CLP 2140 Florida Central College Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Discussion

CLP 2140

florida central college


Question Description

I’m trying to study for my Psychology course and I need some help to understand this question.

Read these two texts and make a reply for each one.

Each reply should be consistent and must discuss interesting points about the texts. (no more than 150 words each)

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TEXT 1--------------What Exactly is PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that is triggered by a terrifying event, either by experiencing or witnessing the event or events. It is always a natural response to feel afraid during and after a traumatic situation. In many cases fear can initiate many split-second changes in the body, either physical, mental or in some cases both, to try and help defend against danger, even it is not a real threat in the long run. This response, called fight or flight, is a reaction that has always been used to protect a person from harm. almost everyone will experience a plethora of reactions after trauma in one way or another, yet most people will recover from the initial symptoms on their own but the people who continue to experience them may be diagnosed with Post-traumatic stress after a certain amount of time has gone by. People who have PTSD may feel stressed or frightened, even if they are not in a situation that warrants such fear. Some of the symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder can include flashbacks, nightmares and severe anxiety, as well as uncontrollable thoughts about the event or events relating to the trauma. About 3% of the adult population have or have had PTSD at any one time. PTSD that lasts a lifetime in contrast could go up to at least 8% or so, nearly doubling when you consider the various populations/areas that are affected by conflicts, such as a war or even just gang violence, going up to more than 50% in survivors of a rape. People who go or have gone through traumatic events may have some difficulty adjusting and coping with the issues depending on the person in question, but with time and help, they are usually able to get better as time goes on. The symptoms of the disorder in question can vary in intensity as time goes on for one reason or another. You may have more PTSD symptoms when you are feeling stressed in general, or when you come across reminders of your past trauma. one example, you may hear a car backfire and relive combat experiences. Or you could also see a news report about a rape and relive your own sexual assault. Getting effective treatment after PTSD symptoms develop can be very important to reducing symptoms and improving your overall function. Patients with the Disorder have, overall, an increased risk of experiencing poor physical health, including somatoform, cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal disorders and more. PTSD is also associated with substantial psychiatric comorbidity, increased risk of suicide, as well as economic burden. Regardless of the fact that Post Traumatic Stress is a widely accepted diagnosis some people do believe that the term can in some ways medicalize what are known to be understandable responses to some forms of trauma or abuse, disempowering those who are not in the best states of mind to begin with. If you have disturbing thoughts and feelings about a traumatic event for more than a month or if you feel you are having trouble getting your life under control, talking with your doctor or a mental health professional about getting treatment can, in some ways, help prevent the symptoms from getting worse. In general, there are several types of therapy that may be used in order to help with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder including but not limited to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Cognitive Processing Therapy, Prolonged Exposure as well as Cognitive Therapy. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy focuses on the relationships among thoughts, feelings and behaviors; targets current problems and symptoms; and focuses on changing patterns of behaviors, thoughts and feelings that lead to difficulties in functioning. This form of therapy can note how changes in any one domain can improve functioning in the other domains. It is usually administered throughout 12-16 sessions in either an individual or group format. Cognitive processing therapy in contrast is given throughout 12 sessions to try and help patients learn how to challenge and modify unhelpful beliefs related to the trauma they have, such as combat related, sexual, or physical trauma. In so doing, they can create a new understanding of the traumatic event so as to reduce the negative effects on the patient. Derived from cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy is a type of therapy where negative patterns of thought about the person and the area around them are challenged in order to alter unwanted behavior patterns or treat mood disorders such as depression. This type of treatment will try and modify the overall thoughts and memories of trauma or traumas, with the end result being the interruption of the disturbing behavioral and/or thought patterns that have been interfering in the person’s day to day routine. It is typically delivered in weekly sessions over three months individually or in groups. Prolonged exposure is a specific type of cognitive behavioral therapy that teaches individuals to gradually approach trauma-related memories, feelings and situations. By facing your trauma or fears, a person is able to supposedly learn that the trauma-related memories and cues are not dangerous and do not need to be avoided. Typically provided over a period of about three months with weekly individual sessions. Sessions of about 120 minutes in length at maximum are usually needed for a person to engage in exposure and sufficiently process the experience. If you have disturbing thoughts and feelings about a traumatic event for more than a month, or you feel that you're having trouble getting your life back under your own control, talk to your doctor as quickly as you are able to. Getting treatment as soon as possible can help prevent the symptoms of PTSD from getting worse or maybe even preventing PTSD from becoming a problem in the first place. Several experimental studies have provided us with the hope that there are better or alternative ways to help prevent and or treat PTSD are on the way. Simple tasks such as playing a computer game or maybe just reading a book shortly after a traumatic experience has been shown to reduce re-experiencing. For PTSD that has already been established, interest in using drugs to augment psychological therapy has gone up in interest. Regardless of their potential in helping with PTSD These approaches are still in the early stages of development, and further well-designed studies will be needed overall to try and determine if they will be effective in the long run. At the end of the day, I believe that one of the best things a person would be able to have would be the support and trust of friends and family, especially during times of need, be it when the person in question wants to talk, vent or just needed someone to comfort them in one way or another. TEXT 2--------------Antisocial Personality Disorder Introduction The purpose of this paper is to show what antisocial personality disorder (APD) is, where it comes from, and the treatment plan for this disorder. An antisocial personality disorder is a mental disorder where a person will continuously show no regard for what’s right and wrong while ignoring people’s rights and not caring about others well-being, safety, and feelings. They tend to manipulate and treat others with no regards to get what they want, while showing no guilt or remorse doing it (Mayo Clinic, 2017). The major population that is affected the most by APD are incarcerated offenders. Antisocial personality disorder is 13 times higher for them than the general population (Stuppy-Sullivan & Baskin-Sommers, 2019). This disorder is often called sociopathy, and is also commonly mistaken with psychopathy (Blair, 2013). They both have similar symptoms, but the main different between the two is that APD focuses more on the behavior of the individual, while psychopathy includes group of items which are commonly thought of as the core psychopath personality traits, meaning is it not a mental disorder (Blair, 2013). Symptoms Some major symptoms for those suffering from APD are that they have no regard for what’s right and wrong. This leads them to act impulsively, fail to conform with society, and lack empathy for others (Psycom, 2018). Another reason for most of them to act this way is because they have a high rate of substance abuse, for both drugs and alcohol (Mayo Clinic, 2017). There are numerous studies that shows an association with alcohol consumption and aggressive behaviors, and there are also studies that indicate alcohol enhances those suffering from APD to become more aggressive in their ways (Moeller & Dougherty, 2001). It was shown that those with APD are more likely to abuse alcohol, with violence rising up as well (Moeller & Dougherty, 2001). These individuals are also very manipulative, violent, compulsive liars, and will do anything else they can in order to get what they want for their own self-amusement, pleasure, or gain (Mayo Clinic, 2017). This is a reason why they often tend to get in trouble with the law (Mayo Clinic, 2017). A study shows that there are signs that indicate interactions with the cognitive and reward factors for people suffering from APD, meaning they feel rewarded when they are able to achieve their goals through manipulation, exploiting, or by violating others personal space (Stuppy-Sullivan & Baskin-Sommers, 2019). That’s why incarceration rate is so high amongst people suffering from APD. They tend to be abusive in their relationships, failing to learn from their behaviors, and are constantly disrespectful of others (Mayo Clinic, 2017). They also show symptoms of conduct disorders with theft, being deceitful, and aggressive to others (Psycom, 2018). Biological and Environmental Factors There is no known cause for APD, but some believe genetics might play a small factor (Psycom, 2018). More men than women tend to suffer from this disease, with a 3:1 ratio between the two sexes (Tuvblad & Beaver, 2013). It is believed that those with APD had one or both parents suffering from this disorder, and that as time goes by environmental factors may trigger its development as a child, possibly making the condition worse over time (Mayo Clinic, 2017). Some of the environment factors that might play a role are child abuse, alcoholic parents, and not being taught to respect others (Psycom, 2018). Researchers believe that it is important that children are exposed to the right environment, constantly being taught right from wrong, and having positive role models will decrease the chances of an individual to have APD, because childhood is when personalities start to develop (Psycom, 2018). A research on adopted children showed that environment plays a key role in the child’s development (Psycom, 2018). It is important to be aware of children and the way you discipline them, because those who have conduct disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder before 10 years old have a higher chance of developing APD (Psycom, 2018). Being abused or neglected as a child will have a negative effect on the child’s development, because 80 percent of people with APD were showing symptoms by age 11 (Psycom, 2018). A major factor that worsens APD for adults is alcohol and drug abuse. Since they already have no concerns for themselves or others they will often turn to these substances, which will cause their APD to become worse and uncontrollable (Moeller & Dougherty, 2001). It is shown that those with APD have a higher rate of alcohol related incidents and aggression than those who do not have the disorder, even though both participants consumed the same amount of alcohol (Moeller & Dougherty, 2001). Another factor that makes the disorder worse is that whenever they accomplish something or get what they want, they feel rewarded no matter what they did in order to achieve it (Stuppy-Sullivan & Baskin-Sommer, 2019). This makes them crave for that desire of being immediately rewarded, no matter the negative consequences or morality of the action. The Joker The Joker from Batman series is a prime example of someone who has APD. He is in a relationship with another villain named Harley Quinn, and throughout the series he is known to use her through manipulation, lying, being charming, and even threatening her in order for him to get what he wants. They first met when he was locked up in Arkham asylum and the Joker used manipulation to make her feel sorry for him, and during his time there he used his charm for her to fall in love with him. There were numerous times where he hit, tortured, cheated, and even almost killed her, without feeling guilty about any of it. The Joker was even seen laughing at some of these events, which shows his lack of remorse and regards for the one person that truly loves him. Treatment Plan Treatment for APD can be very costly because treatment is not always guaranteed to work, and it could take months or years for it to have some kind of effect (Stuppy-Sullivan & BaskinSommers, 2019). The criminal charges are another factor to why APD can be costly, since most people with this disorder are known to continuously get in trouble with the law, whether it’s minor or major offenses (Stuppy-Sullivn & Baskin-Sommers, 2019). Another factor that can add up with the cost is drug and alcohol abuse, because they are known to heavily abuse these substances (Moeller & Dougherty, 2001). In order for treatment to work, the individual must have a willingness to participate and continuously come in for treatment, while having regular follow ups over a long term. (Mayo Clinic, 2017). There aren’t many treatment options, and no medications, that is guaranteed to cure/help APD, but psychotherapy is usually the recommended treatment for this disorder. (Psycom, 2018). Psychotherapy is a type of individual counseling that focuses on trying to change the person’s cognitive and behavioral functions through therapy (Mayo Clinic, 2017). The best way to prevent someone to ever get APD is through prevention techniques. It is important to catch early signs during childhood and ensuring that a child is being raised in a safe environment with positive role models to help with their positive personality development (Mayo Clinic, 2017). Conclusion There are many famous serial killers who suffered from APD, like Jeffery Dahmer and Ted Bundy, that are examples of what could happened if APD goes untreated. Those with APD who are alone and untreated will continue to break the laws. They will stray further away from reality and social norms, which could lead them to commit serious crimes in the future. Since treatment isn’t always guaranteed to work, it is very important for parents to keep an eye on their child’s early development, and to make sure their children feel safe and comfortable in the environment they are being raised in. It is also important for those showing early signs of APD to get treatment, before the symptoms get worse. There is a better chance for treatment to work for those in the early stages. That is why the best way for someone to ever be diagnosed with APD is through prevention and early treatment. ...
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RUNNING HEAD: Response to Two Texts Assignment

Response to Two Texts Assignment
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Response to Two Texts


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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a condition that is most commonly associated
with soldiers returning from war zones. As the paper explains it is important to underst...

JGomezMPA (1113)
UT Austin

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