SF 350 Embry Riddle Aeronautical Aircraft Crash and Emergency Management Questions

sf 350

Embry Riddle Aeronautical University Daytona Beach


Question Description

watch the PowerPoint Lecture for Chapter 18-19 along with the Emergency Medical Services and Body and Property Management Instructor notes (docx).

Power Point link: https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1sq18pplxU5...


1 – Discuss in detail the five objectives of medical investigations explaining why each is critical in aircraft

accident investigation. (Don’t just identify – explain/justify your answer)

2 -What are the tree types of medical treatment which may be offered to an aircraft survivor. Describe

each, what is done during this type of treatment, where is it done? Include the body tagging

requirements and tag color and transportation meaning.

3 – Why is it important to have a transportation officer overseeing the transportation of survivors or

deceased? Who is in charge of the body management and why?

4 – Discuss the importance of the “Chain of Command “ in both Body and Property management,

concentrating on Recovery (both Body & Property) identification, and distribution. Who is in control of

these functions and why should enter into your thought process and explanation?

Unformatted Attachment Preview

SF 350 Lesson No. 18 Aircraft Crash and Emergency Management Topic: Emergency Medical Services Content: Objective(s): Handouts: Audio/Visual: Avianca Flight #052 DAL #191 @ D/FW [1st 1/2 of Part 1 covers (:15) SF 350 Emergency Medical Services Lesson Eighteen, Page 2 INTRODUCTION [The following is based on a report given by Ralph L. Wilson, NTSB, Washington, D.C. as part of ISASI forum Proceedings in 1991] Avianca Airlines, Flight 052 On January 25, 1990, at about 9:34 pm EST, Avianca Airlines flight #052, a Boeing 707-321B (Colombian registration #HK2016), crashed in a heavily wooded residential area in Cove Neck, Long Island, New York. AVA 052 was a scheduled international passenger flight from Bogota, Colombia, to JFK International Airport. Because of poor weather conditions in the northeastern part of the United States, the flight crew was placed in a holding pattern three times by air traffic control for approximately 1 hour and 17 minutes. During the third hold, the flightcrew reported that the airplane could not hold longer than5 minutes, that it was running out of fuel, and that it could not reach its alternate airport, Boston's Logan International Airport. Subsequently, the flightcrew executed a missed approach to JFK after conducting the initial standard instrument approach to land on runway 22L. While receiving radar vectors for a second approach, the flightcrew of AVA 052 informed the JFK tower that "....we're running out of fuel...." SF 350 Emergency Medical Services Lesson Eighteen, Page 3 Shortly thereafter, AVA 052 advised the NY terminal radar approach control (TRACON) that "we just lost two engines and we need priority please." At about 2134, AVA 052 impacted on a hillside in a heavily wooded residential area on the north side of Long Island.  Avianca Flight #052 Of the 158 persons aboard, 73 were fatally injured, including the 3 flight crewmembers and 5 of the 6 flight attendants; 81 were seriously injured, including the surviving flight attendant, and 4 received minor injuries. Of the 149 passengers onboard, there were 122 adults, 16 children and 11 infants whose ages ranged from 4 months to 27 months. There was no fire, and ARFF vehicles from JFK did not respond. A total of about 91 ambulances, heavy rescue and off-road vehicles, and fire trucks of varying sizes and capacities from 37 local fire and rescue companies responded to the site during the rescue operations. The number of police, press, and personal vehicles that responded was undetermined. Access to the impact site created a bottleneck of traffic on a single, narrow blacktopped residential road. Considerable congestion resulted as agencies tried to enter the road to assist and as other agencies tried to exit to transport survivors to local hospitals. SF 350 Emergency Medical Services Lesson Eighteen, Page 4 The Nassau County Police Department dispatched helicopters, which evacuated many of the injured. Overall, the emergency response and rescue was exceptional under the difficult circumstances of darkness and the wreckage location. However, one fact stands out: experienced rescue personnel readily adapt to disaster. >>>VIDEO<<< Avianca Flight #052 ( :15) As we discussed before, in terms of operational procedures, a crash with total fatalities does not tax a communities resources nearly as much as a crash with injured survivors. Also, as stated before, casualty projections suggest that as a rule of thumb in the average crash of a wide body jet: 25% of the occupants will be killed on impact and 25% will die in the post-crash fire. ... That leaves 50% of the occupants needing some kind of victim care. ... Generally, this needs to be accomplished within a one hour period; the "Golden Hour"! SF 350 Emergency Medical Services Lesson Eighteen, Page 5 AIRCRAFT CASUALTY PROCEDURES  Aircraft Accident Casualty Procedure A big question that needs to be answered when handling medical disasters and when planning for them is to decide whether to take medical care to the disaster victims or whether to take the injured to places where they can receive medical care. Single Ambulance Generally, ambulance and rescue teams arrive on the scene a crew at a time. Where there are victims with varying degrees of injuries scattered over large areas, a plan of action must be developed immediately, usually before the arrival of the top echelon coordinators. Additional Ambulances Arriving on Scene  The establishment of a central command post has a top priority. ... As the rescuers arrive they should report to a central command post to receive their assigned sectors and functions. Methods must be used to establish definite priorities in the field of treatment.  Treating Victims Under Wing SF 350 Emergency Medical Services Lesson Eighteen, Page 6  The first objective of those arriving is to evaluate and stabilize the critically injured. Stabilize means: ... ... adequate airways and control severe hemorrhaging. The evaluation process is best accomplished by a disaster tagging system. ... Such a system will prevent the time consuming duplication of victim evaluation. ... Through past observances of disaster drills, it has been noted that rescue teams develop a tendency to follow behind one another, caravan-fashion. The use of disaster tags offers immediate indication that the victim has been evaluated and categorized for treatment and transportation.  Victim Tags (METTAG) III Green Minor/No Injury II Yellow Moderate Injury - no need to transport - slow transport Victim with Red Tag I Red Severe/Critical Victim with Black Tag Black Dead - rapid transport SF 350 Emergency Medical Services Lesson Eighteen, Page 7 Once all of the victims are evaluated and stabilized, further definitive treatment can be given and they can be packaged for transportation. Victim on Backboard  Victim on Backboard into Ambulance ✓ In the early stage of a disaster when rescue workers are sparse in numbers, this procedure ensures the most effective action. TRIAGE (Dictionary: "the act of sorting,” Fr.) Triage The concept of triage is: the prioritization of injuries for treatment. ✓.. also used for extrication and transportation! It is a popular theory that triage centers should be established so that medical personnel can have victims brought to them for sorting. However, this may not be possible in areas where there is not an abundance of doctors. On the other hand, some large, metropolitan areas will have mobile medical facilities.  Mobile Hospital  Surgeons at Work SF 350 Emergency Medical Services Lesson Eighteen, Page 8 In smaller communities where medical resources are limited, doctors and nurses may have to report directly to their respective hospitals, and thus will not be available at the event site.   ... Casualty sorting then becomes the responsibility of the teams in the field. ... Keep in mind, however, that procedures that work well in one community may not work in another. Treatment should be organized and divided into three phases: ... ... ... initial intermediate advanced  Treatment Where Found ✓ Initial treatment is rendered to the victim at the location where first found. ... stabilization and packaging fall under this category.  Treatment in Staging Area (2) and in Ambulance (1) ✓ Intermediate treatment is given at a staging area or in an ambulance, depending on the situation.  Treatment at Hospital (2) ✓ Advanced treatment is usually provided at the hospital; or in some instances, the victim may be moved to special burn or trauma centers. SF 350 Emergency Medical Services Lesson Eighteen, Page 9 It may be practical to separate victims in staging areas based on their condition and priority of transportation. ... The critical victims could then be monitored by fewer technicians and one central location for hospital communications can be established. The staging area should be located for convenience and not necessarily in a building.  Signs to Designate Triage Areas These collection areas may be color coded to make them readily identifiable. ... Red for those with severe and critical injuries ... Yellow for those with moderate injuries ... Green for those with minor or no injuries Each victim's location in respect to the crash site should be recorded before any physical transfer occurs. ... This information may be valuable to the crash investigation team.  This procedure should not preempt life threatening situations. SF 350 Emergency Medical Services Lesson Eighteen, Page 10  EXTRICATION  The concept of triage is also used during extrication. It is possible, if not probable, that many victims will be trapped or otherwise entangled in the wreckage and will need to be extricated.  Interior Wreckage to Trap Victims (2) Victims who can be freed readily must be removed quickly, clearing the area for more complex extrication procedures.  Removing Victim Out Aircraft window ... Care must be taken not to aggravate the victim's injuries. ... Caution must be used so that the wreckage is not further weakened to the point of collapse. ... Circular saws, cutting torches or other spark producing tools, should be used only with extreme caution so that flammable liquids are not inadvertently ignited. Extrication Slides (2)  It must be emphasized, throughout all initial phases, that priority should be given to the care, treatment and transportation of the survivors. SF 350 Emergency Medical Services Lesson Eighteen, Page 11 ✓ Once a victim is established as a fatality, this should be indicated on the disaster tag and nothing further done with the remains until the body recovery and identification tasks are initiated. Generally, the body removal and identification task is not started until all life saving operations have been completed and, in most cases, the official investigation is in process. ... It is important that nothing be removed from the bodies such as wallets, jewelry or other personal effects. ... The area surrounding the body should not be distributed more than necessary.  Crash Scene with Yellow Flags The actual location of the body is marked by a body locator, usually in the form of a yellow flag having a large black number. ... This will be used to determine the body's position on the site diagram. ... These remain in place after the body is removed. SF 350 Emergency Medical Services Lesson Eighteen, Page 12 TRANSPORTATION Transportation should be accomplished in an orderly manner with victims moved to predetermined medical treatment facilities. ✓ Past experience has shown that in times of stress, hospitals regularly used by ambulance personnel have been overwhelmed with victims of a disaster, while less commonly used facilities have received relatively few victims. ... This situation was noted as far back as the Coconut Grove Night Club fire in Boston in 1942. ... Thirty years later it was observed at the Eastern L-1011 crash near Miami, Florida. ... This time it was helicopters instead of ambulances. This continues to be a problem!  A transportation officer should be designated whose duties include communications with the various medical facilities available in order to avoid any chance of inadvertent overloads. ... Ambulances leaving the scene should be used to capacity. High priorities may require fewer victims per unit.  Helicopter Ambulances SF 350 Emergency Medical Services Lesson Eighteen, Page 13 Bus with Victim  Bus  Low priority victims may be included as "sit-up's." It is necessary that all victims leaving the scene, including the non-injured, be logged through a registrar. ... This can be accomplished quickly by the tear-off section of the Mettag disaster tag. ... The victim can then be logged as to the unit transported in and the ultimate destination.  Overview of Scene  Advisory Circular SF 350 Emergency Medical Services Lesson Eighteen, Page 14  DISTRESSED PERSONS/WELFARE PLAN In less severe accidents, there may be large numbers of passengers or involved persons whose physical injuries are slight, if any, but will need attention. ... Depending on the nature of the incident, some passengers may be suffering from moderate to severe emotional distress. ...  At the least they may have undergone great inconvenience and arrangements must be made for their ... physical ... mental ... spiritual ... material welfare. Major accidents may draw large numbers of friends and relatives of the victims. ... Their anguish may be so great that a specific management plan will be necessary. ... This is especially important where news of the death of friends and loved ones will be disseminated. A plan of this nature is usually referred to as a "welfare plan" and is usually administered or assisted by the involved airline. ... Airline Station Managers or the Airline Operators Council of the airport should be involved in the development of this part of the plan. SF 350 Emergency Medical Services Lesson Eighteen, Page 15 Most airlines have such a plan. The plan is usually developed for use throughout the airline's system and may have been developed independently of each individual airport plan. Where a number of major airlines serve a particular airport, care must be taken to ensure that there is a level of uniformity between all of the plans and that they mesh smoothly into the airport emergency plan. Airline resources will differ from station to station. ... Their plan may work well at an airport that is one of their major hubs but be difficult to implement at an airport they serve with only a few flights and are represented by a handling agent. ... Pooling of resources would be advantageous in this event. But, it hasn’t always been this way!  FEDERAL FAMILY ASSISTANCE PLAN FOR AVIATION DISASTERS Insensitivity or ignorance by the involved airline or government representative has caused additional pain and suffering to the families of accident victims. Here are a few of the incidents tales that led to this program’s enactment: SF 350 Emergency Medical Services Lesson Eighteen, Page 16 Pam Am Flight 103, over Lockerbie, Scotland (1988) After Pan Am Flight 103 crashed on December 21, 1988, Pan Am executives and officials at the U.S. State Department made decisions that clearly showed a lack of understanding of contingency planning, post accident crisis or long-term problems such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). ... Pan Am released a wrong telephone number to television stations for family members to call for news of relatives; ... One family was informed of the death of their daughter by a message left on their answering machine; “This is Pan Am calling. Your daughter Diane was on Pan Am flight 103. The plane went down over Scotland. There were no survivors. If you have any questions you may call us.” ... ... ... A flight attendant who normally worked the London-New York route was so shaken that she asked to be excused from her next flight. She was advised to fly or be fired. Some calling families were put on hold, only to find themselves listening to a recording of “I’ll Be Home for Christmas.”; A family awaiting the return of their only child’s body was called by Pan Am and told that their “shipment” had arrived at the local airport. They were met by a fork-lift operator at a building marked “livestock.” SF 350 Emergency Medical Services Lesson Eighteen, Page 17 The American Eagle, ATR-72 crash near Roselawn, Indiana (1994) ... After the crash there was a mass burial of the unidentified remains, and the victim’s families claim they were not notified. The U.S. Air Flight 427 near Pittsburgh (1994) ... Some families claim that 38 caskets of unidentified human remains were buried without their knowledge the day before a special service was held where only two caskets containing unidentified human remains were shown. ... Six months after the accident, relatives of the victims found some of their loved ones’ belongings in a trash bin outside the hangar where the wreckage of the plane was stored. ... They found rings, watches, other jewelry, personal planners, address books, wallets, and other things that were important to the victims families. ... These items were in poor condition because they sat in the mud in a dumpster for six months. TWA Flight 800 :(1996) ... After Flight 800, families of dozens of victims were sequestered at the Ramada Inn at Kennedy International Airport, where instead of finding sanctuary and a stream of reliable information, they chiefly encountered confusion. They soon grew angry at the pace of the investigation and SF 350 Emergency Medical Services Lesson Eighteen, Page 18 delays in identifying victims. ... The Vice President heads the commission on Aviation safety and Security and has chosen to put off the Family Group meeting originally scheduled for Sept 20th till some time near the end of November in favor of his campaigning effort. As an elected official I am outraged at the thought that V. P. Gore can't find three hours in his busy schedule to hear the family concerns, especially after President Clinton promised us at the Ramada that we could fully participate in these hearings. ... The Families of the Victims of TWA 800 strongly protested the planned actions by TWA in connection with an airline memorial service and "symbolic burial" currently scheduled for December 4, at 2 p.m. The resulting plan of action by TWA is ill-timed and inconsiderate. There is no reason this event must be scheduled in the middle of Thanksgiving, Christmas and Hanukkah. Those who care know that this is an unbearably stressful time for surviving family members. Many are requiring therapy and medication just to get through these family holidays. The Dec. 4 date totally disregards the impact on our families, is grossly insensitive, and should be postponed. This TWA orchestrated event typifies the disregard that has been shown for the family survivors. TWA's handling of this entire process has been characterized by arrogance, callous disregard for the impact on families, and contempt for the real needs of the people whose lives have been ruined. TWA has, in effect, re-victimized the Flight 800 families. SF 350 Emergency Medical Services Lesson Eighteen, Page 19 ... The families were not informed of the attempt to put together an arrangement with the Coroner's office which included TWA taking possession of our family remains. What arrogance! Once we learned of it through the NTSB and the Coroner's office put a stop to it, TWA refused to discuss our objections, or accommodate our legitimate concerns. This, despite weeks of intensely stressful efforts forced by TWA on the many family members as we tried to mitigate these disgraceful actions. This approach has been ill-considered by whomever is responsible at TWA, and creates a portrait of a corporation contemptuous of those it has victimized. ... TWA's plans are divisive and exclusionary. TWA refused to notify or include anyone except those families who have unrecovered victims, and has manipulated events so that any other participation is difficult, if not impossible. ... TWA organized a ceremonial burial of empty caskets for those of our loved ones that have not been recovered. The event was developed without our participation and input, and thus became a somewhat offensive cold, formalistic exercise with limited family attendance. We were really shocked to learn during the family group meeting that TWA, FAA or Boeing were not represented in any way. We feel TWA should have been represented in some way, if for no other reason than to show that they cared enough about their own employees to view the wreckage. ... SF 350 Emergency Medical Services Lesson ...
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Final Answer

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Aircraft Crash & Emergency Management
Student Name
Institution Affiliation



1. Discuss in detail the five objectives of medical investigations explaining why each is
critical in aircraft accident investigation. (Don’t just identify – explain/justify your
The objective of the medical investigation is to determine the medical facts of the crew
members as major or minor factors in the crash. Members of the crew get inspected for any
physical irregularities such as cardiovascular, neurological, and respiratory illnesses. The
presence of chemical toxins such as alcohol, drugs, toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and
lactic acid present in the bodies of crew members may significantly affect the stability of their
nervous system and thereby causing a crash.
Medical investigations aid in the recovery of victims. The team is responsible for the
recovery of survivors and fatalities and their property and conducting investigations from the
physical location of each victim. This is important as it shows medical teams the degree of injury
of each victim.
Identification of the victims is an objective of medical investigations. The investigations get
carried out on civil aspects and criminal aspects. The civil aspects entail insurance of the aircraft,
estate, and compensation of the injured employees (Hepner et...

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