A written report about a chosebn material for a specific application

Engineering

MATERIALS SELECTION

University of South Florida

Question Description

This is for a Mechanical Engineering Course called Materials Selection. The guidelines are attached along with an example report called "prosthetic arm" to refer to while you work on the assignment. You will also find all the charts you will need in the "materials charts" pdf. It is a straightforward assignment but requires some creativity.

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MATERIALS SELECTION INDIVIDUAL PROJECT GUIDELINESS FINAL PROJECT REPORTS § In your report, you are expected to mention the following points: o Importance of the topic and why you chose it (e.g. I chose digital keyboard keys because I need to fix my brothers keyboard and trying to find cheapest and best performing material, or every year this many people dying from heart disease so I chose heart stent material etc.). Your chosen topic has to have a meaning for you. If your topic is not original and no purpose is clearly stated in choosing that topic, I will cut marks. o Properties you are looking for in that component (e.g. it has to absorb energy, it has to be strong and stiff, but it has to be cheapest or environmentally safest option, etc.) You need to prepare the table for the translation step. o Your approach to the material selection problem, your material indices (don’t need to show derivation), the material selection charts you chose to apply your material indices, and candidate materials. If you choose wrong material indices or missing material indices, you will lose significant points. o Supporting information from literature to support your material of choice (e.g. after my material selection procedure I chose carbon-carbon composites to be the best option and my literature review shows that this indeed is the commonly used material for this application). I’ll ask you information to check if you did literature review and if you cannot answer my question, you will lose points. o How you chose to process your material of choice using process selection charts and literature information supporting that process. o You will need to generate the charts yourself using the software. I won’t accept print out charts. Be creative and generate desired charts for your own problem. Your report might cover the following titles (minimum 4 pages): ü Introduction o The reason you chose this topic, and the importance of it etc. ü Required properties for the component o Summarize all the properties that your material should have for that application supporting with the literature (e.g., non-toxic, strong, high fracture toughness, high fatigue life, high service temperature etc. together with reasons behind it.) ü Materials selection procedure o Design requirements in a table (function, objective, free variables, etc.) o Material index and its derivation or refer to appendix for the correct index o Application of material indices on charts o Candidate materials and literature support ü Processing selection o Use process selection charts in order to make your process selection ü Cost and environment o Talk about the cost of your material and compare it with other possible candidates using cost charts or literature findings. o Talk about the environmental effects of choosing this material. e.g., Is it recyclable? o Use embodied energy charts or embodied energy data from appendix to rank materials ü Conclusion o A paragraph of summary • • • • • • • The report should be based on properly applied material selection procedure and conducted literature search. All students are required to list references for the information provided. Format is not important but it should not be sloppy and each section is clearly separated with a title. Show your work on the material selection charts. Apply your knowledge from lectures and homeworks to your project. Copying and pasting from your presentation and submitting it as a report is not acceptable. If you copy exactly your slides, you will get low score. The content of presentation and report are the same but report should include extra information whereas presentation should just be the summary of your report. Some important point about the print out material selection charts is that when you apply your material index to the chart, the best material for example can be composites. But charts don’t specify what type of composite it can be so you will do literature search and support your finding and at the same time you can find a more specific name to your composite material selection such as Kevlar fibers in epoxy etc. Or charts might guide you to Ti alloys but with literature search you can find a specific Ti alloy. Scoring Rubric for Oral Presentations: Scoring Criteria Topic is not original. It is simple. No clear motivation for topic. Wrong material index Missing material index Report is poorly organized Report doesn’t contain accurate information Report contains redundant information Report doesn’t provide literature support Report is simply types Information wasn’t well communicated Visual aids are not well prepared, informative, effective Points -5 -10 -10 -10 -10 -5 -10 -10 -10 -10 Christopher Melvan 4930 Material Selection 4/30/18 Introduction Prosthetic design is a field that I have great interest in as I approach graduation. The industry is one that shows signs of continued growth moving forward, especially with the nature of the United States involvement in continued militaristic activity. Additionally, as this field continues to grow, it is important that the quality of product being produced must be held to an extremely high standard. More specifically, the materials which serve as the primary structural core of a prosthetic arm must be carefully selected. To achieve this, the methods of material selection learned through this class can be utilized to seek materials that will maximize the safety and quality of prosthetics that will be produced in the future. Required Properties of Materials To focus our search of a material, parameters must be set to narrow the available materials down to a few options. To do this, an analytical idealization of our prosthetic arm must be developed to allow us to isolate the constraints to be placed upon the design. This idealization process involves simplifying the human arm, a structure composed of several joints connecting several solid structures allowing as many as 20 degrees of freedom [1], into a simpler structure such as a cantilever beam as pictured below. Figure 1: Simplification of Application Further analysis of this model allows us to isolate the properties normally sought after in the design of any cantilever beam with further restrictions being placed based on the purpose of our application. [2] The materials must facilitate the need for: • • • A lightweight design approximating the weight of a human arm A high strength design that can support any load normally expected of a human arm Bio-compatible components that will not lead to harmful interactions with biological components the structure will interact with. Selection of Materials The material selection process requires a formal approach to determining what factors will affect out material choice. Table 1: Design Requirements of a Prosthetic Arm Function A Functioning Arm (Light, Strong beam) Constraints Must not fail by yield Must not Corrode Must be bio-compatible Objective Minimize mass Free Variables Arm Thickness (idealized as radius r) Choice of Material Figure 2: Free Body Diagram of Idealized Arm Objective: Beam that will resist yield under a given loading prioritizing minimization of mass • 𝑚 = 𝐴𝐿𝜌 = (𝜋𝑟 2 )𝐿𝜌 Objective Function: Constraint: Must not fail under load F • 𝜎𝑓 > Constraint Function: 𝑀𝑟 = 𝐼 𝐹𝐿𝑟 𝜋 4 𝑟 4 = 4𝐹𝐿 𝜋𝑟 3 Free Variables: Material Choice and Radius • 1 2 2 5 3 2 𝜌 𝑚 = [4𝜋 𝐹𝐿 ] { 2} Combined Functions: 𝜎3 2 𝜎3 𝑀= { } Material Index of Interest: Log Form: 𝜌 3 log(𝜎) = [log(𝜌) + log(𝑀)] 2 Through the derivations performed above we can apply the values associated with the day to day use of an average human arm, such as strength needed and weight of material. Figure 3: Strength vs. Density selection process chart Based on the findings above the materials chosen for this application are: Material Strengths: • Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic - σy = 900 MPa • Magnesium Alloy - σy = 450 MPa • Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic - σy = 200 MPa Additionally, the costs of these materials should be assessed. Figure 4: Relative Cost selection chart Material Costs: • Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics - $110/Unit Volume • Magnesium Alloys - $6/Unit Volume • Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics - $2.2/Unit Volume Material Choice CFRP Mg Alloy GFRP Strength (MPa) 900 450 200 Table 2: Material Choice Cost ($/volume) Bio-compatibility 110 Compatible [3] 6 Compatible [4] 2.2 Compatible [5] Ranking Best Strength Middle Strength Low Strength Based on the criteria assessed, Carbon Fiber is the best suited material for this application. Even though its cost is much higher the safety of the user, and therefore material strength, should be held as the highest priority. Process Selection Function Constraints Objective Free Variables Table 3: Process Selection Prosthetic Arm (Simplified as cantilever beam) Material CFRP Shape 3D Solid Approximate Mass 8 lbs (human arm weight) Section Thickness 10 mm Tolerancing 0.5 mm Roughness 0.5 µm Batch Size Single Units Minimize mass, Maximize performance Choice of process Process operating conditions Through the use of the above process selection charts it appears that Resin-Transfer Molding will be the best suited material processing method for the CFRP that will be used for a prosthetic arm. Environmental Impact Based on research done on the production of car bodies using carbon fiber [7], it can be noted that Carbon Fiber is not environmentally friendly. Due to the nature of the production processes involved in making CFRP substantial amounts of energy must be expended, likely leading to an increase in pollution from powering the heating processes required. Additionally, CFRP is a very non-recyclable material which further attributes its negative environmental impact. Citations 1. Robotic Prosthetics Market Analysis By Technology (Microprocessor Controlled,Myoelectric Prosthetics), By Extremity (Lower Body, Upper Body Extremity), By Region, And Segment Forecasts, 2018 - 2025 From: https://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/robotic-prosthetics-market 2. Linn, K. O., & Vossius, G. (n.d.). A MODEL OF THE MECHANICS OF THE HUMAN ARM AND ITS IMPLICATION ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL TREMOR. Retrieved April 17, 2018, From: https://tinyurl.com/y89tchwo 3. University of Cambridge, Mechanical Properties of Bone. From: https://www.doitpoms.ac.uk/tlplib/bones/bone_mechanical.php 4. Petersen, R. (2016). Carbon Fiber Biocompatibility for Implants. Fibers, 4(4), 1. doi:10.3390/fib4010001 5. Charyeva, O., Dakischew, O., Sommer, U., Heiss, C., Schnettler, R., & Lips, K. S. (2015). Biocompatibility of magnesium implants in primary human reaming debris-derived cells stem cells in vitro. Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, 17(1), 63-73. doi:10.1007/s10195-015-0364-9 6. Ballo, A. M., Akca, E. A., Ozen, T., Lassila, L., Vallittu, P. K., & Närhi, T. O. (2009). Bone tissue responses to glass fiber-reinforced composite implants - a histomorphometric study. Clinical Oral Implants Research. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0501.2008.01700.x 7. Merline, D., Is Carbon Fiber Eco-Friendly? August 2nd, 2013. Web2cars.com https://www.web2carz.com/autos/fuel-economy-and-safety/2300/is-carbon-fiber-eco-friendly M A T E R I A L I N S P I R A T I O N 00 100 0 Tu ca ngs rb te id n e et M ys lo Co al pp oy er s N Si Al ic s osit ad al lo ys g al oy W G s oo d P P PA PE FRP EK M C M A PE T lo al nc Zi te re nc Co S el ilico as n to e m ers 0 r AlN ns Al al lo Sili Poly me rs glas Sod s a gl Mo ass Lead allo GF RP Epo PA xies PM MA PC ys Bric k rk cret e No n ce-traechn mic ical s PS than g's n You th sity Den m C d Woo MA PM PA e 10 Cor k rs 4 m/s Foa er yest ain Pol // gr her Leat PC 0 But yl ru Str 100 en gth bber , σ 10 f (M Isop Pa ) Sili elascone tom ers 1 1/3 E 1/2 E nd rs a me ers Polalystom e T grain E e than -2 10 r s fo line ss ide ma Gu imum n min desig cone s Sili tomer elas -1 10 -3 10 yure Pol -4 10 e pren Neo ble foampolym s er rene Isop 10 3 10 rene ys E EVA ms Foa Fle xi e 10 allo allo PTF er lym id po Rig ams fo k Cor pren c Zin e cret Con EK PE T PE xies Epo ms Neo Lead PS PP PE m al din gitu d Lon spee wave ss Gla ys allo Mg P R GF 100 tals ys CF es ys allo Me RP it pos om ral Natu rials ate id po foam lym s er 00 100 eng Yie ld buckbefore ling lus odu loys Cu N4 al Si3 hnic s B4C Tecramic ys ce Al allo Rig EVA sto me Str Con PT FE Ela Co s- ne Pol yure dulu Sto PP PE D guidesign e lin es Bu befockling re yi eld O3 Al2 Ti al ca ys WC W al SiC Te cecrahnic mical s ys E 10-3 ys lo els Ni al Ste loys s 2O 3 am Al E 10-4 G m uid in e im lin de um es fo sig m r n ass ys Le M m tu at ra er l ia ls Ri gi d fo po am ly s me SiC es Mg allo 1 10-2 1 0.0 B ru utyl bb er mp WC er W al loys Ni al lo Ste ys Cu els allo ys Ti al loy s CF RP Cas t iro Co E 0.1 100 Fl ex i fo ble am po s lym tals 10 1 Young's modulus, E (GPa) si te s RP Al al SiC oy s Ce ra m 100 10 Fo Young's modulus, E (GPa) Me 100 100 O Ti a lo ys Ste el s Ni al Tu n al gste oy n s al s 100 3 Na 0 10-1 2 CF po m Co Po el lym as e to rs m an er d s -D en si ty St re ng th 100 4 3 mer ly e po xibl Fle s foam yl But er rubb 1 1 0.1 2 m/s 10 0.1 0.01 2 Material and Process Selection Charts Cambridge University Version MFA 10 Material and process charts Mike Ashby, Engineering Department Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK Version 1 1. Introduction 2. Materials property charts 3. Process attribute charts Chart 1 Young's modulus/Density Chart P1 Material – Process compatibility matrix Chart 2 Strength/Density Chart P2 Process – Shape compatibility matrix Chart 3 Young's modulus/Strength Chart P3 Process/Mass Chart 4 Specific modulus/Specific strength Chart P4 Process/Section thickness Chart 5 Fracture toughness/Modulus Chart P5 Process/Dimensional tolerance Chart 6 Fracture toughness/Strength Chart P6 Process/Surface roughness Chart 7 Loss coefficient/Young's modulus Chart P7 Process/Economic batch size Chart 8 Thermal conductivity/Electrical resistivity Chart 9 Thermal conductivity/Thermal diffusivity Chart 10 Thermal expansion/Thermal conductivity Chart 11 Thermal expansion/Young's modulus Table 1 Stiffness-limited design at minimum mass (cost …) Chart 12 Strength/Maximum service temperature Table 2 Strength-limited design at minimum mass (cost …) Chart 13 Coefficient of friction Table 3 Strength-limited design for maximum performance Chart 14 Normalised wear rate/Hardness Table 4 Vibration-limited design Chart 15a,b Approximate material prices Table 5 Damage tolerant design Chart 16 Young's modulus/Relative cost Table 6 Thermal and thermo-mechanical design Chart 17 Strength/Relative cost Chart 18a,b Approximate material energy content Chart 19 Young's modulus/Energy content Chart 20 Strength/Energy content © Granta Design, January 2010 Appendix: material indices 1 Material property charts Introduction The charts in this booklet summarise material properties and process attributes. Each chart appears on a single page with a brief commentary about its use. Background and data sources can be found in the book "Materials Selection in Mechanical Design" 3rd edition, by M.F. Ashby (Elsevier-Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, 2005). The material charts map the areas of property space occupied by each material class. They can be used in three ways: (a) to retrieve approximate values for material properties (b) to select materials which have prescribed property profiles (c) to design hybrid materials. The collection of process charts, similarly, can be used as a data source or as a selection tool. Sequential application of several charts allows several design goals to be met simultaneously. More advanced methods are described in the book cited above. The best way to tackle selection problems is to work directly on the appropriate charts. Permission is given to copy charts for this purpose. Normal copyright restrictions apply to reproduction for other purposes. It is not possible to give charts which plot all the possible combinations: there are too many. Those presented here are the most commonly useful. Any other can be created easily using the CES software*. Cautions. The data on the charts and in the tables are approximate: they typify each class of material (stainless steels, or polyethylenes, for instance) or processes (sand casting, or injection molding, for example), but within each class there is considerable variation. They are adequate for the broad comparisons required for conceptual design, and, often, for the rough calculations of embodiment design. THEY ARE NOT APPROPRIATE FOR DETAILED DESIGN CALCULATIONS. For these, it is essential to seek accurate data from handbooks and the data sheets provided by material suppliers. The charts help in narrowing the choice of candidate materials to a sensible short list, but not in providing numbers for final accurate analysis. Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the data shown on the charts. No guarantee can, however, be given that the data are error-free, or that new data may not supersede those given here. The charts are an aid to creative thinking, not a source of numerical data for precise analysis. * © Granta Design, January 2010 CES software, Granta Design (www.Grantadesign.com) 2 Material classes and class members The materials of mechanical and structural engineering fall into the broad classes listed in this Table. Within each class, the Materials Selection Charts show data for a representative set of materials, chosen both to span the full range of behaviour for that class, and to include the most widely used members of it. In this way the envelope for a class (heavy lines) encloses data not only for the materials listed here but virtually all other members of the class as well. These same materials appear on all the charts. Family Metals (The metals and alloys of engineering) Polymers (The thermoplastics and thermosets of engineering) © Granta Design, January 2010 Classes Family Al alloys Cu alloys Lead alloys Mg alloys Ni alloys Steels Stainless steels Tin alloys Ti alloys W alloys Pb alloys Zn alloys Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene Cellulose polymers Ionomers Epoxies Phenolics Polyamides (nylons) Polycarbonate Polyesters Polyetheretherkeytone Polyethylene Polyethylene terephalate Polymethylmethacrylate Polyoxymethylene (Acetal) Polypropylene Polystyrene Polytetrafluorethylene Polyvinylchloride ABS CA Ionomers Epoxy Phelonics PA PC Polyester PEEK PE PET or PETE PMMA POM PP PS PTFE PVC Short name Butyl rubber EVA Isoprene Natural rubber Neoprene PU Silicones Alumina Aluminum nitride Boron carbide Silicon Carbide Silicon Nitride Tungsten carbide Al203 AlN B4C SiC Si3N4 WC Brick Concrete Stone Brick Concrete Stone Soda-lime glass Borosilicate glass Silica glass Glass ceramic Soda-lime glass Borosilicate Silica glass Glass ceramic Carbon-fiber reinforced polymers Glass-fiber reinforced polymers SiC reinforced aluminum CFRP GFRP Al-SiC Hybrids: foams Flexible polymer foams Rigid polymer foams Flexible foams Rigid foams Hybrids: natural materials Cork Bamboo Wood Cork Bamboo Wood Elastomers (Engineering rubbers, natural and synthetic) Short name Aluminum alloys Copper alloys Lead alloys Magnesium alloys Nickel alloys Carbon steels Stainless steels Tin alloys Titanium alloys Tungsten alloys Lead alloys Zinc alloys Classes Butyl rubber EVA Isoprene Natural rubber Polychloroprene (Neoprene) Polyurethane Silicone elastomers Ceramics, technical ceramics (Fine ceramics capable of load-bearing ap ...
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