MUEL3642 History of Jazz, Jazz Album Report,

Writing

MUEL

University of Colorado at Boulder

Question Description

4-5 pages MLA double spaced

Please read this fully,

It is an album report, much like a book report, but for a jazz album.

Details about the music, each song, (IMPORTANT are the details of the actual music being performed; style, tempo, improvisation/solos, forms, arrangements, textures, timbres, etc.) This should be the focus of the essay, the breakdown of each song. Professor is looking into the content of describing the songs using jazz vocabulary, song by song.

What subgenre of jazz are you hearing in this album, each song?

What are you hearing and how does it relate to characteristics of jazz?

How does it not relate (how is it different from previous Jazz music, albums?)

Think about other great jazz musicians that might be comparable in some fashion.

Is there anything unusual or unique in this album compared to other jazz albums?

Important historical events surrounding the album. What social, cultural, political evens may have influenced the artists and this album.

Worth a big chunk of my grade, please keep the language formal. Thank you a ton for this help. I have attached a word document with a notes covering a majority of the semester, you can use examples from the notes to tie into the writing if you would like, however like I mentioned earlier, the focus is on the content of the album and the breakdown of the music.

Here is a short list of some recommendations from my professor. If you would to write about an album that is not on this list, that is fine, just make sure it is a jazz album. If you are uncertain, message me about it and I will clear it up with my professor

Miles Davis “Kind of Blue” or “Bitches Brew”

Charlie Parker “Bird and Diz”

Art Blakey “Ugetsu” or “Free for All”

John Coltrane “Giant Steps” or “A Love Supreme”

Chet Baker “Chet Baker Sings”

"All of these albums can be found on YouTube.Make sure you listen to the album in its entirety and do research online about the album before you write your paper.Try and support your findings with things we have covered in class." - note from professor, by things we covered in class, he mostly means "details about the music" as I mentioned above.

Unformatted Attachment Preview

1: Introduction Intro and Important Vocab - Instrumental Music: - Melody: “A series of musical notes that is musically satisfying” - Texture: ( # and type of instruments): 1 - Combine multiple Timbre’s together to create a new sound - Or multiple instruments (muted trombone, sax, and violin to create new sound) - Timbre: (quality of sound; not good or bad necessarily) the character or quality of a musical sound or voice as distinct from its pitch and intensity. - Chord: - Harmony: the combination of simultaneously sounded musical notes to produce chords and chord progressions having a pleasing effect. - Beat: a main accent or rhythmic unit in music - Rhythm: a strong, regular, repeated pattern of movement or sound. - Tempo: the speed at which a passage of music is or should be played. - Meter: In music, metre refers to the regularly recurring patterns and accents such as bars and beats. Unlike rhythm, metric onsets are not necessarily sounded, but are nevertheless expected by the listener. - Bar or Measure:a bar (or measure) is a segment of time corresponding to a specific number of beats in which each beat is represented by a particular note value and the boundaries of the bar are indicated by vertical bar lines. - Form: - Introduction: When the instruments begin the song and do not have any lyrics or singers - 32 bar AABA song form: - Head and Bridge: - Rhythm Changes: - 12 bar blues: - Chorus: - Time Signature - Syncopation: - Rhythms which occur off the beat - Ex. techno beat - Interval: - Octave: - Pitch: (sharp/flat) - Scale: - Tonic/Key/Tonality: - Dynamics: - How loud or how soft something is (volume) - Articulation: how you play the notes - - Ex. Long and connected or short and disconnected Comping: (accompanying) Solo Breaks or Breaks: Trading Solos: Call and Response: with instruments even… Stop Time: Riff: Wind Instruments: Brass Instruments - Tuba: Low - Trumpet: High - Trombone Woodwinds - Saxophone: - Claranette: High in pitch but worn - Soprano - Flute: more “breathy” String Instruments - Guitar: - Banjo: - Bass: Percussion Instruments - Piano: - Falls under percussion instruments because the hammer inside - Vibraphone: - Drum set: WEEK 1 Videos hi sean . . . AHHHHHH Louie goes in on this!!!! ITS LIT - VIDEO 1: Billie Holliday and Louis Armstrong - 4 Beats per measure (Bar) - Slow tempo - Trumpet, Clarinette, Guitar, Trombone, Piano, stand up bass - Great harmony (instruments/voice work well together) - High quality of timbre - Call and response between the trumpet (?) - High octave - Full of harmony (people are playing different instruments an octave higher or lower than the melody) - All of the category of instruments (string, percussion,wood wind, wind, ect.) - A lot of texture (combination of a lot of instruments and vocals) - Notice how Billie Holiday and Louis Armstrong are in sync the entire time of the video - - VIDEO 2: Jammin the blues - Jam session - Not all of the instruments are playing at the same time - Saxophone adds another element to the timbre - Saxophone, Trumpet, drums, piano, stand up bass, - 4 beats per measure (bar) - Tempo is slower than the first video - High pitch - Long articulation - Instrumental solo (halfway though) - Faster tempo, short articulation - The dynamics are loud - Syncopation (off beats occur) - Trading solos (multiple instruments have solos after each other) - Tempo change half way through - Started slower and gradually increases when the people start dancing - The lower (alto) instruments (bass, piano, ect.) hold the tempo or the melody of the song, the higher or soprano instruments (saxophone, trumpet, ect.) do more of the harmonies and solos that we hear throughout the song. VIDEO 3: - Tempo is slow and fast - Articulation is short - Weird noises - Piano, drums, electric bass, - Piano holds the beat or melody but hard to follow - Heavy syncopation(not a consistent melody and is harder to follow because it is more choppy and doesn't have a repetitive sequence that happens multiple times throughout the song) - Chaotic - Texture (# and types of instruments) - Not satisfying melody - The dynamics are loud - A lot of rhythm change throughout the song. It begins at a really slow tempo and gradually increases. By the end of the song, the tempo is faster and more upbeat. DAY 2: Chapter 1 “Roots” of Jazz Introduction and review - Know your instruments (woodwinds, bass, string, and percussion) Important vocas: - Harmony - Difference between timbre and texture - Understanding what a form is (it’s not just chaos) - 12 bar blues - 4 2 bar a a b a ??? - Use of off beat rhythms Chapter 1 “Roots” of Jazz - Jazz s truly American but with strong African (west african roots) - Slave trade - African preservation - Religion, culture, instruments, improvisation, Ring Shout, call and response, syncopation, polyrhythm - European Influences - religion , culture, brass/military bands, minstrelsy, modern technologies - Main musical influence on Jazz: Ring Shout, Work song, Spiritual, Minstrelsy, Blues, Ragtime, Brass/Military band (in this order) West Aftican drumming video - Example of Call and response - Typically very obvious - It will be a priest figure or someone who sounds powerful singing something and then the drums and will respond with the same tone and rhythm - Heavy use of syncopation - Off beat rhythms - Polyrhythms - Many rhythms layered on top of eachother Ring Shout - Characteristics - Dancing in a circle, counter clockwise motion, singing, drumming, body percussion, climax with frenzy. - It was a release, helped them cope with their ugly realities - Often had a priest like figure in the middle with a group of people on running in a counterclockwise circle - Lots of call and response and syncopation came from this. Work Song (used work sounds to make songs) - Helped pass time - Set a tempo/beat to work too - Call and Response - Percussion - Very important because whatever work sound they were doing became part of the song - Examples - the sound of hammering a railroad tie to make railroads is literally a sound in song - Hitting a tree with an axe and using the sound to create a beat to make a song Spiritual (ex. wade in the water) - Came out of the influence of Christianity on slaves - Featured “call and response” - Christian lyrical content - Lyrically this type of music is talking about christianity and god - Helped deal with hardships - Similar to the other ones (work song) however the lyrics are about god. Minstrelsy - Very racist - Started Blackface - Bad?? Stereotypes - Dance - Music - Ex. “Yes sir, Mr. Bones” LaBluesssey - Country Blues vs. Urban Blues - Country Blues: 9 bar form - Urban Blues: 12 bar form that keeps repeating, AAB form - Characteristics: Lose phrasing, syncopation, slides and blues notes - Blues notes - Bessie Smith (1894 - 1937) Most beloved blues singer - Boogie Woogie- is a form of blues piano playing in which the performer maintains a driving 8th note rhythm in the left hand while improvising blues figures in the right hand . Ragtime - European influences on form (with many sections) - Syncopation Improvisation - Scott Joplin (1899), collected royalties - He is the quintessential ragtime artist - - “Maple Leaf Rag” is his staple song Piano Music Piano rolls Jazz vs Ragtime: - Similarities - Both used solo piano - Both used improvisation and similar chords - Differences - Ragtime was influenced by European military music - Ragtime had 4 or 5 different section, more than early jazz which had simpler forms - Ragtime improvisation was sparse, compared to Jazz’s longer and collective improvisation Day 3- TEST NEXT TUESDAY ON 2/4!!!!!!! New Orleans; Shift from Ragtime to Jazz ● New Orleans is considered the birthplace of Jazz, but rural south also helped it grow as well as urban areas like Chicago, KC, NYC ● Origins of the word Jazz are uncertain ● 1917: the Original Dixieland Jazz band recorded the first Jazz recording titled “Livery Stable Blues” ○ This was recorded in NYC, not New Orleans ○ Original Dixieland Jazz Band was a white band ● Complex ragtime forms were replaced with simpler AABA 32 bar song forms and the 12 bar blues form as Jazz began to replace ragtime in popularity ○ Jazz had a much simpler form but greater focus on complex instrument improvisation Characteristics of New Orleans Jazz ● Called New Orleans Jazz; Dixieland Jazz or Traditional Jazz ● Typical Instrumentation: cornet (trumpet like) , clarinet, trombone, piano, banjo,tuba, drums, (string base eventually replaces tuba) ● Front line: Cornet, Clarinet, Trombone ● ● ● ● ● Improvised ensemble sections with cornet on lead with improvised support from clarinet and trombone ○ Trombone is lower, and clarinet is higher pitched The rhythm section keeps time on the song Collective improvisation:simultaneous improvisation by the front line This is music derby can dance to, it has a vibrant rhythm that drives movement “Hot” style with exuberant performances ○ “Hot” basically means that African Americans are playing this music ○ There was either white bands or black bands, no mixing of races ○ “Sweet” music refers to white band’s music In class video: Louis Armstrong - When the Saints Go Marching In ● Louis Amrstrong goes in :0 ● Rhythm section plays the same sounds over and over ● A lot of improvisation, they are just going off right now ● Raspy voice ● High, loud, in your face ● Rare performance, special, no white musicians were playing like this in the day ● This was very new to the music scene for its time ● Trumpet, clarinet, trombone, Famous New Orleans Jazz Musicians ● Charles “Buddy” Bolden (1877-1931) ○ He never recorded ○ He died in 1931 and was an alcoholic ○ He is considered first Jazz musician ○ No recording of him so it is controversial ● “Jelly Roll” Morton (1890-1941) ○ Self proclaimed inventor of Jazz ○ Wrote so much of early Jazz compositions ○ Raised in New Orleans, began playing piano in a brothel at age 9 ● Sidney Bechet (1897-1959) ○ Great clarinet player ○ Special because he helped popularize jazz in Europe ○ Much jazz moved to Europe because ■ Less racist ■ Jazz was growing in popularity in Europe, similar to the modern day coronavirus. ● Joe “King” Oliver (1881-1938) ○ He discovered Louis Armstrong and helped popularize him ○ He played cornet and use mutes ● Louis Armstrong (1901-1971) ○ First elite recording soloist ○ He played trumpet and sings, was a great soloist In class video: “Dipper Mouth Blues” ○ An example of city blues ○ Probably derby’s favorite song ○ Improvisation over the rhythm section ○ They use “stop time” ■ Giving three beats and resting on the fourth Important Historical events that Impact Jazz in the 1920s ● WWI, 1914-1918 ● Great migration of African Americans north ○ Places like Detroit and Chicago ● Storyville closes ○ A large part of Jazz, and after it closed it killed part of Jazz in New Orleans ● 1917 first jazz recording ● Prohibition in 1919 ○ Negative impact because there were less bars to play in, but there was also underground bars that served as music scenes ● 1920 women voting rights ● 1920 commercial radio ● 1925 electric recording ● 1920s Harlem renaissance ● 1929 Stock market crash ○ Gave birth to swing music Chicago Jazz and its Key Contributors ● 2nd generation of Jazz musicians ○ Many are white ● Storyville closes, led to large movement of Jazz musicians to Chicago from New Orleans ● Bix Beiderbecke (1903-1931) ○ White trumpet player ○ Second to Louis Armstrong in popularity, even though their music was very different ■ Bix’s music was minimal, and Louis was more flashy and loud ● Frank Trumbauer ○ Half white and half Native American Saxophonist ○ Trumbauer and Bix teamed up on some music Jazz in New York ● Jazz was thriving in NYC in the 1920s ● NY produced a well educated and well-to-do class of African Americans in the form of the Harlem Renaissance ● There was a stigma that art produced by African Americans was less valuable, and this led to African Americans beating white’s at their own game ● ● ○ Authors, artists, poets, politicians, etc. ○ WEB Du Bois (author, political leader) ○ James Weldon Johnson (author) ○ James Reese Europe (composer) ○ William Grant Still (Composer) Initially, these educated black people were not as open to Jazz because it was music that may be found in a brothel and was not seen as scholarly ○ By the end of the movement Jazz was greatly appreciated Tin Pan Alley - Area in New York where many great artists and composers created music Harlem Stride Pianists ● Cutting contests - like a jam session, but can be compared to a modern day rap battle ● Pianists try to outdo eachother ● Left hand “Boom, chunk” and right hand “melody” ● Eubie Blake, James P. Johnson, Fats Waller, Art Tatum Beginning of the Big Bands ● Characteristics: dance and/or entertainment music, sections, written arrangements, head arrangements ● Fletcher Henderson ○ His band was the largest in the 1920s ● Duke Ellington (East St. Louis) ○ Duke’s band became bigger in the 1930s and 40s ● Paul Whiteman ○ Was white, took notes from Duke and Fletcher and had a “sweeter” approach Jazz in Europe ● England initially but Paris became the epicenter for Jazz in New York ● Two important early European jazz musicians: “Django” Reinhardt and violinist Stephane Grappelli Week 3 Video Notes Early Jazz 1 ● Did jazz emerge in new orleans??? Most say yes ● Jazz is a Synonym for sexual intercourse ● Ragtime = early jazz forms ○ 32 bar = AABA ○ Rhythmic attitude ● Front line is the horn players New Orleans The Great Migration Chicagoans and Bix Beiderbecke Early Jazz 2 4 early Jazz Stars Louis Armstrong the Essence of “Swing” Study Guide Test #1 Found On Canvas: Introduction: Please read the introduction and make sure you understand melody, harmony, rhythm, texture, timbre, form, improvisation, 12 bar blues, AABA 32-bar song form, syncopation, pitch, tonality, chord progression, articulation, dynamics, rhythm section, call and response, and the various (brass, woodwinds, string, & percussion) instruments and their roles in regard to early jazz Chapter 1: The Preservation of African Traditions (5 main points) Ring Shout European Influence on jazz (4 main points) Front Line Christianity, the Ring Shout, Spirituals, and Work Songs Blues Notes and Syncopation Minstrelsy Ragtime – Scott Joplin The Blues – Bessie Smith Chapter 2: Shift of Ragtime to Jazz New Orleans Jazz – Dixieland – Traditional Jazz Collective Improvisation New Orleans Buddy Bolden Sidney Bechet Migration North 1917 – ODJB Joe “King” Oliver Jelly Roll Morton Creoles Louis Armstrong Chicagoans and Bix Beiderbecke Inside/Outside Jazz in New York Tin Pan Alley Harlem Renaissance Harlem Stride Piano James P. Johnson Cutting Contest Art Tatum Paul Whiteman Beginnings of Big Bands – Fletcher Henderson and Duke Ellington Jazz in Europe Listening: There are 8 listening examples. They cover a wide variety of early jazz styles and influences on or predecessors to jazz. Be able to identify these different early jazz styles and/or predecessors to jazz (work song, spiritual, country blues, urban blues, ragtime, Harlem stride, traditional/Dixieland, big band, European jazz). Week 3 Video 1:ew Orleans birth place of Jazz Synonym for sexual intercourse from root of the word. Early ragtime used 32 bar.. Early jazz had swing rhythym, trumbone, banjo, clarinet, drums, front line is the horns, rhythym section is banjo piano tuba and drums , Collective improvisation from front line, they use driving meter. New orelans style= dixieland style. Video 1: Early Jazz and the shift from Ragtime to Jazz ● What are the origins of the word jazz? ○ New Orleans ○ Not clearly established ○ San fran newspaper meaning “energy” or “pep” ○ Symbol for sexual intercourse ● Was jazz district from ragtime? ○ Lines are blurred ○ Classic ragtime has more of asquarer rhythm ○ Early jazz is swung ● New orleans jazz time ○ “Front line” =horn platyer (cornet, clairinet, trombone) ○ ○ ■ Lead is played by the cornet Rhyy section= piano Discieland style refers to later generations style played by whit people Video 2: Creoles forced into segregation, uptown/downtown theory. Generational theory=demand for rougher style ● ● ● ● Uptown/Downtown theory Generational theory ○ Newer ruffer style replaced that the earloer mor refined “sweet” style ○ Resulted in more employment for musicians. Buddy Bolden ○ Early figure in development of rougher hotter new orelans style. Important New Orelans players: sidney Becht, Zutty Singleton, Louis Armstrong, Video 3: The Great Migration ● ● ● ● ● Began recording career when moving to Chicago The exodus from New Orleans ○ Largest population shift in the in the histoyr of the US ○ African Americans left the south and moved to northern Much of the jazz activity takes place on the south side of Chicago Chicago nightlife provides employment for musicians The Lincoln Gardens = club where someone played Video 4: ● ● ● Chicago Jazz modeled off of the new orelans players. Players such as armstrong. These players were from or associated with chicago, Biederbecke: classic 1920s jazz stud, born in Iowa, died early, second to only armstrong as a corenest and soloist in 20’s He has smaller range, less vibrato. Video 5: ● ● The begnning of Jazz ○ Before 1925 recordings were acoustic ■ Loud instruments were farther away from the mic ○ After the mic captured the sound electronically The “first”jazz recordinng ○ Freddie Kkeppard truned down first opportunity to hav the first jazz recording ○ Instead Victor records Dixieland Jazz Band ■ Helped public perception of jazz as brash, nocel and slapstick ○ Tiger Rag 1918 performed by OBGYd ( Video 6: ● ● Jelly roll morton: pianist from new orelans, creole of color, reached chicago in 1922, skills in ragtome, blues, stomps, light opera…… ○ also a composer, his group the red hot peppers, used creative combinations of instruments, alternating written music and improvised solos…… ○ a pool shark, a gambler and a pimp! Sidney Bechet: a creole of color, early jazz soloists, Video 7: Louis Armstrong ● ● Armstrong so central to jazz ○ His concept of swing ■ Virtually influenced all jazz musicians ○ He ade hajazz a soloist’s art: rather than the collective improvisation What to listen for ○ Wide range of the trumpet, displaying astounding technical mastery over a diffeuct instrument ○ Variety of musical ideas and In the first video, I was very surprised to find out the real origin of Jazz music. Knowing that New Orleans, Louisiana had the most influence on Jazz music I did not consider the influence of Jazz from other places. However, New Orleans did influence Jazz music more than anywhere else, but, New Orleans spread Jazz music throughout the United States. I found it very interesting that the origin of the word Jazz is seemingly undiscovered by historians. In the second video, Professor Kieth Waters explains how Jazz really came to fruition in New Orleans. One theory, the generational theory, argues that as time went on, the "sweet" style of Jazz became less popular. The Uptown/Downtown theory explains how Black Europeans, (creoles of color) mixed African music to make Jazz. Historians also explain how this was caused by segregation. The third video, The Great Migration, goes into a deeper context of the migration of people and Jazz music from New Orleans to Chicago. This was named "The Great Migration." It was very surprising to me to find out how i ...
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