Laptop material analysis

Engineering

eml

University of Florida

Question Description

TOPIC: Bicycle frame Material

A format report is attached, along with the rubric, also charts in order to analyze the material is attached (Charts are to be strictly used from the attached file)

Finding the best material to make a laptop considering cost, environment, strength, ductility, etc.

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M A T E R I A L I N S P I R A T I O N 00 100 0 Tu ca ngs rb te id n e et M ys lo Co al pp oy er s N Si Al ic s osit ad al lo ys g al oy W G s oo d P P PA PE FRP EK M C M A PE T lo al nc Zi te re nc Co S el ilico as n to e m ers 0 r AlN ns Al al lo Sili Poly me rs glas Sod s a gl Mo ass Lead allo GF RP Epo PA xies PM MA PC ys Bric k rk cret e No n ce-traechn mic ical s PS than g's n You th sity Den m C d Woo MA PM PA e 10 Cor k rs 4 m/s Foa er yest ain Pol // gr her Leat PC 0 But yl ru Str 100 en gth bber , σ 10 f (M Isop Pa ) Sili elascone tom ers 1 1/3 E 1/2 E nd rs a me ers Polalystom e T grain E e than -2 10 r s fo line ss ide ma Gu imum n min desig cone s Sili tomer elas -1 10 -3 10 yure Pol -4 10 e pren Neo ble foampolym s er rene Isop 10 3 10 rene ys E EVA ms Foa Fle xi e 10 allo allo PTF er lym id po Rig ams fo k Cor pren c Zin e cret Con EK PE T PE xies Epo ms Neo Lead PS PP PE m al din gitu d Lon spee wave ss Gla ys allo Mg P R GF 100 tals ys CF es ys allo Me RP it pos om ral Natu rials ate id po foam lym s er 00 100 eng Yie ld buckbefore ling lus odu loys Cu N4 al Si3 hnic s B4C Tecramic ys ce Al allo Rig EVA sto me Str Con PT FE Ela Co s- ne Pol yure dulu Sto PP PE D guidesign e lin es Bu befockling re yi eld O3 Al2 Ti al ca ys WC W al SiC Te cecrahnic mical s ys E 10-3 ys lo els Ni al Ste loys s 2O 3 am Al E 10-4 G m uid in e im lin de um es fo sig m r n ass ys Le M m tu at ra er l ia ls Ri gi d fo po am ly s me SiC es Mg allo 1 10-2 1 0.0 B ru utyl bb er mp WC er W al loys Ni al lo Ste ys Cu els allo ys Ti al loy s CF RP Cas t iro Co E 0.1 100 Fl ex i fo ble am po s lym tals 10 1 Young's modulus, E (GPa) si te s RP Al al SiC oy s Ce ra m 100 10 Fo Young's modulus, E (GPa) Me 100 100 O Ti a lo ys Ste el s Ni al Tu n al gste oy n s al s 100 3 Na 0 10-1 2 CF po m Co Po el lym as e to rs m an er d s -D en si ty St re ng th 100 4 3 mer ly e po xibl Fle s foam yl But er rubb 1 1 0.1 2 m/s 10 0.1 0.01 2 Material and Process Selection Charts Cambridge University Version MFA 10 Material and process charts Mike Ashby, Engineering Department Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK Version 1 1. Introduction 2. Materials property charts 3. Process attribute charts Chart 1 Young's modulus/Density Chart P1 Material – Process compatibility matrix Chart 2 Strength/Density Chart P2 Process – Shape compatibility matrix Chart 3 Young's modulus/Strength Chart P3 Process/Mass Chart 4 Specific modulus/Specific strength Chart P4 Process/Section thickness Chart 5 Fracture toughness/Modulus Chart P5 Process/Dimensional tolerance Chart 6 Fracture toughness/Strength Chart P6 Process/Surface roughness Chart 7 Loss coefficient/Young's modulus Chart P7 Process/Economic batch size Chart 8 Thermal conductivity/Electrical resistivity Chart 9 Thermal conductivity/Thermal diffusivity Chart 10 Thermal expansion/Thermal conductivity Chart 11 Thermal expansion/Young's modulus Table 1 Stiffness-limited design at minimum mass (cost …) Chart 12 Strength/Maximum service temperature Table 2 Strength-limited design at minimum mass (cost …) Chart 13 Coefficient of friction Table 3 Strength-limited design for maximum performance Chart 14 Normalised wear rate/Hardness Table 4 Vibration-limited design Chart 15a,b Approximate material prices Table 5 Damage tolerant design Chart 16 Young's modulus/Relative cost Table 6 Thermal and thermo-mechanical design Chart 17 Strength/Relative cost Chart 18a,b Approximate material energy content Chart 19 Young's modulus/Energy content Chart 20 Strength/Energy content © Granta Design, January 2010 Appendix: material indices 1 Material property charts Introduction The charts in this booklet summarise material properties and process attributes. Each chart appears on a single page with a brief commentary about its use. Background and data sources can be found in the book "Materials Selection in Mechanical Design" 3rd edition, by M.F. Ashby (Elsevier-Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, 2005). The material charts map the areas of property space occupied by each material class. They can be used in three ways: (a) to retrieve approximate values for material properties (b) to select materials which have prescribed property profiles (c) to design hybrid materials. The collection of process charts, similarly, can be used as a data source or as a selection tool. Sequential application of several charts allows several design goals to be met simultaneously. More advanced methods are described in the book cited above. The best way to tackle selection problems is to work directly on the appropriate charts. Permission is given to copy charts for this purpose. Normal copyright restrictions apply to reproduction for other purposes. It is not possible to give charts which plot all the possible combinations: there are too many. Those presented here are the most commonly useful. Any other can be created easily using the CES software*. Cautions. The data on the charts and in the tables are approximate: they typify each class of material (stainless steels, or polyethylenes, for instance) or processes (sand casting, or injection molding, for example), but within each class there is considerable variation. They are adequate for the broad comparisons required for conceptual design, and, often, for the rough calculations of embodiment design. THEY ARE NOT APPROPRIATE FOR DETAILED DESIGN CALCULATIONS. For these, it is essential to seek accurate data from handbooks and the data sheets provided by material suppliers. The charts help in narrowing the choice of candidate materials to a sensible short list, but not in providing numbers for final accurate analysis. Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the data shown on the charts. No guarantee can, however, be given that the data are error-free, or that new data may not supersede those given here. The charts are an aid to creative thinking, not a source of numerical data for precise analysis. * © Granta Design, January 2010 CES software, Granta Design (www.Grantadesign.com) 2 Material classes and class members The materials of mechanical and structural engineering fall into the broad classes listed in this Table. Within each class, the Materials Selection Charts show data for a representative set of materials, chosen both to span the full range of behaviour for that class, and to include the most widely used members of it. In this way the envelope for a class (heavy lines) encloses data not only for the materials listed here but virtually all other members of the class as well. These same materials appear on all the charts. Family Metals (The metals and alloys of engineering) Polymers (The thermoplastics and thermosets of engineering) © Granta Design, January 2010 Classes Family Al alloys Cu alloys Lead alloys Mg alloys Ni alloys Steels Stainless steels Tin alloys Ti alloys W alloys Pb alloys Zn alloys Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene Cellulose polymers Ionomers Epoxies Phenolics Polyamides (nylons) Polycarbonate Polyesters Polyetheretherkeytone Polyethylene Polyethylene terephalate Polymethylmethacrylate Polyoxymethylene (Acetal) Polypropylene Polystyrene Polytetrafluorethylene Polyvinylchloride ABS CA Ionomers Epoxy Phelonics PA PC Polyester PEEK PE PET or PETE PMMA POM PP PS PTFE PVC Short name Butyl rubber EVA Isoprene Natural rubber Neoprene PU Silicones Alumina Aluminum nitride Boron carbide Silicon Carbide Silicon Nitride Tungsten carbide Al203 AlN B4C SiC Si3N4 WC Brick Concrete Stone Brick Concrete Stone Soda-lime glass Borosilicate glass Silica glass Glass ceramic Soda-lime glass Borosilicate Silica glass Glass ceramic Carbon-fiber reinforced polymers Glass-fiber reinforced polymers SiC reinforced aluminum CFRP GFRP Al-SiC Hybrids: foams Flexible polymer foams Rigid polymer foams Flexible foams Rigid foams Hybrids: natural materials Cork Bamboo Wood Cork Bamboo Wood Elastomers (Engineering rubbers, natural and synthetic) Short name Aluminum alloys Copper alloys Lead alloys Magnesium alloys Nickel alloys Carbon steels Stainless steels Tin alloys Titanium alloys Tungsten alloys Lead alloys Zinc alloys Classes Butyl rubber EVA Isoprene Natural rubber Polychloroprene (Neoprene) Polyurethane Silicone elastomers Ceramics, technical ceramics (Fine ceramics capable of load-bearing application) Ceramics, non-technical ceramics (Porous ceramics of construction) Glasses Hybrids: composites You will not find specific material grades on the charts. The aluminum alloy 7075 in the T6 condition (for instance) is contained in the property envelopes for Al-alloys; the Nylon 66 in those for nylons. The charts are designed for the broad, early stages of materials selection, not for retrieving the precise values of properties needed in the later, detailed design, stage. 3 Material properties The charts that follow display the properties listed here. The charts let you pick off the subset of materials with a property within a specified range: materials with modulus E between 100 and 200 GPa for instance; or materials with a thermal conductivity above 100 W/mK. Class General Property Symbol and Units Density ρ Price (kg/m3 or Mg/m3) Elastic moduli (Young's, Shear, Bulk) Cm ($/kg) E ,G , K (GPa) Frequently, performance is maximized by selecting the subset of materials with the greatest value of a grouping of material properties. A Yield strength σy (MPa) light, stiff beam is best made of a material with a high value of E 1 / 2 / ρ ; safe pressure vessels are best made of a material with a high value of Ultimate strength σu (MPa) Compressive strength σc (MPa) Failure strength σf (MPa) Hardness H (Vickers) Elongation ε (--) Fatigue endurance limit Mechanical K11c/ 2 / σ f , and so on. The Charts are designed to display these groups or "material indices", and to allow you to pick off the subset of materials which maximize them. The Appendix of this document lists material indices. Details of the method, with worked examples, are given in "Materials Selection in Mechanical Design", cited earlier. Multiple criteria can be used. You can pick off the subset of materials with both high E 1 / 2 / ρ and high E (good for light, stiff beams) from Chart 1; that with high σ 2f / E 3 and high E (good materials for pivots) from Chart 4. Throughout, the goal is to identify from the Charts a subset of materials, not a single material. Finding the best material for a given application involves many considerations, many of them (like availability, appearance and feel) not easily quantifiable. The Charts do not give you the final choice - that requires the use of your judgement and experience. Their power is that they guide you quickly and efficiently to a subset of materials worth considering; and they make sure that you do not overlook a promising candidate. Thermal (MPa) K1c (MPa.m1/2) Toughness G1c (kJ/m2) Loss coefficient (damping capacity) η (--) Melting point Tm Tg (C or K) Glass temperature Maximum service temperature Electrical © Granta Design, January 2010 σe Fracture toughness (C or K) Thermal conductivity Tmax (C or K) (W/m.K) λ Specific heat Cp (J/kg.K) Thermal expansion coefficient α Thermal shock resistance ∆Ts -1 (˚K ) (C or K) Electrical resistivity ρe ( Ω .m or µΩ .cm)) Dielectric constant εd (--) Eco-properties Energy/kg to extract material Ef (MJ/kg) Environmental resistance Wear rate constant KA MPa-1 4 Chart 1: Young's modulus, E and Density, ρ This chart guides selection of materials for light, stiff, components. The moduli of engineering materials span a range of 107; the densities span a range of 3000. The contours show the longitudinal wave speed in m/s; natural vibration frequencies are proportional to this quantity. The guide lines show the loci of points for which • E/ρ = C (minimum weight design of stiff ties; minimum deflection in centrifugal loading, etc) • E1/2/ρ = C (minimum weight design of stiff beams, shafts and columns) • E1/3/ρ = C (minimum weight design of stiff plates) The value of the constant C increases as the lines are displaced upwards and to the left; materials offering the greatest stiffness-to-weight ratio lie towards the upper left hand corner. Other moduli are obtained approximately from E using ν = 1/3; G = 3/8E; K ≈ E (metals, ceramics, • glasses and glassy polymers) • or ν ≈ 0.5 ; G ≈ E / 3 ; K ≈ 10 E (elastomers, rubbery polymers) where ν is Poisson's ratio, G the shear modulus and K the bulk modulus. © Granta Design, January 2010 5 Chart 2: Strength, σf, against Density, ρ This is the chart for designing light, strong structures. The "strength" for metals is the 0.2% offset yield strength. For polymers, it is the stress at which the stress-strain curve becomes markedly non-linear typically, a strain of abut 1%. For ceramics and glasses, it is the compressive crushing strength; remember that this is roughly 15 times larger than the tensile (fracture) strength. For composites it is the tensile strength. For elastomers it is the tear-strength. The chart guides selection of materials for light, strong, components. The guide lines show the loci of points for which: (a) σf/ρ = C (minimum weight design of strong ties; maximum rotational velocity of disks) (b) σf 2/3 /ρ = C (minimum weight design of strong beams and shafts) (c) 1/2 σf /ρ = C (minimum weight design of strong plates) The value of the constant C increases as the lines are displaced upwards and to the left. Materials offering the greatest strength-to-weight ratio lie towards the upper left corner. © Granta Design, January 2010 6 Chart 3: Young's modulus, E, against Strength, σf The chart for elastic design. The "strength" for metals is the 0.2% offset yield strength. For polymers, it is the 1% yield strength. For ceramics and glasses, it is the compressive crushing strength; remember that this is roughly 15 times larger than the tensile (fracture) strength. For composites it is the tensile strength. For elastomers it is the tear-strength. The chart has numerous applications among them: the selection of materials for springs, elastic hinges, pivots and elastic bearings, and for yield-beforebuckling design. The contours show the failure strain, σ f / E . The guide lines show three of these; they are the loci of points for which: (a) σf /E (b) σf /E 2 = C (elastic hinges) = C (springs, elastic energy storage per unit volume) (c) σf 3/2 /E = C (selection for elastic constants such as knife edges; elastic diaphragms, compression seals) The value of the constant C increases as the lines are displaced downward and to the right. © Granta Design, January 2010 7 Chart 4: Specific modulus, E/ρ, against Specific strength, σf/ρ The chart for specific stiffness and strength. The contours show the yield strain, σ f / E . The qualifications on strength given for Charts 2 and 4 apply here also. The chart finds application in minimum weight design of ties and springs, and in the design of rotating components to maximize rotational speed or energy storage, etc. The guide lines show the loci of points for which (a) 2 σf /Eρ = C (ties, springs of minimum weight; maximum rotational velocity of disks) (b) σ 2f / 3 / Eρ 1 / 2 = C (c) σf /E = C (elastic hinge design) The value of the constant C increases as the lines are displaced downwards and to the right. © Granta Design, January 2010 8 Chart 5: Fracture toughness, KIc, against Young's modulus, E The chart displays both the fracture toughness, K1c , and (as contours) the toughness, G1c ≈ K12c / E . It allows criteria for stress and displacement-limited failure criteria ( K1c and K1c / E ) to be compared. The guidelines show the loci of points for which 2 KIc /E = C (lines of constant toughness, Gc; energy-limited failure) (a) (b) KIc /E = C (guideline for displacementlimited brittle failure) The values of the constant C increases as the lines are displaced upwards and to the left. Tough materials lie towards the upper left corner, brittle materials towards the bottom right. © Granta Design, January 2010 9 Chart 6: Fracture toughness, KIc, against Strength, σf The chart for safe design against fracture. The contours show the process-zone diameter, given 2 2 approximately by KIc /πσf . The qualifications on "strength" given for Charts 2 and 3 apply here also. The chart guides selection of materials to meet yield-beforebreak design criteria, in assessing plastic or process-zone sizes, and in designing samples for valid fracture toughness testing. The guide lines show the loci of points for which (a) KIc/σf (b) 2 KIc /σf = C = C (yield-before-break) (leak-before-break) The value of the constant C increases as the lines are displaced upward and to the left. © Granta Design, January 2010 10 Chart 7: Loss coefficient, η, against Young's modulus, E The chart gives guidance in selecting material for low damping (springs, vibrating reeds, etc) and for high damping (vibration-mitigating systems). The guide line shows the loci of points for which (a) ηE = C (rule-of-thumb for estimating damping in polymers) The value of the constant C increases as the line is displaced upward and to the right. © Granta Design, January 2010 11 Chart 8: Thermal conductivity, λ, against Electrical conductivity, ρe This is the chart for exploring thermal and electrical conductivies (the electrical conductivity κ is the reciprocal of the resistivity ρe ). For metals the two are proportional (the Wiedemann-Franz law): λ ≈κ = 1 ρe because electronic contributions dominate both. But for other classes of solid thermal and electrical conduction arise from different sources and the correlation is lost. © Granta Design, January 2010 12 Chart 9: Thermal conductivity, λ, against Thermal diffusivity, a The chart guides in selecting materials for thermal insulation, for use as heat sinks and such like, both when heat flow is steady, (λ) and when it is transient (thermal diffusivity a = λ/ρ Cp where ρ is the density and Cp the specific heat). Contours show values of the volumetric specific heat, ρ Cp = λ/a (J/m3K). The guidelines show the loci of points for which (a) λ/a = C (constant volumetric specific heat) (b) λ/a1/2 = C energy storage) (efficient insulation; thermal The value of constant C increases towards the upper left. © Granta Design, January 2010 13 Chart 10: Thermal expansion coefficient, α, against Thermal conductivity, λ The chart for assessing thermal distortion. The contours show value of the ratio λ/α (W/m). Materials with a large value of this design index show small thermal distortion. They define the guide line (a) λ/α = C (minimization of thermal distortion) The value of the constant C increases towards the bottom right. © Granta Design, January 2010 14 Chart 11: Linear thermal expansion, α, against Young's modulus, E The chart guides in selecting materials when thermal stress is important. The contours show the thermal stress o generated, per C temperature change, in a constrained sample. They define the guide line αE = C MPa/K o (constant thermal stress per K) The value of the constant C increases towards the upper right. © Granta Design, January 2010 15 Chart 12: Strength, σf, against Maximum service temperature Tmax Temperature affects material performance in many ways. As the temperature is raised the material may creep, limiting its ability to carry loads. It may degrade or decompose, changing its chemical structure in ways that make it unusable. And it may oxidise or inter ...
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