Douglas County High School Circulatory System Report

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Douglas County High School

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Labs worksheets about sheep brains/heart, cat dissection- circulatory system, and cow eyes. U gonna watching a few videos about each dissection. And finish the worksheets 

Sheep brain dissection : 

Cat dissection - circulatory system: 

Sheep heart : Cow eyes :


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Sheep Heart Lab 1. Locate the 2 atria on the outside of the heart. Another name for these are meaning "little ears". 2. Locate the 2 ventricles-which ventricle has the thicker walls? 3. What structures hold the valves in place? 4. Name the valve between the right atrium and right ventricle 5. Name the valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle 6. Blood circulation to the heart is called circulation. 7. Which ventricle pumps blood to the lungs through the pulmonary artery? 8. Which ventricle pumps blood to the body through the aorta? 9. carry blood away from the heart 10. carry blood toward the heart 11. When the ventricles contract which 2 valves close? 12. When the atria contract which 2 valves close? Watch mrs. Johnson's Sheep heart a dissection & You tube Sheep Heart Lab Identify the following structures on the sheep heart (place T-pins) right atrium right ventricle left atrium left ventricle interventricular septum chordae tendinae (heartstrings) bicuspid valve (mitral) tricuspid valve aortic semilunar valve aorta auricles (external) coronary blood vessels (external) apex Choose correct response in parentheses Which heart muscle wall is thicker (right ventricle, left ventricle)? The bicuspid valve is between the (right, left) atrium and ventricle. The tricuspid valve is between the (right, left) atrium and ventricle. Blood in the pulmonary (veins, artery) contain(s) more oxygen. Take the red and blue pens and draw color coded arrows as the blood flows through the heart and out to body tissues (red for oxygenated and blue for deoxygenated) An arrow should be placed between each of the terms. Superior/inferior vena cava right atrium tricuspid valve right ventricle pulmonary SL valve pulmonary artery lungs pulmonary veins left atrium bicuspid valve left ventricle aortic SL valve aorta arteries arterioles capillaries venules veins return to superior/inferior vena cava Cat Lab #4 - Circulatory System Prelab questions 1. Which 2 body cavities contain all of the major internal organs except the brain? 2. What is the muscular division between these 2 cavities called? Lab 1. Using SCISSORS cut from the neck down to the diaphragm. Be sure to cut to the side of the sternum. DO NOT CUT THE STERNUM OUT! Once you've clipped the ribs, the thoracic cavity should open up. 2. Locate the heart. Describe it's location. What organs are surrounding the heart? 3. If there is a lot of "juices" you may use paper towels to soak up some of the liquid. DO NOT PUT WATER ON THE CAT! 4. Carefully remove the pericardium (sac around the heart). 5. Locate the atria and ventricles. Which of these makes up most of the mass of the heart? 6. Locate the Superior & Inferior Vena Cavae. Describe the location. 7. Locate the Aortic Arch. Describe the location. 8. Locate the 2 branches off the aorta: Left Subclavian & Brachiocephalic. Describe the location. 9. Locate the apex. Describe the location. 10. Locate the pulmonary arties and veins. Describe the location. 11. Remove the heart by clipping veins & arteries. Be careful not to damage lungs or trachea (underneath heart). 12. Once you have the heart out. Cut it open and observe the internal structure of the heart. See diagrams on pages 49-50 to know how to cut. 13. Locate valves. Describe the location and what you see. 14. Try to locate other arteries and veins on diagram. List any that you were able to find. THE THORACIC CAVITY the rib cage about a half inch to the right or left of the mid-ventral line. This will avoid hitting the Begin your dissection of the thoracic cavity by making an incision with your scissors at the base of bony sternum and you will be cutting across softer costal cartilage. Continue your incision until the top rib has been cut. Spread the rib cage. Cut each rib near its dorsal origin to open the rib cage maximally. Diaphragm - This muscular sheet forms the floor of the thoracic cavity. We have already studied it in the last section when discussing the abdominal cavity. Cut the diaphragm away from the body wall in a ventral to dorsal direction. The view at this point should be very similar to that in the photo. Pleura - This is the serous membrane found within the thorax. The parietal pleura lines the inner walls while the visceral pleura covers the organs of the thorax. Lungs - In the cat the right lung is composed of four lobes, the left of only three. In man the right lung has three lobes, the left has only two. They feel spongy when alive and more rubbery in preserved specimens. Each lung lies within a separate pleural cavity, the space between the lung and the thoracic body wall. Cut a small, flat section of lung and observe with a hand lens or dissection microscope. If your specimen has been doubly injected (arteries and veins) you should observe three types of vessels within the lung tissue: 1. Pulmonary Artery - Branches of this vessel contain blue dye. 2. Pulmonary Vein - Branches of this blood vessel contain red dye. 3. Bronchioles - These branches of the bronchi, distributed throughout the lungs, are hollow with white edged walls. Mediastinum - This is the area between the two pleural cavities. It extends from the sternum to the vertebral column and contains all of the thoracic viscera except the lungs Pericardium - This double membrane encloses the heart. The visceral pericardium adheres closelt to the outer wall of the heart, while the parietal pericardium forms a sac which encloses the heart. The pericardium is very prominent in the photo. As you can see, it encloses the heart as well as the large blood vessels entering and leaving the heart. Fat tissue is embedded within it. The phrenic nerves which innervate the diaphragm pass along the lateral edges of the pericardium. Identify these nerves. Thymus - This gland is large in younger animals and becomes smaller as the animal matures. It lies ventrally upon the lower trachea and extends to the heart where it is associated with the pericardium. The thymus and pericardium should be removed before studying the heart and thoracic blood vessels. Trachea - This tube, the windpipe, extends along the mid-ventral portion of the neck extending into the thoracic cavity. Here it branches to form the two bronchi which penetrate the lungs. The air passage is always kept open by cartilage rings which stiffen and give a circular shape to the walls of the trachea. They are incomplete dorsally, thus forming the letter "C". The trachea lies ventral to the esophagus. 88 Brachiocephalic artery Left subclavian artery Anterior vena cava Aortic i Arterial ligam Right atrium Left pulmonary art Left auri Right ventricle Leit veni Pulmonary trunk Figure 37. Heart (ventral view). Aortic arch Anterior vena cava Right pulomonary artery Left a Left pulmonary artery Right pulmonary Left pulmonary veins Left auricle Right a Posterior vena Left ventricle Right ventricle Figure 38. Heart (dorsal view). 48 Con eye Cow Eye Dissection A cow eye is very similar to the eye of a human. By dissecting and examining the anatomy of a preserved cow eye, you can learn how your own eye forms images of the world around you and sends these images to your brain. This dissection guide is complete enough for a high school lab. Observation: External Anatomy watch video Look carefully at the preserved cow eye. The most noticeable part of the eye is Dissechon 15:03 the large mass of gray tissue that surrounds the posterior (back) of the eye and is attached to the sclera. The second most noticeable part of the eye is the cornea, located in the anterior (front) part of the eye. Due to the fact that the eye has been preserved, the cornea is cloudy and bluish-gray in color. It may also be wrinkly and seem a bit "deflated". On the posterior side of the eye, nestled in the fat and muscle tissue, there is a noticeably round protuberance that feels stiffer than the surrounding tissue. This is the optic nerve, and it sends the images collected in the eye to the brain. Biology byme Corea Excess fat & musclo lose Sclera tris vitreous humor. Depending on how the specimen was preserved, it will be either a dark liquid that will flow out easily, or a slightly gelatinous material that you can pour out to remove. (In a living eye, the vitreous humor is clear and gel-like.) 3. Flip the anterior half of the eye over so that the front of it is facing upward. Using a pair of sharp scissors, cut the cornea from the eye along the boundary where the cornea meets the sclera. When the scissors have cut in far enough, a clear fluid will start to seep out - this is the aqueous humor. While cutting out the cornea, be careful to not accidentally cut the iris or the lens. After removing the cornea, pick it up and look through it. Although it is cloudy due to the degrading of the tissue, it is still fairly transparent. Notice the toughness and strength of the cornea. It is designed this way to protect the more delicate features found Inside the eye. 4. With the front of the anterior half of the eye facing up, locate the Iris. Notice how the iris is positioned so that it surrounds and overlaps the lens. This position allows the Iris to open and close around the lens to -Lans allow different amounts of light into the eye. In bright light, the iris contracts to let in less light. In dim light, such as at night, the iris expands to let in more light. Front View of Anterior halt of eyo (with cornea romoved) 5. Flip the anterior half over and examine the back half. Locate the lens and ciliary body. The ciliary body body surrounds the lens, allowing it to change the shape of the lens to help the eye focus on the object it is viewing Cornea 6. After examining both sides of the Back View of Anterior halt of eye (with cornea removed) anterior half of the eye, pull the lens out. While the cow was alive, the lens was clear and very flexible. In a preserved cow eye, the lens will most likely have yellowed and become very hard. However, it may still be possible to look through the lens and see its ability to magnify objects. Try this by placing the lens on a piece of paper with writing on it. 7. On the posterior half of the eye, there is a thin, tissue-like material that slides easily inside the sclera. This is the retina. The retina contains photoreceptor cells that collect the light entering the eye through the lens from the outside world. These images are sent to the optic disc, the spot where the optic nerve attaches to the eye. At this point, there are no photoreceptor cells; there are only nerves sending images to the Page 3 Citiary Dissection: Internal Anatomy 1. Place the cow eye on a dissecting tray. Carefully cut away the excess fat and muscle. As you get closer to the actual eyeball, you may notice muscles that are attached directly to the sclera and along the optic nerve. These are the extrinsic muscles that allow a cow to move its eye up and down and from side to side. Keep cutting along the sclera, separating the membrane that attaches the muscle to it. After Posterior hall removing the excess tissue, the sclera and optic nerve should be exposed but still intact. Anterior hall vitreous humor) 2. Using a sharp scalpel, cut through the sclera around the middle of the eye so that one half will have the anterior features of the eye (the cornea, lens, iris, and ciliary body) and the other half will contain the posterior features (most noticeably where the optic nerve is attached to the eye). The inside of the eye cavity is filled with liquid. This is the Page 2 {filled with Cow Eye Dissection Guide brain. Because of this, this place in the eye is often referred to as the blind spot since no images can be formed here. To compensate for this blind spot, the other eye often sees the images that the first eye cannot see and vice versa. In the rare occasions where neither eye can see a particular spot, the brain "fills in the spot using the surrounding background information It recelves from the eye. 8. Most of the retina is not attached Retina culled back to the eye. Instead, It is held in from the chorold coal place by fluids in the eye. The tissue of the retina gathers at the Retina back of the eye where it forms into the optic nerve. This is the only place where the retina is attached to the eye. Use a pair of tweezers to gently lift the retina off the Chorold Inside wall of the eye. The retina coat may tear because it is very delicate. Underneath the retina you will find a very shiny and colorful tissue. This is the chorold coat. The choroid coat is also known as the vascular tunic because it supplies the eye with blood and nutrients. In a human eye, the choroid coat is very darkly colored to minimize the reflection of light which would cause distorted images. 9. Notice that the choroid coat in the cow's eye is very colorful and shiny. This reflective material is the tapetum lucidum, and its reflective properties allow a cow to see at night by reflecting the light that is absorbed through the retina back into the retina. (While this does allow the cow to see better at night than humans can, it distorts the clarity of what the cow sees because the light is reflected so much.) The tapetum lucidum is also responsible for the "glowing" eyes of animals, such as cats, when a small amount of light reflects off the tapetum lucidum in an otherwise dark room. HOME SCIENCE TOOLS THE GATEWAY TO DISCOVERY 665 Carbon Street, Billings, MT 59102 Phone: 800.860.6272 Fax: 888.860.2344 www.homesciencetools.com Copyright 2007 by Home Training Tools, Ltd. All rights reserved. Group Names Cow's Eye Lab Initial beside the following external structures when you find them cornea (cloudy and bluish gray, front of eye, due to preservative) optic nerve (exits back of eye, carries messages to occipital area of brain) sclera Initial beside the following internal structures (posterior chamber) vitreous humor (jelly-like substance, holds retina in place) retina (yellowish, very thin contains photoreceptor cells) choroid coat (vascular tunic, supplies eye with blood and nutrients) optic disc area (where retina, optic nerve attach, blind spot) tapetum lucidum (in cows helps them see at night, shiny, colorful sclera (tough outer membrane) Initial beside the following internal structures (anterior chamber) lens (opaque due to preservative, rounded oval shape) auqueous humor (watery fluid) ciliary muscle (surrounds lens, changes its shape for focusing on objects) iris (colored part of human eye, contracts and dilates to allow more or less light in) pupil (circular opening through which light passes) Google Sheep brain dessechon video 4:05 Sheep Brain Lab Identify the following structures on the dorsal side Cerebrum-right and left hemispheres Sulci watch Video 4:05 gyri brain dissection Right and left frontal lobes sheep Biologyby me youtube Right and left parietal lobes Leinemisphere Longitudinal fiss Right and left temporal lobes Transverse fissure Right and left occipital lobes Longitudinal fissure Cerebellum Transverse fissure Cerebellum Cerebr Right hemis Spinal cord Arachnoid mater and pia mater Dura mater Sulcus Gyrus I-BIRCUS DETTE TUHUWin79 SUULUUS Online Vencrai Slae Olfactory bulbs (CN 1) Dura mater (if present) Optic chiasm and optic nerve (CN I Midbrain Pons Infundibulum Medulla oblongata Pons Optic chiasm Spinal cord Spinal cord Medulla oblongata Olfactory bulb Hypothalamus malar diwal Pin the following 10 structures on your Specimen Identify the following structures from the sagittal view 1 Corpus callosum 2. -Thalamus 3. - Hypothalamus 4. Superior colliculus 5. Pineal gland Cerebellum Superior colliculus Inferior colliculus Pineal gland Corpus callosum Gyrus Sulcus Incision 2 6. Arbor vitae (of cerebellum) Arbor vitae 72 Midbrain Spinal cord Pons 8 9. Medulla oblongata Thalamus Hypothalamus Olfactory bulb Medulla Pons 10-Spinal cord Identify the following from a frontal section of the brain and spinal cord White matter Gray matter What is the difference in location for each? Answer the following questions: 1. What fluid circulates through the ventricles of the brain? Name 3 functions of this fluid 2. The olfactory bulbs are related to the sense of 3. The optic chiasm is related to the sense of 4. Name the 3 layers of meninges of the brain 5. What is the function of the pineal gland? 6. Name the 2 main organs of the central nervous system 7. What is the main function of the cerebellum? 8. What is white matter composed of? 9. What is gray matter composed of? 10. What is the importance of the corpus callosum? 11. Which fissure divides the cerebrum from the cerebellum? 12.Which fissure divides the right hemisphere of the cerebrum from the left hemisphere? 13. The "grooves" of the brain are called 14. The "ridges" of the brain are called 15.Name the 3 parts of the brain stem? Which part is closest to the spinal cord? 16.What could result from injury to the brain stem? And why? 17.What does arbor vitae mean? 18. What does the structure of the optic chiasm tell you about how the brain processes information coming from the optic nerves? 19. Look at the structure of the human brain in your textbook? How is it different from the sheep brain? 20. What is the purpose of the sulci and gyri?
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Explanation & Answer

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IMAGE 1
SHEEP HEART
ANSWERS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Auricle.
Left Ventricle.
Chordae tendineae.
Tricuspid valve.
Bicuspid valve.
Systemic circulation.
Right ventricle.
Left ventricle.
Arteries.
Veins.
Tricuspid and Bicuspid valves.
Eustachian valve

HEART CROSS SECTION

CHOOSE THE CORRECT RESPONSE IN THE PARENTHESES





Left ventricle.
Left atrium and ventricle.
Right atrium and ventricle.
Pulmonary veins.

FLOW CHART

Superior/In
ferior Vena
cava

Right
Atrium

Right
Ventricle

Tricuspid
valve

Bicuspid
Valve

Left Atrium

Pulmonary
Veins

Lungs

Left
Ventricle

Aortic SL
Valve

Aorta

Arteries

Return to
superior/inf
erior vena
cava

Veins

Venules

Pulmona
ry SL
Valve

Pulmon
ary
Artery

Arterioles

Capillaries


IMAGE 2
CAT DISSECTION
ANSWERS
PRELAB QUESTIONS
1. Thoracic and abdominal cavity.
2. Diaphragm.

LAB QUESTIONS
1. Practical.
2. The heart is located in the left compartment of the thorax ve...


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