Critical Thinking For Managers

Business Finance

Bethel College

Question Description

Directions: Answers must rely on the uploaded textbook (Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2012). Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Professional and Personal Life) as a source and at least 3 other outside scholarly/academic sources (4 total sources between all 4 questions) to support ideas and a minimum of 325 words per question. Must use proper grammar, mechanics and spelling in your response, you have to make use of proper in-text citations and an end-reference “ NO Plagiarism” . Remember to use in work citations ie: (Author, 2018) and provide the full citation in APA format at the end of the response for each question where you cited information from the reference.

Also, remember not to cut/paste directly from a source, although it may be cited, you still need to put the information into your own wording (unless direct quotes, figures, etc).

Questions:

  1. a) Before reading our reading assignment for this week, describe your thinking process as completely as you can. Focus on describing how you make decisions and how you think through new information you encounter.

b) After reading the assigned reading, describe what you have learned about your thinking.

2. a) What are the intellectual virtues that are necessary for the development of fair-minded critical thinking skills?

b) How can each of these qualities be put into practice to improve our thinking?

3. a) What are some of the challenges of becoming a critical thinker in our contemporary world?

b) In what ways do these challenges also make it important to develop critical thinking skills?

4. Journal:

Paul and Elder recommend completing a journal and analyzing the answers. Therefore, answer the following questions each week and record how your thought process is developing:

When did I do my worst thinking today?

When do I do my best thinking?

What did I actually think about today?

Did I figure out anything?

Did I allow any negative thinking to frustrate me unnecessarily?

If I had to repeat today, what would I do differently? Why?

Did I do anything today to further my long-term goals?

If I were to spend every day this way for 10 years, at the end, would I have accomplished something worthy of that time?

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S A U N D E R S Critical Thinking S R . , G A R R Y 2 0 9 0 T S Critical Thinking Strategies for Success (Collection), by Richard Paul, Linda Elder, Judy Chartrand, Stewart Emery, Russ Hall, Heather Ishikawa, John Maketa, and Robert E. Gunther. Published by Financial Press. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. S A U N D E R S S R . , G A R R Y 2 0 9 0 T S Critical Thinking Strategies for Success (Collection), by Richard Paul, Linda Elder, Judy Chartrand, Stewart Emery, Russ Hall, Heather Ishikawa, John Maketa, and Robert E. Gunther. Published by Financial Press. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. S A U N D E R S Critical Thinking Tools for Taking Charge of Your Professional and Personal Life S R . , Richard W. PaulG • Linda Elder A R R Y 2 0 9 0 T S Critical Thinking Strategies for Success (Collection), by Richard Paul, Linda Elder, Judy Chartrand, Stewart Emery, Russ Hall, Heather Ishikawa, John Maketa, and Robert E. Gunther. Published by Financial Press. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. S A U N D E R S S R . , G A R R Y 2 0 9 0 T S Critical Thinking Strategies for Success (Collection), by Richard Paul, Linda Elder, Judy Chartrand, Stewart Emery, Russ Hall, Heather Ishikawa, John Maketa, and Robert E. Gunther. Published by Financial Press. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. S A U N toward improving their own lives, To those willing to work not only but also toward creating a new world, D where justice and good sense are the norm rather than the exception, and where power serves reason E rather than reason serving power. R S S R . , G A R R Y 2 0 9 0 T S Critical Thinking Strategies for Success (Collection), by Richard Paul, Linda Elder, Judy Chartrand, Stewart Emery, Russ Hall, Heather Ishikawa, John Maketa, and Robert E. Gunther. Published by Financial Press. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. A CIP record for this book can be obtained from the Library of Congress Production supervisor: Wil Mara Cover design director: Jerry Votta Cover design: Nina Scuderi Manufacturing buyer: Maura Zaldivar Executive editor: Jim Boyd Editorial assistant: Allyson Kloss Marketing manager: Bryan Gambrel Composition: Scott Suckling/MetroVoice S A U N D E R S ©2002 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Financial Times Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 S Financial Times Prentice Hall books are widely R used by corporations and government agencies for training, marketing, and resale. . For information regarding corporate and government bulk discounts please contact: Corporate and Government Sales (800) 382-3419 or corpsales@pearsontechgroup.com , Company and product names mentioned herein are the trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. G A R R Y All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America 20 19 18 ISBN 0-13-064760-8 Pearson Education LTD. Pearson Education Australia PTY, Limited Pearson Education Singapore, Pte. Ltd. Pearson Education North Asia Ltd. Pearson Education Canada, Ltd. Pearson Educación de Mexico, S.A. de C.V. Pearson Education—Japan Pearson Education Malaysia, Pte. Ltd. 2 0 9 0 T S Critical Thinking Strategies for Success (Collection), by Richard Paul, Linda Elder, Judy Chartrand, Stewart Emery, Russ Hall, Heather Ishikawa, John Maketa, and Robert E. Gunther. Published by Financial Press. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. CONTENTS S A U N ACKNOWLEDGMENT D PREFACE E 1 THINKING IN A WORLD OF ACCELERATING CHANGE AND R INTENSIFYING DANGER S The Nature of the Post-Industrial World Order A Complex World of Accelerating Change A Threatening World S Change, Danger, and Complexity: R Interwoven The Challenge of Becoming Critical Thinkers . Recommended Reading 2 , BECOMING A CRITIC OF YOUR THINKING How Skilled is Your Thinking (Right Now)? G Good Thinking Is as Easy as Bad Thinking (But It Requires Hard Work to Develop It) A The Hard Cruel World R Become a Critic of Your Own Thinking R Conclusion 3 Y BECOMING A FAIR-MINDED THINKER Weak versus Strong Critical Thinking 2 What Does Fair-Mindedness Require? Intellectual Humility: Having Knowledge 0 of Ignorance Intellectual Courage: Being Willing9to Challenge Beliefs Intellectual Empathy: Entertaining Opposing Views 0 Intellectual Integrity: Holding Ourselves to the Same Standards to T Which We Hold Others Intellectual Perseverance: Working S Through Complexity and Frustration xiii xv 1 1 1 2 3 5 5 7 7 9 12 13 15 17 17 21 22 24 26 27 29 VII Critical Thinking Strategies for Success (Collection), by Richard Paul, Linda Elder, Judy Chartrand, Stewart Emery, Russ Hall, Heather Ishikawa, John Maketa, and Robert E. Gunther. Published by Financial Press. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. CONTENTS VIII Confidence in Reason: Recognizing that Good Reasoning Has Proven Its Worth Intellectual Autonomy: Being an Independent Thinker Recognizing the Interdependence of Intellectual Virtues Conclusion S 4 5 A Monitoring the Egocentrism in Your UThought and Life Making a Commitment to Fair-Mindedness N Recognizing the Mind’s Three Distinctive Functions D Understanding That You Have a Special Relationship to Your Mind E THE FIRST FOUR STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT: R WHAT LEVEL THINKER ARE YOU? S Stage One: The Unreflective Thinker—Are You an Unreflective Thinker? SELF-UNDERSTANDING Stage Two: The Challenged Thinker—Are You Ready to Accept the Challenge? S Stage Three: The Beginning Thinker—Are You Willing to Begin? R Stage Four: The Practicing Thinker—Good Thinking Can Be Practiced Like Basketball, Tennis, or Ballet . A “Game Plan” for Improvement , A Game Plan for Devising a Game Plan 6 THE PARTS OF THINKING G Reasoning Is Everywhere in Human Life A Does Reasoning Have Parts? R Reasoning Beginning to Think About Your Own R The Elements of Thought: A First Look An Everyday Example: Jack and JillY Analysis of the Example The Elements of Thought in Relationship 2 The Relationship Between the Elements 0 Thinking to Some Purpose Thinking with Concepts 9 Thinking with Information 0 Distinguishing Between Inert Information, Activated Ignorance, and Activated Knowledge T Some Key Questions to Ask When S Pursuing Information Distinguishing Between Inferences and Assumptions Understanding Implications 30 32 33 35 37 38 39 40 42 47 48 50 52 56 57 57 65 66 67 68 69 73 74 75 76 76 78 81 81 84 85 91 Critical Thinking Strategies for Success (Collection), by Richard Paul, Linda Elder, Judy Chartrand, Stewart Emery, Russ Hall, Heather Ishikawa, John Maketa, and Robert E. Gunther. Published by Financial Press. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. CONTENTS Thinking Within and Across Points of View Using Critical Thinking to Take Charge of How We See Things The Point of View of the Critical Thinker Conclusion 7 8 S Taking a Deeper Look at UniversalA Intellectual Standards Bringing Together the Elements ofU Reasoning and the Intellectual Standards N Using Intellectual Standards to Assess Your Thinking: Brief Guidelines D DESIGN YOUR LIFE E Fate or Freedom: Which Do You Choose? R Recognizing the Dual Logic of Experience S Facing Contradictions and Inconsistencies THE STANDARDS FOR THINKING Social Forces, the Mass Media, and Our Experience Reading Backwards S Implications for the Design of Your Life 9 R THE ART OF MAKING INTELLIGENT . DECISIONS Thinking Globally About Your Life , Evaluating Patterns in Decision-Making “Big” Decisions The Logic of Decision-Making G Recognizing the Need for an Important A Decision Accurately Recognizing the Alternatives R Putting More Time into Your Decision-Making R Being Systematic Dealing with One Major Decision Y at a Time Developing Knowledge of Your Ignorance Dimensions of Decision-Making 2 Regularly Re-Articulate and Reevaluate Your Goals, Purposes, 0 and Needs The Early Decisions 9 Adolescent Decisions 0 Early Adult Decisions T Conclusion S IX 93 94 96 96 97 99 109 118 129 129 131 132 134 135 141 143 144 145 146 146 147 147 148 148 148 149 149 150 151 153 154 155 Critical Thinking Strategies for Success (Collection), by Richard Paul, Linda Elder, Judy Chartrand, Stewart Emery, Russ Hall, Heather Ishikawa, John Maketa, and Robert E. Gunther. Published by Financial Press. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. X CONTENTS 10 TAKING CHARGE OF YOUR IRRATIONAL TENDENCIES Egocentric Thinking Understanding Egocentric Thinking Understanding Egocentrism as a Mind Within the Mind S “Successful” Egocentrism “Unsuccessful” Egocentrism A Rational Thinking U Two Egocentric Functions N Dominating Egocentrism D Submissive Egocentrism Pathological Tendencies of the Human E Mind Challenging the Pathological Tendencies of the Mind R The Challenge of Rationality S 11 MONITORING YOUR SOCIOCENTRIC TENDENCIES The Nature of Sociocentrism S Sociocentric Thinking as Pathology R Social Stratification Sociocentric Thinking Is Unconscious . and Potentially Dangerous Sociocentric Use of Language in Groups , Disclosing Sociocentric Thinking Through Conceptual Analysis Revealing Ideology at Work Through Conceptual Analysis GThinking The Mass Media Foster Sociocentric The Mass Media Play Down Information A That Puts the Nation in a Negative Light R Freedom from Sociocentric Thought: The Beginnings of R Genuine Conscience The Capacity to Recognize Unethical Y Acts Conclusion 12 DEVELOPING AS AN ETHICAL REASONER 2 Why People are Confused About Ethics 0 The Fundamentals of Ethical Reasoning 9 Ethical Concepts and Principles 0 The Universal Nature of Ethical Principles Distinguishing Ethics from Other Domains of Thinking T Ethics and Religion S Religious Beliefs Are Socially or Culturally Relative Ethics and Social Conventions 157 157 160 161 163 164 167 171 173 176 181 182 183 185 185 187 190 191 192 193 194 195 200 201 202 203 205 206 209 210 213 216 216 217 218 Critical Thinking Strategies for Success (Collection), by Richard Paul, Linda Elder, Judy Chartrand, Stewart Emery, Russ Hall, Heather Ishikawa, John Maketa, and Robert E. Gunther. Published by Financial Press. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. CONTENTS Practices That Are Socially or Culturally Relative Ethics and the Law Ethics and Sexual Taboos Understanding Our Native Selfishness S A ORGANIZATIONAL LIFE U Introduction Critical Thinking and Incremental N Improvement An Obstacle to Critical Thinking Within Organizations: D The Covert Struggle for Power E of Reality Another Obstacle: Group Definitions A Third Obstacle: The Problem of R Bureaucracy The Problem of Misleading Success S XI 219 220 221 227 13 ANALYZING AND EVALUATING THINKING IN CORPORATE AND Competition, Sound Thinking, and Success Stagnating Organizations and Industries S Questioning Organizational Realities Assessing Irrational Thinking in Organizational Life R The Power of Sound Thinking . Some Personal Implications , Conclusion 229 229 230 230 233 234 235 237 238 238 240 246 247 248 14 THE POWER AND LIMITS OF PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE (AND OF THE DISCIPLINES THAT G UNDERLIE THEM) Professional Fallibility and the GlutAof Information The Ideal of Professional Knowledge R Who Should We Believe? R True and False Loyalty to a Profession Y The Gap Between Fact and Ideal Assessing A Profession or a Professional Conclusion: Matters of Fact, Matters of Opinion, Matters2 of Judgment The Ideal Compared to the Real 0 Professions Based on the Ideal of Mathematics and 9 Abstract Quantification The Pain and Suffering of Those Who 0 Fail Loss of Self-Esteem and Opportunity to Receive Higher Education T Low Level of Math Competency of Those Who Pass S School Examinations The Ideal of Science: Physics, Chemistry, Astronomy, Geology, and Biology 251 251 252 253 255 256 257 261 262 262 263 263 264 Critical Thinking Strategies for Success (Collection), by Richard Paul, Linda Elder, Judy Chartrand, Stewart Emery, Russ Hall, Heather Ishikawa, John Maketa, and Robert E. Gunther. Published by Financial Press. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. CONTENTS XII The Ideal of Social Science: History, Sociology, Anthropology, Economics, and Psychology History as an Ideal Sociology as an Ideal Anthropology as an Ideal S Economics as an Ideal A The Social Sciences as Taught and Practiced U Music, Painting, Sculpture, The Ideal of the Arts and Humanities: Architecture, Dance, Literature, N and Philosophy The Promise of the Fine Arts and Literature D The Reality of Instruction in the Fine Arts and Literature E The Promise of Philosophy The Reality of Philosophy R Conclusion S 15 STRATEGIC THINKING PART ONE Understanding and Using StrategicS Thinking Components of Strategic Thinking R The Beginnings of Strategic Thinking . Desires are Interdependent Key Idea #1: Thoughts, Feelings, and Key Idea #2: There is a Logic to This, , and You Can Figure It Out Key Idea #3: For Thinking to Be of High Quality, We Must Routinely Assess it G 16 STRATEGIC THINKING PART TWO A Key Idea #4: Our Native Egocentrism Is a Default Mechanism R to the Egocentrism of Key Idea #5: We Must Become Sensitive Those Around Us R Key Idea #6: The Mind Tends to Generalize Beyond the Y Original Experience Key Idea #7: Egocentric Thinking Appears to the Mind as Rational Key Idea #8: The Egocentric Mind2Is Automatic in Nature Key Idea #9: We Often Pursue Power Through Dominating or 0 Submissive Behavior 9 Sociocentric Animals Key Idea #10: Humans Are Naturally Key Idea #11: Developing Rationality 0 Requires Work Conclusion T S 267 269 269 270 270 271 272 272 272 273 274 276 277 277 279 280 280 284 290 293 293 297 299 302 304 305 307 309 310 GLOSSARY: A GUIDE TO CRITICAL THINKING TERMS AND CONCEPTS 311 REFERENCES 343 INDEX 347 Critical Thinking Strategies for Success (Collection), by Richard Paul, Linda Elder, Judy Chartrand, Stewart Emery, Russ Hall, Heather Ishikawa, John Maketa, and Robert E. Gunther. Published by Financial Press. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. ACKNOWLEDGMENT S A U NGerald Nosich—a model of good sense, We wish to acknowledge our appreciation to depth of vision, and unfailing friendship. His D active commitment to the ideal of critical thinking extends beyond 20 years. He stands as living proof that humans can E combine in one life: reason, compassion, and justice. R S S R . , G A R R Y 2 0 9 0 T S XIII Critical Thinking Strategies for Success (Collection), by Richard Paul, Linda Elder, Judy Chartrand, Stewart Emery, Russ Hall, Heather Ishikawa, John Maketa, and Robert E. Gunther. Published by Financial Press. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. S A U N D E R S S R . , G A R R Y 2 0 9 0 T S Critical Thinking Strategies for Success (Collection), by Richard Paul, Linda Elder, Judy Chartrand, Stewart Emery, Russ Hall, Heather Ishikawa, John Maketa, and Robert E. Gunther. Published by Financial Press. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. Preface S A U N D E R S S make a hell of heaven or a heaven of hell” “The mind is its own place and in itself can Y R —Milton, Paradise Lost . ou are what you think. Whatever you , are doing, whatever you feel, whatever you want—all are determined by the quality of your thinking. If your thinking is unrealistic, your thinking will lead to many disappointments. If your thinking is G overly pessimistic, it will deny you due recognition of the many things in which you should properly rejoice. A Test this idea for yourself. Identify some examples of your strongest feelings or R emotions. Then identify the thinking that is correlated with those examples. For example, if you feel excited about going to R work, it is because you think that positive things will happen to you while you are Y at work, or that you will be able to accomplish important tasks. If you dread going to work, it is because you think it will be a negative experience. In a similar way, if the quality of your life is2not what you wish it to be, it is probably because it is tied to the way you think about0your life. If you think about it positively, you will feel positive about it. If you think about it negatively, you will feel negative 9 about it. For example, suppose you recently accepted0a job in a new city. You accepted said job because you had the view that you were Tready for a change, that you wanted to experience living in a different place, that you wanted to find a new set of friends— S in short, in many ways you wanted to start a new life. And let’s suppose that your XV Critical Thinking Strategies for Success (Collection), by Richard Paul, Linda Elder, Judy Chartrand, Stewart Emery, Russ Hall, Heather Ishikawa, John Maketa, and Robert E. Gunther. Published by Financial Press. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. XVI CRITICAL THINKING expectations of what would happen when you took the new job did not come to fruition. If this were the thrust of your thinking, you would now feel disappointed and maybe even frustrated (depending on how negative your experience has been interpreted by your thinking). For most people, most of their thinking isS subconscious, that is, never explicitly put into words. For example, most people A who think negatively would not say of themselves, “I have chosen to think about myself and my experience in largely negative terms. I prefer to be as unhappy asUI can be. ” N of your thinking you have no chance of The problem is that when you are not aware “correcting” it. When thinking is subconscious, D you are in no position to see any problems in it. And, if you don’t see any problems in it, you won't be motivated to E change it. R The truth is that since few people realize the powerful role that thinking plays in their lives, few gain significant commandSof their thinking. And therefore, most people are in many ways “victims” of their own thinking, harmed rather than helped by it. Most people are their own worst enemy. Their thinking is a continual source of S problems, preventing them from recognizing opportunities, keeping them from R poisoning relationships, and leading exerting energy where it will do the most good, them down blind alleys. . This book will—if you let it—improve the , quality of your thinking, and therefore, help you achieve your goals and ambitions, make better decisions, and understand where others are trying to influence your thinking. It will help you take charge of G life, how you relate to others, and what you do in your professional and personal even what emotions you feel. It’s time for Ayou to discover the power and role of thinking in your life. You are capable of achieving more significant professional goals. You can become a better problem solver. R You can use power more wisely. You can become less subject to manipulation. You R can live a fuller, a more happy and secure life. The choice is yours. We invite you to read on, and progressively take the steps that create that personal control and powerYas a day-to-day reality.1 2 0 9 0 T S 1. How to read this book: There are two ways to read this book: sequentially and as the spirit moves you. Both are valid. You may be motivated to begin with some of the later chapters. That’s fine, since all of the chapters have been written to be (roughly) intelligible on their own. Of course, the chapters also build on one another, so if you proceed sequentially you will be least puzzled by the logic of what is being said. In any case, if you are motivated to begin with a later chapter, we recommend that you familiarize yourself with the content in the first six chapters. We suggest that you skim those chapters so that you have a frame of reference for any of the later chapters with which you might want to begin. And make sure you come back to the early chapters for a deeper reading before you conclude that you understand the power of the book. Eac ...
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