriate source from outside class.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

ENGR 195A WEEK 4 ENGR 195A Course Plan • Unit 1 Social constructionism, social problems and social inequality • Unit 2 Technology and its social consequences • Unit 3 Identity, positionality and social justice in the Tech world Reflection Paper #2 • 700-800 words • Consider technological innovations and developments in your field or other fields. Describe how one such innovation has either increased or decreased social justice and inequality in the U.S. Finally, discuss whether and/or how this will influence constructive and deconstructive interactions between people from different cultural, racial, and ethnic groups within the U.S. Please integrate course material (concepts, theories, discussions, lectures, readings). Cite at least one course reading and one appropriate source from outside class. • Please review the rubrics before you start writing the paper. DISCUSSION • Can you find moments in your life when your life is not shaped or affected by technology? IS TECHNOLOGY VALUE NEUTRAL? DOES ITS USAGE DEPEND ON ITS USER? SANDLER, R. (2014). INTRODUCTION: TECHNOLOGY AND ETHICS: The “function” of an engineering product • Technical artifacts are made to serve some purpose. • Whether it is an end product or a component of a larger piece, an artifact is ‘for something’, which is called the artifact’s function. • The goals of technical artifacts are represented by their value or utility for the decision maker • The neutrality thesis • Purpose/goals-functions: there is no neutrality Whose values/wishes/purposes are realized through technology? • What Engineers Know And How They Know It (Vincenti 1990): A Six-fold Categorization Of Engineering Design Knowledge 1. Fundamental design concepts, including primarily the operational principle and the normal configuration of a particular device; 2. Criteria and specifications; 3. Theoretical tools; 4. Quantitative data; 5. Practical considerations; 6. Design instrumentalities. Common concerns of emerging technologies: extrinsic concerns (regarding consequences) • Environment, Health, and Safety (EHS) (geo-engineering) • Individual rights and liberties (big data, surveillance technology) • Autonomy, authenticity, and identity (bio-engineering, neurotechnology, brain-machine integration technology) • Dual use and un-intended outcomes • Source: Sandler, 2014 Common concerns of emerging technologies: intrinsic concerns (objection to technology itself) • Humans playing God • Hubris/arrogance • Violate nature • Source: Sandler, 2014 A framework for ethical analysis of emerging technologies (life cycle analysis) • Benefits of technology • Extrinsic concerns • Power analysis: who is empowered and who is disempowered by the technology • Form of life analysis • Intrinsic concerns • Alternative approaches • Source: Sandler, 2014 Types of value • Instrumental value • Final value • Subjective final value • Objective final value • Source: Sandler, 2014 Types of ethical theories • Deontological • Consequentialism • Virtue oriented • Combination CONSEQUENTIALISM AND DEONTOLOGY QUIZ: WHAT VALUE DOES A HUMAN BEING HAVE ACCORDING TO SANDLER (2014), INTRODUCTION: TECHNOLOGY AND ETHICS, • A. Instrumental value • B. Subjective final value • C. Objective final value Big Data, social media, and the Internet SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES • Privacy • Human relationship • Democracy What is privacy? Why do we care about privacy? Data Collection (Jan Stanley and Barry Steinhardt, 2015) • Video surveillance • Data surveillance • The commodification of information • Genetic privacy • New data-gathering technologies: • Cell phone location data • Biometrics • Black boxes • FRID chips • Implantable GPS chips The “Total Information Awareness” program • The Pentagon’s “Total Information Awareness” (TIA) program • Aim: to develop “ultra-large-scale database technologies” to treat “the worldwide, distributed, legacy databases as if they were one centralized database.” (Program director John Poindexter) • To give officials easy, unified access to every possible government and commercial database in the world. • The “Human Identification at a Distance” program (the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) DISCUSSION (IN GROUPS OF 2 OR 3) • What aspects of your life has been collected as data? Who are collecting the data? For what purposes are they using the data or will they potentially use the data? What worries you the most? The concept of privacy • Normative concept of privacy: linking privacy with higher order values • Privacy as individual rights v.s. societal values: • Individual autonomy (e.g. free speech) v.s. social order • Individual liberty v.s. national security • Personal autonomy v.s. freedom of the market • Source: Dobner et al. (2015) • Descriptive concept of privacy: privacy as degrees of freedom • Privacy as restriction on other people’s access to an individual’s personal information • Privacy as an individual’s control over personal information. I have nothing to hide, why do I still care about my privacy? What do we lose by losing privacy? Jeroen van den Hoven (2015) • Information-based harm • Informational inequality (individuals’ data are collected and traded but not in a fair and transparent market environment. • Informational injustice and discrimination (distribution of information should accommodate local meaning and the context of the information) • Moral autonomy and identity Privacy and moral autonomy (Van den Hoven, 2015) • Moral autonomy: the capacity to shape one’s own moral biographies. • Privacy should “provide protection to the individual in his quality of a moral person engaged in self-definition, self-presentation, and self-improvement against the normative pressures which public opinions and moral judgments exert on the person to conform to a socially desired identity.” (p.293) THE VALUE OF THE INDIVIDUAL AND HER/HIS RIGHTS? POLL • In the FBI-Apple encryption dispute, which of the following do you support? • A. The FBI. Apple should unlock the phone for the sake of national/public security. • B. Apple. Apple did the right thing to protect the rights of its consumers. • C. Both sides have a point and they should come to an agreement. • D. I don’t know. Ethical value as a design input • To make moral values part of technological design and development SOCIAL MEDIA AND HUMAN RELATIONSHIP POLL • How many hours do you spend on social media each day? 1. One hour or less 2. 2-3 hours 3. 3-4 hours 4. 4-5 hours 5. More than 5 hours Questions • Who have been brought closer to you through social media? • How has social media affected your relationship with your family and friends? • How has social media affected other aspects of your life (leisure, relationship with nature, etc.)? • Polarization of opinions POLL: How do you think social media has contributed to dialogues among people holding different political/social/cultural positions? • A. Social media has provided a platform for people to discuss their differences. As a result, people now understand each other better. • B. People have become more divided partly due to their confrontations in social media. • C. Social media has led to both A and B. • D. I don’t know. The Spread Of True and False News Online Soroush Vosoughi, Deb Roy, and Sinan Aral (2018) • Lies spread faster than the truth • False news reached more people than the truth; the top 1% of false news cascades diffused to between 1000 and 100,000 people, whereas the truth rarely diffused to more than 1000 people. Falsehood also diffused faster than the truth. The degree of novelty and the emotional reactions of recipients may be responsible for the differences observed. • Falsehood diffused significantly farther, faster, deeper, and more broadly than the truth in all categories of information, and the effects were more pronounced for false political news than for false news about terrorism, natural disasters, science, urban legends, or financial information. The Spread Of True and False News Online Soroush Vosoughi, Deb Roy, and Sinan Aral (2018) • Abstract • We investigated the differential diffusion of all of the verified true and false news stories distributed on twitter from 2006 to 2017. The data comprise ~126,000 stories tweeted by ~3 million people more than 4.5 million times. We classified news as true or false using information from six independent fact-checking organizations that exhibited 95 to 98% agreement on the classifications. DEEP FAKE • HTTPS://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=GLOI9HAX9DW Can democracy survive big data and false news? Civil Rights, Big Data, and Our Algorithmic Future A September 2014 report on social justice and technology • Data crunching can aggravate employer bias. • Hiring algorithms are often seen as an “objective,” meritocratic assessment—free of irrational emotion or biases. • But applied on a mass scale, big data can reinforce and mask prejudice. • The mining of social media and google-search data can reinforce systemic discrimination. THE HIRING ALGORITHM: IS IT FAIR AND OBJECTIVE Researcher David Robinson • “Any time someone is the victim of old-fashioned human discrimination, that discrimination is likely to be reflected in some of the data points that these new algorithms measure. Culturally speaking, there is a real tendency to defer to decisions that come from computers—which means if we’re not careful, it is reasonable to expect that computers will sanitize biased inputs into neutral-seeming outputs.” Algorithmic Accountability By Nicholas Diakopoulos • Algorithmic accountability: to articulate “the power structures, biases, and influences that computational artifacts play in society.” (P.398) • Computational models: influence of values, biases and ideologies? EMBEDDED VALUES IN ALGORITHM • Atomic decisions that algorithms make: prioritization, classification, association, and filtering. • Prioritization algorithm: • criteria computed to define a ranking through a sorting procedure. • Embedded: a set of choices and value-propositions deciding what gets pushed to the top. • Training data THE POSSIBILITY OF TRANSPARENCY • Obstacles: Trade Secretes, National Security, Competition • How do we look into algorithms? REVERSE ENGINEERING • Input and output observations: limited information • Knowledge limits of the investigators and audience Several Informational Dimensions That Might Be Disclosed In A Standard Transparency Policy For Algorithm (1) the criteria used to prioritize, rank, emphasize, or editorialize things in the algorithm, including their definitions, operationalizations, and possibly even alternatives; (2) what data act as inputs to the algorithm and other parameters; (3) the accuracy including the false positive and false negative rate of errors made in classification; (4) descriptions of training data and its potential bias, including the evolution and dynamics of the algorithm as it learns from data; and (5) the definitions, operationalizations, or thresholds used by similarity or classification algorithms. Quotes From Algorithmic Accountability • “Training data is used to teach the algorithm how to separate classes. That training data is often gathered from people who inspect thousands of examples and tag each instance according to its category. The algorithm learns how to classify based on the definitions and criteria humans used to produce the training data, thus potentially introducing human bias into the classifier.” • “In general, there are two kinds of mistakes a classification algorithm can make— false positives and false negatives.” Quotes From Algorithmic Accountability • “There are myriad ways in which algorithms interact with and potentially problematize public life, including how they necessitate the datafication of the world, create complex feedback loops with social data, or encourage the creation of calculated publics (gillespie 2014). Here I focus on the underlying and perhaps intrinsic crux of algorithmic power: autonomous decision-making. Algorithmic decisions can be based on heuristics and rules, or calculations over massive amounts of data.” Quotes From Algorithmic Accountability • “Ibm’s infosphere identity insight is a system that builds up context around people (the entities in this example)” • “Filtering decisions exert their power by either over-emphasizing or censoring certain information. The notion of a “filter bubble” is largely predicated on the idea that by only exposing people to information that they already agree with (by overemphasiz- ing it) it amplifies biases and hampers people’s development of diverse and healthy perspectives (pariser 2011).” Quotes From Algorithmic Accountability • “Algorithmic accountability must therefore consider algorithms as objects of human creation and take into account intent, including that of any group or institutional processes that may have influenced their design, as well as the agency of human actors in interpreting the output of algorithms in the course of making higher- level decisions.” • “Transparency is far from a complete solution to balancing algorithmic power.” Quotes From Algorithmic Accountability • “Reverse engineering is the process of articulating the specifications of a system through a rigorous examination drawing on domain knowledge, observation, and deduction to unearth a model of how that system works. It is “the process of extracting the knowledge or design blueprints from anything man-made” (eilam 2005, 3). P. 404” • “Alking to a system’s designers can also uncover useful information: design decisions, descriptions of the objectives, constraints, and business rules embedded in the system, major changes that have happened over time, as well as implementation details that might be relevant (chikofsky 1990; singh 2013).” Quotes From Algorithmic Accountability • ‘The google autocomplete FAQ reads, “we exclude a narrow class of search queries related to pornography, violence, hate speech, and copyright infringement.”’ • “Algorithms may be unstable and change over time, or have randomness built in to them, which makes understanding patterns in their input–output relationship much more challenging.” • “Ideally, the disclosed information needs to integrate into the decisions that the end-user would like to make based on such information.” ENGR 195A ENGR 195A Course Plan • Unit 1 Social constructionism, social problems and social inequality • Unit 2 Technology and its social consequences • Unit 3 Identity, positionality and social justice in the Tech world Reflection paper #3 700-800 words In this reflection paper, you are to critically engage the topic of the social construction of identity in your life. How is your perception of your own identity related to or affected by social and cultural structures, ideas or conventions? Please discuss and provide examples of how at least one of your identities (i.e., religious, gender, ethnic, racial, class, sexual orientation, disability and/or age, among others) is shaped, or has been shaped, by cultural and societal influences within contexts of equality and inequality. Please integrate course material (concepts, theories, discussions, lectures, readings). Please cite at least one course reading and one appropriate outside source. Reflection Paper #2 • 700-800 words • Consider technological innovations and developments in your field. Describe how one such innovation has either increased or decreased social justice and inequality in the U.S. Finally, discuss whether and/or how this will influence constructive and deconstructive interactions between people from different cultural, racial, and ethnic groups within the U.S. Please integrate course material (concepts, theories, discussions, lectures, readings). Cite at least one course reading and one appropriate source from outside class. • Please review the rubrics before you start writing the paper. Unit 3 Identity, positionality and social justice in the Tech world GENDER The burden of history Do we know what we think? DO YOU KNOW THIS MEME? POLL • Have you experienced or witnessed gender discrimination in the recent years? • A. Yes • B. No • C. I have not paid attention. The State of the Gender Pay Gap 2018 Source: https://www.payscale.com/data/gender-pay-gap Institute for Women’s Policy Research: Fact Sheet (March 2018) Source: The Gender Wage Gap: 2017 Earnings Differences by Race and Ethnicity. Retrieved from https://iwpr.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/C464_Gender-Wage-Gap2.pdf PERCENTAGE OF COLLEGE DEGREES AWARDED TO WOMEN, 2014 Degree Type % to Women Associate’s 61.1 Bachelor’s 57.1 Master’s 59.9 Doctorate and Professional 51.8 National Center for Education Statistics https://fairygodboss.com/articles/women-in-tech-facts-figures-and-percentages https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2019/11/08/777187543/mathlooks-the-same-in-the-brains-of-boys-and-girls-study-finds Quote from the article: “That research, along with the new study, makes a compelling case that factors other than biological differences explain why girls are less likely to pursue degrees and jobs in math and science” Science Faculty’s Subtle Gender Biases Favor Male Students (2012) By Corinne A. Moss-racusina,b, John F. Dovidiob, Victoria L. Brescollc, Mark J. Grahama,d, And Jo Handelsmana (Department Of Molecular, Cellular And Developmental Biology, Bdepartment Of Psychology, Cschool Of Management, And Ddepartment Of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520) John vs Jennifer • A broad, nationwide sample of biology, chemistry, and physics professors (n = 127) • An undergraduate science student’s application for a science laboratory manager position • Same application materials distributed to each faculty participant • Application materials were randomly assigned either the name of a male (n = 63) or a female (n = 64) John vs Jennifer Faculty gender did not affect bias POLL • Do you think that women as a whole are not as talented as men in stem fields? • A. Correct. Women are not as talented as men in STEM. • B. That is a false perception. Women are as talented as men in STEM. • C. I do not have enough evidence to make a judgement. HTTPS://EDSOURCE.ORG/2017/GIRLS-NOWOUTNUMBER-BOYS-IN-HIGH-SCHOOL-STEM-BUTSTILL-LAG-IN-COLLEGE-AND-CAREER/578444 On the impact of video games: Implicit Bias The Mark of a Woman’s Record Gender and Academic Performance in Hiring NATASHA QUADLIN INDIANA UNIVERSITY THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY Funded by: National Academy of Education/Spencer Dissertation Fellowship National Science Foundation Dissertation Improvement Grant Indiana University Graduate School TWO LARGE-SCALE EXPERIMENTS 1. FIELD EXPERIMENT (AKA AUDIT EXPERIMENT, AUDIT STUDY) (N = 2,106 APPLICATIONS & 1,053 EMPLOYERS) 2. SURVEY EXPERIMENT (N = 534 APPLICATIONS & 267 EMPLOYERS) FIELD EXPERIMENT PROCEDURES 1. Create sampling frame of jobs 2. Submit randomly assigned “matched pairs” of job applications to employers 3. Track responses to applications 4. Analyze to determine effects of applicant characteristics APPLIED FOR JOBS WITH THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA: 1. WITHIN A 30-MILE RADIUS OF THE TARGET CITY 2. POSTED WITHIN THE LAST 30 DAYS 3. IN THE JOB CATEGORY “ENTRY LEVEL” 4. REQUIRES A 4-YEAR DEGREE 5. FULL-TIME 6. DIRECT APPLICATION ON WEBSITE Gender Women: Ashley. Samantha Sarah Jessica Stephanie Men: Michael Nicholas Daniel Chris ...
Purchase answer to see full attachment
Student has agreed that all tutoring, explanations, and answers provided by the tutor will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool's honor code & terms of service.

Final Answer

Attached.

Surname 1
Student’s Name
Instructor’s Name
Course
Date of Submission
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNOLOGY AND ITS
SIGNIFICANCE TO AMERICAN SOCIETY
Introduction
The contemporary world is marred with various technological innovations to enhance
performance and improve the quality of service. Conventionally tasks were performed by human
beings. However, as a social being, they were prone to errors, biases, and emotions that affected
their performance. As a result, software developers designed artificial intelligence (AI) machines
that operate and react similarly to human beings. According to Sandler, p.6, the objective of any
social artifact is portrayed in its decision making utility. The machine was designed to address
the social concerns and complaints that arose from handling clients in the work setting (Purtill,
pp.1-3). The utilization of the device was diverse; however, artificial intelligence had its merits
as well as repercussions in human society. Thus, this essay examines the social consequences of
artificial intelligence (AI), its effect on equality, social justice, constructive and deconstructive
interactions.
How artificial intelligence technology operates
The AI software works by combining a high ...

TutorLarra (21746)
UIUC

Anonymous
The tutor was pretty knowledgeable, efficient and polite. Great service!

Anonymous
Heard about Studypool for a while and finally tried it. Glad I did caus this was really helpful.

Anonymous
Just what I needed… fantastic!

Studypool
4.7
Trustpilot
4.5
Sitejabber
4.4