Health Medical

The University of Montana - Western

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I have to have 4 journals explaining low carb diets on physical performance. and my subgroups are high intensity strength athletes, low to moderate intensity endurance athletes and non athletes. I have attached an example on how the journal revise should lay out.

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Literature Review Article One Article Reference Masters, R. S. W., Maxwell, J.P., Poollton, J. M., Raab, M. (2008). Implicit Motor Learning and Control Decision Making in Time- Constrained Environments. Journal of Motor Behavior, 40(1), 71-79. Purpose Statement The purpose of this literature review was to assess high speed decision making and analyze how it effects motor performance. Many factors can be related to how quickly someone reacts to a stimulus with a movement. In this article, we will be assessing motor performance to conclude how efficient a decision and reaction will be (Raab, 2008). Introduction In order for a movement to be efficient under time constraints, the decisions have to make in a timely manner. Decision making is most efficient when knowledge of past experiences and along with cognitive sources are used. The author’s hypothesis is as follows: motor performance that is not interrupted is less likely to occur if the movement comes unconsciously (implicit) rather than a movement that depends on the memory of the subject (explicitly) (Raab, 2008, 7172). Methods Right- handed students with no tennis experience were used for this experiment. The 35 undergraduates from the University of Hong Kong were randomly selected and put into the categories implicit or explicit learning. Implicit consisted of 17 students, whereas explicit consisted of 18. The experiment was performed on a standard size tennis table that had 6 squares with targets in each on the table. On one side of the table was a ball server that threw 30 balls per minute. The task of the participants was to try and hit the targets when the ball was served to them. It was three points for hitting zone two, three points for zone five, and one point for the other zones (Raab, 2008, 72-74). Results Kinematics: Learning Phase Mean and peak speed increased over time, however, the variability among trials decreased. As the participants grew more confident, their shots became consistent and given with a stronger force than when they started (Raab, 2008, 74). Motor Performance: Test Phase Unfortunately, accuracy that the participants showed while serving was less accurate. This was most likely because instead of aiming for the center of the tennis table, participants were required to aim left and right when the ball was served to them (Raab, 2008, 75). Having to change direction without notice causes the participant to have to react more quickly. Kinematics: Test Phase Commented [Office1]: This is a great thought, but put this info into the intro. You only need the purpose statement for this section. Commented [LY2]: Switch to 3rd person instead of 1st person for NB2 Commented [Office3]: Thank you for referencing within your doc. Many students have not done this and you will need to for your lit review Commented [Office4]: To be made? Watch spelling here. Commented [Office5]: Define this or explain in more detail for your NB2. Commented [Office6]: Stick with 3rd person throughout the documents. Avoid 1st and 2nd person. Example: the authors hypothesized that motor performance….. Commented [Office7]: Check your APA format for this Deleted: had Deleted: had Commented [Office8]: Good description here. Add more detail if possible. Did they only go through the exercise once? Commented [Office9]: I like how you broke up the results into two relevant selections. Commented [Office10]: Was this how fast they could hit the ball? Clarify for NB2 Commented [Office11]: Good description here Literature Review As the complexity of the tasks being asked of the participants increased, their mean and peak speeds lowered, while the variability between trials increased. Raab, 2008, 76). Because of the complexity, the participants were not as consistent with their serves. Discussion The variables that were important to this experiment were making quick motor responses due to the complexity of the way the participants had to serve the ball. (Raab, 2008, 76). Because of the variability in serving, decisions were not made as quick as they would be if they were simple serves that went straight ahead. Different types of serves were asked to be completed by the participants to see if they could adapt to certain situations. (Raab, 2008, 76). The participants who learned the analogy way, with memory, had higher acceleration variability between trials, etc. (Raab, 2008, 76). Therefore, performance was not disrupted by participants who learned this way, meaning their consistency was greater than those who learned explicitly. Commented [Office12]: This seems to contradict the results. I thought the subjects did worse during the test phase. Is this referring to the learning phase? If so, put this info in for NB2. ** missing how this article will fit into your lit review.*** Deleted: Article Two Page Break Literature Review Article Reference Bianco, A. T., Fӧrster, J., Higgins, E. T. (2003). Speed/accuracy decisions in task performance: Built-in trade off or separate strategic concerns? Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 90, 148-164. Purpose Statement The purpose of this literature review was to assess high speed decision making and analyze how it effects motor performance. Many factors can be related to how quickly someone reacts to a stimulus with a movement. “Regulatory focus” is said to influence speed and accuracy when given a different task (Higgins, 2003, 148). Commented [Office13]: This article was an experimental research article, not a lit review. You can just say the purpose of this study was to assess high speed……. Commented [Office14]: Define what this is for NB2 Introduction In this article, the authors are wanting to observe the behavior that is behind speed and accuracy tasks. The authors state that that everyone has different ways of regulating the way they focus when given a certain task that needs completing. The authors define this as “regulatory focus” (Higgins, 2003, 149). There are two types of regulatory focusing that are mentioned: promotion focus and prevention focus. Promotion focus has to do with aspirations and accomplishments, whereas prevention focus is an attainment of responsibilities and safety. Signal detection tasks, such as hitting a target, are influenced by focusing (Higgins, 2003, 149). The participants in the experiment were given two tasks: a memory task and a task that was given in response to how they did with the first task. The hypothesis is that as the value of each step increases, the motivation to reach the goal of the task also increases. (Higgins, 2003, 150). They believe that speed and accuracy follows the same motivation to reach a goal (Higgins, 2003, 151). This means the closer one is to reaching a goal, the more their confidence grows, as does their speed and accuracy. While drawing the pictures with the numbered dots, the authors agreed that the participants with promotion focus would be faster and less accurate than the people with prevention focus. Commented [Office15]: Take this out, when you switch to 3rd person writing. Deleted: y believe Commented [Office16]: I see you defined this here. Expand of this a bit more if possible. It’s a big part of the study, you want to explain the concept thoroughly Commented [Office17]: I like the examples you provide Methods The 50 undergraduates that participated in the experiment were asked to draw by connecting numbered dots in a certain amount of time. The students contained 25 males and 25 females. The idea of the pictures was for the student to picture the animal in the drawing once it was finished and find self-representations within the pictures. Once these representations were made, the students were asked to rate them (Higgins, 2003, 152). Commented [Office18]: Can you provide ages or any other information about the subjects? Commented [Office19]: Can you explain what these are? Results Study 1 and Study 2 showed that participants with a promotion focus was more positive than those with a prevention focus. (Higgins, 2003, 151). If the participant missed a dot in their drawing, this was counted as a point towards inaccuracy (Higgins, 2003, 153). Speed and accuracy were shown to be correlated. This showed that when participants went faster connecting the dots, more mistakes were made (Higgins, 2003, 153). Commented [Office20]: Specify what is study 1 and study 2 in the methods sections. What did they do for study 1 and for study 2 Commented [Office21]: I like this point! This ties into our speed and accuracy trade off! Literature Review Discussion The authors concluded from the experiment that promotion focus participants were faster during the study but less accurate than prevention focus. As a student moved closer to the goal, speed and accuracy decreased (Higgins, 2003, 158). Deleted: We Commented [Office22]: Expand on this section for NB2. What do the results mean? Is this helpful to have promotion focus? Provide more depth on the results (because they are very interesting!) for NB2 Literature Review Article Three Article Reference Helsen, W. F., Starkes, J. L. (1999). A Multidimensional Approach to Skilled Perception and Performance in Sport. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13, 1-27. Purpose Statement The purpose of this literature review was to assess high speed decision making and analyze how it effects motor performance. Many factors can be related to how quickly someone reacts to a stimulus with a movement. This experiment is examining the efficiency of the visual and central nervous system and comparing it too cognitive skills (Starkes, 1999, 1). Commented [Office23]: Take this out for NB2 Introduction Deleted: looking at Early historians thought that an athlete must have great vision and “perceptual motor speed” to succeed. (Starkes, 1999, 1). Many factors were examined: static visual acuity, dynamic acuity, stereo acuity, and peripheral range. Soccer players have been studied when observing these qualities (Starkes, 1999, 2). The authors suspect that cognitive skills are important when predicting expertise in a skill. Deleted: One of the first ideas in history Methods 28 male subjects participated in the experiment. There were two groups: expert which consisted of semi professional soccer players and a novice soccer players. All participants had experience when it came to physical activity, but the novice group had no experience in soccer. (Starkes, 1999, 4). The experiment required the participants to hit a button when a green light came on screen. This was to measure reaction time. The participant was given 20 trials (Starkes, 1999, 5). Commented [Office24]: These are excellent points, just put this into the introduction section Commented [Office25]: Use scientific language throughout the paper. Deleted: was Commented [Office26]: I like this thought! Commented [Office27]: Explain these in more detail for NB2 Deleted: is Commented [Office28]: Provide age of subjects Deleted: intermediate Commented [Office29]: I would change the group name to something else besides “intermediate” it implies they are familiar with soccer and they truly are not. Deleted: intermediate Results The reaction times that the participants had were within the times suspected by the authors (Starkes, 1999, 6). The results showed that the difference between the two groups was not significant (Starkes, 1999, 7). Deleted: enough Discussion With the reaction times of the participants, the authors can conclude that reaction time is linked to performance shown in a sport. (Starkes, 1999, 6). Although a good reaction time is mostly preferred, it is not always linked to good performance. **** missing article 4****** Commented [Office30]: You stated in your results that there was no difference in reaction times between the two groups. This sentence contradicts that. The results suggests reaction time is not soccer playing ability. How did the authors come up the conclusion that reaction time is linked to performance in sport? Your last sentence seems to fit better. Expand on these results for NB2. ...
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