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Campbellsville Security and Privacy Research in Information System Research Paper

Campbellsville University

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Write a 6 pages of content on RESEARCH DESIGN(2 pages),Conceptual Framework(2 pages) and Theory of Work Values(2 pages) on Security and Privacy Research in Information Systems. Topic should be picked up from European Journal and References are must. (2 references for each topic in total 6). Files are attached for reference purpose.

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Journal of Global Information Management Volume 27 • Issue 3 • July-September 2019 Motivating Language and Intent to Stay in a Backsourced Information Technology Environment Lori Farr, University of the Cumberlands, Williamsburg, USA Mary Lind, North Carolina A&T State University, Greensboro, USA ABSTRACT Information technology (IT) backsourcing is a recent phenomenon that is gaining momentum because effective sourcing strategy can have major implications for organizations regarding financial investments, IT infrastructure, and changes in employee outcomes. Recent studies suggest that organizations are bringing their previously outsourced IT operations and services back in-house with one reason being employee dissatisfaction with prior outsourcing experiences. The results of this study indicate that for every 10% increase in motivating language, one can expect to see a 4.3% increase in an IT employee’s intent to stay with an organization during a time when backsourcing is occurring. Keywords Backsourcing, Intent to Stay, Job Satisfaction, Motivating Language, Sourcing INTRODUCTION Organizations have outsourced information technology (IT) services and support for over three decades expecting gains in efficiency, flexibility, innovation, and quality while reducing costs (Benaroch, Dai, & Kauffman, 2010; Benaroch, Webster, & Kazaz, 2011; Butler, Slack, & Walton, 2011; Freytag et al, 2012; Gorla & Mei, 2010). While some outsourcing arrangements have attained the anticipated outcomes without major problems, others have not, which has led organizations to evaluate the outsourcing problems encountered and re-evaluate their sourcing strategies. Recent organizational sourcing strategy re-evaluation has resulted in one in four organizations bringing their previously outsourced IT operations back in-house to regain control over the management of those services, regain control of costs, and improve employee outcomes (Bhagwatwar, Hackney, & Desouza, 2011; Freytag et al., 2012). IT backsourcing is the process of bringing IT operations, previously performed by an outside vendor, back in-house with the goal of rebuilding internal capabilities (Veltri, Saunders, & Kavan, 2008; Whitten & Leidner, 2006). This backsourcing is becoming a continuing trend in organizations that have outsourced their products and services. IT backsourcing is a change in IT business operations during times of organizational change where policies, procedures, culture, and values often shift resulting in poor alignment and structure to include DOI: 10.4018/JGIM.2019070101  Copyright © 2019, IGI Global. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of IGI Global is prohibited.  1 Journal of Global Information Management Volume 27 • Issue 3 • July-September 2019 diminished employee outcomes such as reduced job satisfaction and retention levels (Bellou, 2007). Additionally, with the backsourced IT changes, the IT management function transitions from managing outsourcing contracts, to managing the internal business of IT. The backsourced management focus requires effective leadership communication skills because poor leadership communications during times of change can result in diminished employee outcomes such as lower levels of job satisfaction and retention (Homburg, Klarmann, & Staritz, 2012). Leadership communications using Sullivan’s (1988) motivating language framework is an organizational tool that can improve the impact of strategic leader language on many employee outcomes to include job satisfaction and retention (Mayfield, 2009). Because employees who provide IT services and support are integral to an organization’s performance and productivity, the potential loss of these employees can have harmful effects on an organization’s overall success (Premalatha, 2011). Therefore, retaining IT employees during and after a backsourcing transition is an important determinant of backsourcing success, and understanding leadership communications using motivating language is important. The purpose of this research study is to investigate whether employee job satisfaction tests the relationship between a supervisor’s use of motivating language and an IT employee’s intent to stay with an organization during a period in which IT backsourcing is occurring. Given the gap in the body of knowledge and research examining the human-side of backsourcing, this research provides an understanding of the leading communications skills needed in the backsourcing change process, and strategies to increase backsourced employee job satisfaction levels. Numerous studies have been done on the relationships between the variables of leadership communications, job satisfaction, and intent to stay in varying environments and scenarios (Bartels, Douwes, De Jong, & Pruyn, 2006; Bellou, 2007; Homburg, Klarmann, & Staritz, 2012; Mayfield & Mayfield, 2002, 2006, 2007, 2009; Premalatha, 2011). However, backsourcing is a relatively new phenomenon where there is minimal information about how to accomplish the process successfully (Garske, 2010; Kotlarsky & Bognar, 2012). Research on backsourcing has focused primarily on the business and financial factors that influence an organization’s decision to bring IT services and support back in-house (Bhagwatwar, Hackney, & Desouza, 2011; Kern & Willcocks, 2001; McLaughlin & Peppard, 2006; Veltri, Saunders, & Kavan, 2008; Wong & Jaya, 2008). Furthermore, understanding what determines an organization’s sourcing decisions in favor of backsourcing is currently being discussed in the literature (Richmond & Carton, 2010; Whitten, Chakrabarty, & Wakefield, 2010; Whitten & Wakefield, 2006). Finally, backsourcing flexibility value (Benaroch, Webster, & Kazaz, 2011), and backsourcing knowledge re-integration (Bhagwatwar, Hackney, & Desouza, 2011) are additional topics currently under discussion in the literature as they relate to backsourcing processes and strategies. Minimal research that examines the human-side of backsourcing exists in the literature; therefore, a gap remains. Understanding how a supervisor’s use of motivating language in an organization during and after a backsourcing event is a relevant topic of discussion given the impact of sourcing policy change on IT employee satisfaction and retention (Majovski, 2007; Sarros, Luca, Densten, & Santora, 2014). Additionally, maintaining a skilled IT staff is critical to organizational success during organizational change (Kotlarsky & Bognar, 2012). Longenecker and Scazzero (2003) argued, “An organization’s survival may be at stake and could hinge on its ability to effectively manage the issues associated with turnover and retention of its IT managers” (p. 64). Bhagwatwar, Hackney, and Desouza (2011) supported the study’s relevance by indicating the need for further research to understand how backsourcing decisions affect the job satisfaction of IT employees. Sullivan’s (1988) motivating language framework, which includes three speech types used to influence employee outcomes, is the basis for this research. The three motivating language speech types are direction-giving, empathetic, and meaning-making, as demonstrated through communications such as defining tasks and giving direction, providing emotional compassion and support, and defining cultural aspects by way of stories and symbolism respectively. In this 2 Journal of Global Information Management Volume 27 • Issue 3 • July-September 2019 study, the motivating language framework was used to show the impact of supervisor’s effective use of motivating language impart on the IT workforce during backsourcing. In this backsourcing context, if IT management uses the right words, at the right time, they can optimize outcomes in employee job satisfaction and retention (Mayfield, 2009). Past research on backsourcing has focused primarily on the business and financial factors that influence an organization’s decision to bring IT services and support back in-house (Benaroch et al., 2010; Bhagwatwar, Hackney, & Desouza, 2011; Freytag et al, 2012; Kotlarsky & Bognar, 2012; McLaughlin & Peppard, 2006; Veltri, Saunders, & Kavan, 2008; Wong & Jaya, 2008). There is minimal research examining the human-side of backsourcing in the literature. Bhagwatwar, Hackney, and Desouza (2011) supported the study’s relevance by indicating the need for further research to understand how backsourcing decisions affect the job satisfaction of employees who provide IT services and support. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK This study examined the mediating effect of employee job satisfaction on the relationship between a supervisor’s use of motivating language and an IT employee’s intent to stay with an organization during and after a backsourcing transition. Multiple theoretical frameworks guide this study: motivating language theory (Sullivan, 1988), leader-member exchange (LMX) theory (Dansereau et al., 1975), Herzberg’s (1959) two-factor theory, and Price and Mueller’s (1981) theory of employee turnover. Sullivan’s (1988) motivating language theory guides the analysis of the supervisor motivating language construct, which is a form of strategic verbal communications that consists of three main types of communication between the supervisor and employee. The first speech type is directiongiving language, which reduces uncertainty through goal setting, management by objectives, and vision sharing. The second speech type, empathetic language, expresses compassion and respect for employees through praise and positive validation of emotions. Finally, the third speech type, meaning-making language, provides clarification of organizational cultural norms often through subtle or symbolic means such as rituals or stories. Motivational language theory offers that leaders can affect subordinates’ work performance through effective use of each of the three speech types (Mayfield, Mayfield, & Kopf, 1998). Motivational language is a natural extension of modern theories on leadership and research on turnover. For example, LMX theory asserts that employee behaviors, including retention, substantially affect the relational quality of supervisor-employee dyads (Graen & Scandura, 1987). LMX focuses on the dyadic relationship between leaders and subordinates (Dansereau et al., 1975). It suggests that a leader develop an individualized relationship with subordinates through effective behaviors (Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995). Findings from LMX research identified positive outcomes from effective leadership communications training (Graen et al., 1982; Graen & Scandura, 1987; Graen et al., 1986). Moreover, previous motivating language research found that leader communications have a significant effect on employee job satisfaction (Mayfield & Mayfield 2007; Sarros, Luca, Densten, & Santora, 2014). LMX is one of the most valid leadership theories today on leader behavior and is congruent with motivating language theory (Mayfield & Mayfield, 2009; Miner, 2005). Motivating language theory focuses specifically on the speech acts of leader-to-subordinate communications; yet, findings from Mayfield and Mayfield (2009) provided evidence for the necessity of leader communications and behavior congruence to affect positive employee outcomes. Thus, leaders who demonstrate poor behavior can negate good leader communications, and “good leader communications cannot take place without good leader-subordinate relationships” (Mayfield & Mayfield, 2009, p. 76). Therefore, the effective use of motivating language theory coupled with LMX theory could result in positive employee outcomes such as job satisfaction and retention. Much of the job satisfaction literature traces back to Herzberg’s (1959) two-factor theory, which ties employee job satisfaction to two sets of factors. The first set of factors is motivator factors that 3 Journal of Global Information Management Volume 27 • Issue 3 • July-September 2019 might include recognition, responsibility, and challenging work (intrinsic motivators). The second set of factors is hygiene factors that might include benefits, job security, and pay (extrinsic motivators). While the second set of factors may not cause direct job satisfaction, their removal can cause employee job dissatisfaction. Further, job satisfaction is an attitude closely linked to an employee’s intent to leave or stay (Mayfield, Mayfield, & Kopf, 1998). As job satisfaction increases, an employee’s intent to stay also increases (Mayfield et al., 1998; Price & Mueller, 1981). Price and Mueller’s (1981) theory of employee turnover guides the analyses on the intent to stay construct and is based on Price’s (1977) synthesis of the literature on employee turnover with a major revision. This revision involved adding intent to stay as an intervening variable between job satisfaction and turnover because of the work of Porter, and his colleagues (Koch & Steers, 1978; Porter, Steers, Mowday, & Boulian, 1974; Steers, 1977) who asserted intent to stay was a dimension of commitment. The aforementioned theoretical frameworks guide the study that investigates the mediating effect employee job satisfaction has on the relationship between a supervisor’s use of motivating language and an IT employee’s intent to stay with the organization in a backsourced environment. The purpose of the study is to investigate the mediating effect of employee job satisfaction on a supervisor’s use of motivating language and an employee’s intent to stay with an organization during a period in which IT backsourcing is occurring. Using a quantitative approach, the relationship between the independent variables of supervisor motivating language and employee job satisfaction, and the dependent variable of employee intent to stay is explored (Trochim, 2006). Does an IT employee’s job satisfaction mediate the effect of motivating language on intent to stay in a backsourced environment? Here are the hypotheses as shown in Figure 1. Research Question: An IT employee’s job satisfaction significantly mediates the relationship between motivating language and intent to stay in a backsourced environment: H1 = There is a statistically significant positive relationship between motivating language and intent to stay in a backsourced environment Subquestion 1b: Is there a relationship between motivating language and job satisfaction in a backsourced environment? The following hypotheses pertain to this question: H1b = There is a statistically significant positive relationship between motivating language and job satisfaction in a backsourced environment Figure 1. Research model 4 Journal of Global Information Management Volume 27 • Issue 3 • July-September 2019 Subquestion 1c: Is there a relationship between job satisfaction and intent to stay in a backsourced environment? The following hypotheses pertain to this question: H1c = There is a statistically significant positive relationship between job satisfaction and intent to stay in a backsourced environment RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY The quantitative design approach is appropriate for the research question because the purpose of the study is to find relationships among multiple variables and to test the hypotheses after implementation of backsourcing. There will be no manipulation of the independent variable to determine the dependent variable, and a single survey instrument will collect the data (Field, 2009; Trochim, 2006). The study is both descriptive and inferential to explain how a supervisor’s use of motivating language during a backsourcing event affects an employee’s job satisfaction and intent to stay with the backsourcing organization. The following validated surveys were used: (1) the Motivating Language Reduced Scale (Mayfield & Mayfield, 2007), (2) the Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire Job Satisfaction Subscale (MOAQ-JSS) (Cammann, Fichman, Jenkins, & Klesh, 1983; Survey Research Center, 1975), and (3) the Intent to Stay Questionnaire (Mayfield & Mayfield, 2007). Demographic questions are also included as part of the survey instrument so that descriptive statistics can be obtained and analyzed. Previous research has shown that job satisfaction had a mediating effect on relationships between leadership communications strategies and retention. Because recent research uses newer statistical methods such as bootstrap confidence intervals to test mediating effects in regression analysis (Hayes, 2013), this study used the Hayes’ PROCESS macro for SPSS to test the potential mediating effect that job satisfaction has on the relationship between motivating language and intent to stay. A single survey instrument collected the data, which consisted of qualifying questions, demographic questions, and a compilation of the four existing validated survey instruments using Likert-type scales. Prior studies used these three survey instruments due to their high validity and reliability (Madlock, 2008). The researcher found two instruments in multiple research studies that measured a supervisor’s use of motivating language: Motivating Language Scale and the Motivating Language Reduced Scale. Mayfield and Mayfield (2007) developed each of the instruments. The original instrument, Motivating Language Scale, originally contained 24 items and maintained acceptable validity and reliability when reduced to seven items in the Motivating Language Reduced scale. The researcher chose the reduced scale for use in the current study because of its high validity and reliability, ease of use and understanding, and brevity. There were multiple instruments identified in the literature that measure job satisfaction; however, the researcher selected the MOAQ-JSS for use in the study because of its brevity, face-valid measure of the affective component of job satisfaction, and ability to assess global job satisfaction. Several popular job satisfaction scales examined were lengthy; however, the MOAQ-JSS is short with only three items. The Job Description Index (JDI) (Smith, Kendall, & Hulin, 1969) contains 72 items. The long and short forms of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) (Weiss, Dawis, England, & Lofquist, 1967) have 100 and 20 items, respectively. Often, the definition of job satisfaction has an affective component; however, many job satisfaction scales fail to measure it (Bowling & Hammond, 2008). The MOAQ-JSS reliably measures the affective component of job satisfaction. Finally, the MOAQ-SS measures job satisfaction on a global scale, while others, such as the JDI, measure specific facets of job satisfaction. This study was interested in the global measurement of job satisfaction. For these reasons, the researcher selected the MOAQ-JSS for use in this study to measure job satisfaction. This study focused on an employee’s intent to stay because it is the positive and desired result of retention strategies. The researcher selected the Intent to Stay Questionnaire (Mayfield & Mayfield, 2007) for use in the current study 5 Journal of Global Information Management Volume 27 • Issue 3 • July-September 2019 because of its ability to test the positive affect of retention, high validity and reliability, ease of use and understanding, and brevity. Each of the survey instruments used Likert-type scales. The four instruments used were not modified and met Churchill’s (1979) validity and reliability requirements; therefore, a pre-test, fieldtest, and post-test was not required (Field, 2009). Table 1 provides a summary of the reliability of each of the pre-validated surveys used in this study. POPULATION AND SAMPLE The target population consisted of approximately 600,000 IT employees in the U.S. (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014). The sample frame consisted of approximately 1,200 IT employees who were members of the Survey Monkey Audience who self-reported a ...
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Running head: RESEARCH DESIGN AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Research Design and Conceptual Framework on Security and Privacy Research in Information
Systems
Name
Institution Affiliation

RESEARCH DESIGN AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

2

Research Design and Conceptual Framework on Security and Privacy Research in Information
Systems
Research Design
Phenomenology is the best method that can be utilized to explore the underlying
dynamics in the topic “Security and Privacy Research in Information Systems.” The
conceptualized experiences therein depict technology at the center of checking the protective
frameworks that have been put in place. The study will focus on reviewing the existing research
that explores the way individuals utilize information technology and the techniques used in those
studies. The research paper will be augmented by explaining the phenomenological concept in
security and privacy. Equally, it will amplify its significance for understanding the approaches
that can be applied in preventing breaches in technologies that are in use. Besides, it is critical to
employ the theoretical and methodological structure of phenomenology as the basis of creating a
research objective on experiences in security and privacy of information technology with a goal
of uniting the areas of research that are already in place. The viability of applicability of this
research design and its ability to deliver the required outcome can be demonstrated through the
utilization of a conceptual framework that can enhance its application. The research design
herein is in line with the theoretical and conceptual requirements of phenomenology. The
methods of gathering and analyzing data will include the use of questionnaires and interviews.
Some of the ethical considerations that will be applied herein include the following; first, it is
important to make sure all participants provide informed consent and their readiness to take part
in the study. Second, it is crucial to capture the confidentiality of the details that will be shared to
prevent leaking of crucial and personal data.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

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Moreover, the research design will identify likely courses of actions in using a
phenomenological technique in security and privacy of information systems to inspire further
studies in the field. The phenomenology approach will examine existing literature to uncover
current privacy laws that are designed in bolstering the protection of data as opposed to securing
an individual. According to Bélanger and Crossler (2011), sectoral laws have been considered to
be inadequate and insufficient in addressing critical areas in preventing breaches. The
phenomenological approach is designed to illustrate that self-regulation does not have the level
of strictness needed in privacy protection. In most cases, it is directly impacted by the financial
limitations of an organization. The framework is expected to show how existing technologies
have failed to enhance security and privacy of information technology. It is designed to address
specific challenges that hinder the provision of compete privacy and security structure. The
research design will be vital in determining solutions and proposals that can continue providing
the dynamics of information privacy and security.
Conceptual Framework
The phenomenological research design plays a critical role in conceptualizing the
experiences of security and privacy of information technology. Currently, when an individual
accesses the internet, there are many people that want to know their presence and location.
Equally, they are interested in capturing other personal data, which shows a poor future of the
security and privacy of information technology. According to Dinev, McConnell, and Smith,
(2015), multiple services have transferred to online platforms, which increase risks and
vulnerabilities of people. Online services increase the possibility of gathering large amounts of
personal details. The increased collection of personal information exposes people to a lot of
challenges. It is significant to explore and stop threats that result in the infringement of personal

RESEARCH DESIGN AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

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data. Usually, entries are not given exhaustive choices for the information that individuals are
allowed to share. People are required to fill all forms or forgo all the services. However, when
individuals are left without a choice they find themselves in c...

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Cornell University

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