Discussion # 6 This discussion item pertains to chapter 11 of our class text book.
Institutions in Action question three:
“In what sense does economic globalization come at the expense of strong state autonomy” ?
“What is rational is real, and what is real is rational.” G.W.F. Hegel
Dr. O’Neil summarizes at the end of the chapter, and in conclusion of the book, and reminds us of
economist Dani Rodrik concept of “Trilemma” global economic integration, the nation state, and
democracy. “Does one country’s freedom or equality come at the expense of another’s? How can
freedom or equality be balanced globally in the absence of any single sovereign power or dominate
regime?” I would contend that these questions are clear, yet the answers are ambiguous as it is a
matter of choice. Let me equate to as Ben Franklin would describe “Those who would give up essential
Liberty, to purchase a little temporary Safety, deserve neither Liberty nor Safety” To clarify this
statement and put this in the context of the question(s) Benjamin Wittes writes; “ Franklin was (thus)
complaining of the choice facing the legislature between being able to make funds available for frontier
defense and maintaining its right of self-governance--and he was criticizing the governor for suggesting
it should be willing to give up the latter to ensure the former. In short, Franklin was not describing some
tension between government power and individual liberty. He was describing, rather, effective selfgovernment in the service of security as the very liberty it would be contemptible to trade.” The
author speaks of “Essential Liberty” and for me what came to mind was the European Union, NATO and
of decisive decisions post World War II, due to a decline of nationalism and centuries of war, on one
hand and redefined imperialism and neocolonialism on the other. As we consider the IGO of the EU, UN,
and of Bretton-Woods,(1944) and the associated economic international regimes, such as the WTO, and
The fall of the Soviet Union and of the Twin Towers, as Dr. Snow points out “Two major changes or Fault
lines”  these historical events redefined and defined National Security, and with-it unique
considerations on globalization from optimism and prosperity and redefined priorities, to one of
restructuring and security aligned with conflict and nation building, each with consequences of
globalization. Henry Kissinger considers the role of American politics, “For America, any association with
Realpolitik must take into account the core values of the first society in history to have been explicitly
created in the name of liberty. Yet America’s survival and progress will depend as well on its ability to
make choices which reflect contemporary reality.” Autonomy and sovereignty, go hand and hand, as
do capacity and autonomy to some degree, case in point the executive powers and undeclared war, the
“state” as defined by Webber “is an organization that maintains a monopoly of violence over territory”
One must also consider modernization theory increase of China and Russia in the last three decades. Dr.
O’Neil asks the question, of a new era, and whether it is a utopia of prosperity and peace or a dystopia
of inequality and conflict? Freedom and equality are all defined and evaluated in of our book, and as
noted mean different things to different people as much as modern and postmodern refer to different
dynamics of institutions. Globalization has expanded exponentially with the development of nation
states and, as Dr. O’Neil defends is nothing new, however, as Francis Fukuyama asks is this “The End of
(BOOK): ) O’Neil, Patrick H. “Essentials of Comparative Politics.” 6th ed. W.W. Norton & Company Inc.
New York, NY. 2017. Pp. 366. Print.
 (WEBSOURCE): “What Ben Franklin Really Said. 15 July 2011.” Lawfare. Web. 3 Aug 2019.
 (BOOK): Snow, Donald M. “National Security.” (6th) Ed. New York, New York. Routledge, 2017. Pp.
 (BOOK): Kissinger, Henry. “Diplomacy.” (1st) New York, NY: Touchstone, 1995. Pp. 836 Print.
(SCHOLARLY JOURNAL): Harding, T.W. "Torture." Refugee Survey
Quarterly .Vol.21: pp.135-138. Print.
(WEB SOURCE): "Convention (III) relative to the Treatment of
Prisoners of War. Geneva, 12 August 1949.” International Committee of
the Red Cross (ICRC), 12 Aug. 1949. Web. 14 June 2014.
(BOOK): Clarke, Alan. “Rendition to Torture.” Piscataway, New
Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2012. Pp. 16 Print.
(NEWSPAPER): "No Penalty for Torture." New York Times 5 Sept.
2012: pp. A26 (L). Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Print.
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