University of Queensland Rationalization as Basis of Power in Modernity Bibliography

University of Queensland

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Bibliographic exercise . Rationalization is a fundamental basis of power in Modernity. The implementable of power as hallmarks of modern rationalization in Western world Matthew J, Smetona 2018, ‘On The Interrelation Of Production and Reproduction’, The Analytical Contribution of Marxist-feminism, vol. 65, no. 3, 7-a20d-1c2d53f7803a%40sessionmgr4007 In Marx’s words, the emergence of commodities has changed modern society on the one hand, and the exchange of production on the other hand has transformed human social relations into physical social relations and ideas. He believes that social rationalization is the great development of production of means of subsistence, specifically, the growth of empirical knowledge, the improvement of production technology, training and organization. On the contrary, the production relationship engage with power in any modern class society, the ruling class in order to achieve their own rule to their own class of thought in the form of universality, they are described as the only reasonable, universal ideas. Matthew(p57) excavated and found the hallmarks of Communism is collectively controlled in nature and meets the collectively determined human needs with the objective conditions of social production. In society, in order to gain additional value from the work done by those who exist outside that class, value in turn translates into capital and private accumulation. George, Ritzer 1988, ‘The MacDonaldization Thesis’, Explorations and Extension, SAGE Publications, London. The operation mode of McDonald's fast-food restaurant is typical of the rationalization process of modernity. George(p40) demonstrates fast-food restaurants as fundamental samples related to rationalization in modern social relations. According to Weber's theory, the internal clue that dominates the development of capitalism is the "rationalization" process reflected in various fields of social life. The fundamental goals of this rationalization are "efficiency", "calculability", "predictability", and “the means of control through the substitution of non-human for human technology.” The embodiment of this rationalization in this specific system is the "modern bureaucracy”, besides, McDonaldization is a functional rationalization system displayed on modern social relations. George believes most of the staff are confined to repeating one or two activities and will be increasingly controlled by the rhythm of the machinery, and more importantly, it is separate from the whole of the final product individuals. All these aspects of the operation mode of the fast-food restaurant have brought huge benefits to the operators, that is the process of utilizing power in the perspective of "modernity". Paul, B & Graeme, K 2002, Historical Materialism and Social Evolution, Graeme Kirkpatrick, New York. Paul and Graeme(2002,p.131) have highlighted that social interpretation must take the form of micro-interpretation of stratification only to refer to individuals’ attributes. Individuals will perform rational actions in a limited sense of optimization and take any method to best achieve their preferences. Modern society is a highly complex system with increasingly differentiated structures and functions. Various elements of society are highly dependent and inseparable. Rationalization has infiltrated into all aspects of modern society, from social individuals to social groups and even the whole social system. That is to say, the whole social system must be guided by rational laws, or there will be all kinds of contradictions and conflicts in society. It can be considered that the modern society is a rational society to some extent, and the modern individuals and society shaped by rationality must clearly define the important position and role of rationalization. Power as a historically contingent, engage with modernity and rationalization and promote each other at the same time. There is no modernization without idealization, and there is no "market" without the idealization of modernization(Paul, B &Graeme, K 2002, P.132) ...
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Modern Rationalization 1

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Modern Rationalization 2
Kivisto, P., 2011. Illuminating Social Life. 5th ed. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Pine Forge Press.
In chapter two, the book acknowledges Weber’s thoughts on the increased rationalization
in contemporary society. For instance, he considered bureaucracy to be an ideal example of
rationalization. Thus, the process of accelerated bureaucratization is best exemplified by the fastfood restaurants and the trend is spreading quickly across American society and the entire globe.
Essentially, the top individuals in a bureaucracy often set rules that compel those in the lower
ranks to select the best means to ends, which have already been ident...

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Carnegie Mellon University

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