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Eligible Voter in 1828 for Andrew Jackson

Assume you are an eligible voter in 1828 (and if you don't know who's eligible, look into it!). Give me three specific reasons for voting FOR Jackson; then give me three specific reasons to vote AGAINST him. Try to keep your pros and cons relevant to the time. Criticizing Jackson for not promising to end slavery, for instance, would be unreasonable, since that wasn't a political option even worth mentioning at the time. On the other hand, if you don't like elitist institutions, you could certainly champion him for opposing the Bank of the United States, and for presenting himself as the advocate for the common man.

Give at least a paragraph to each pro, and each con. Don't just make an assertion without backing it up. And, if you're using the internet for help here -- cite what you use!

Here's a powerpoint my professor gave us with some information. If you have to research please cite it !

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Politics, ‘20s and ‘30s Prominent politicians, the ‘20s • Henry Clay. • Had entered Congress as War Hawk from Kentucky • Developed “American System:” National self-sufficiency, through tariffs to protect manufacturing; federally financed “internal improvements;” a national bank • Believes sectional interests should be subordinate to national unity John Quincy Adams • Son of John Adams, helped negotiate peace after War of 1812 • Secretary of State under Monroe – Produced Monroe Doctrine and Treaty with Spain • Northerner, not South • President, 1824 • Both Clay and Adams promoted national interests • Nationalism also a theme of Supreme Court • Chief Justice John Marshall • Had been one of US negotiators in XYZ affair • Appointed by John Adams – A Federalist fossil in Jefferson’s Republican world Notable cases: 1810, Fletcher v Peck • Background: in 1795, Georgia voted to sell Yazoo lands (much of modern Alabama, Mississippi) for 1.5 cents / acre • Came out that the Georgia legislature had been bribed to do this; Georgia cancelled sale. • In meanwhile, Fletcher had bought land from Peck (both speculators) • Took case to Supreme Court. • Marshall said Georgia legislature had no authority to void contract, even if it is corrupt • Supreme Court thus struck down a state law as unconstitutional • Theme: contract superior to state law • Laying foundation for growth of free enterprise? 1819 McCulloch v Maryland • BUS lapsed in 1811; currency left to state banks, and resultant confusion • 1816, 2nd BUS chartered. Circulated national currency, had branches in all states • Maryland called the branch of the BUS in Maryland “foreign.” Taxed it. • Tax unconstitutional – the BUS is legitimate. 1823, Johnson v M’Intosh • Johnson family had bought land directly from Native Americans; M’Intosh later given Federal grant • Marshall’s judgment: “discovery” gives sovereign rights, which means government owns the land, not Native Americans, until it grants it away • Private individuals can’t buy Native American land – it belongs to the government 1824, Gibbons v Ogden. • Ogden had license from Livingston to operate steamship line in New York (remember Fulton and the Clermont?) • Gibbons set up rival line; Ogden sued • When Constitution gave Congress right to “regulate commerce,” did that mean interstate business? • Marshall said yes. So, what does all this mean? • Supremacy of contract • Supremacy of national government over states • Marshall annoys growing Democratic sentiment, which favors the common man (not corporations) and states’ rights Clay, Adams and Marshall all set national interests over sectional interests. First sectional clash: 1820 “A fire bell in the night” • George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, John Quincy Adams • Southwest Ordinance, 1790, allowed slavery south of Ohio • 1819, Missouri to be organized as a territory; New York congressman James Tallmadge proposed amendment: no more slaves brought in, and children of slaves there free when they reach 25 • Georgia response: a “fire has been kindled which only a sea of blood can extinguish.” • Fortunately, Maine now wants to become a state • Clay orchestrates compromise • Keep balance, slave and free states, admit both Maine and Missouri • Amendment – no slavery in future north of 36° 30” • Missouri enacted “black codes” – no firearms, no travelling, can’t be witnesses, etc. • First state constitution – no free black could enter state. Violates US constitution. • 1825 – no free black or mulatto could enter state unless had certificate showing that he was citizen of US Election of 1824 • No parties – sectional candidates, nominated by state legislatures • Clay v Crawford v Adams v Jackson • Jackson won both electoral vote, and popular vote • But – did not have a majority. • Election went to House of Representatives • Clay had come in at bottom of vote; decided to back Adams • Adams President; Clay made Secretary of State – a “corrupt bargain” • Jackson’s people FURIOUS. Adams’ presidency • Wanted more canals, roads • Extended National Road; US gov’t put over $300,000 into construction of Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, built during Adams’ administration • Wanted a national university, scientific expeditions • Proposed Department of Interior • Wanted to slow down western expansion Blocked again and again by Congress – Jackson’s people forming a political network Andrew Jackson – “an urbane savage, an atrocious saint” Scots-Irish background Hated the British Moved to Nashville; married Rachel Donelson (Who was already married.) • Fought duels in defense of her honor • Land speculator. • His plantation The Hermitage • Hated banks. Hated banks. • Served as Senator from Tennessee, militia commander • Campaigns War of 1812; Florida Election, 1828 • By this time, almost all states have dropped property requirement to vote • Campaign: “Coffin Handbills” v Russian pimp • Jackson developed political machine, helped by Martin Van Buren (New York politician) Tireless campaigner – spoke, shook hands, went to barbeques Also, 1828 – • “Tariff of Abominations” • John C Calhoun, South Carolina Expositions and Protest threatened nullification • Calhoun aligning with Jackson, thinking Jackson’s party on his side Jackson (the jackass) won election, 1828 – highest percentage of popular vote in 19th century Jackson didn’t visit Adams; Adams didn’t attend inauguration Democracy v Republicanism To the victor belong the spoils Jackson’s cabinet •VP John C Calhoun​ •Secretary of State Martin Van Buren​ • Secretary of War John Eaton married Margaret (Peggy) O'Neill Timberlake • Scandal – Cabinet wives shunned Peggy • Jackson antagonized by Calhouns – antagonism deepened by Calhoun’s pamphlet on Jackson and Seminole War • Cabinet reshuffled – Van Buren to England; Roger Taney moves up as Attorney General Jackson's Presidency I: Indian Removal • 1830, Indian Removal Act. All earlier treaties void. Native Americans east of Mississippi to be removed to West • Opposed by Whigs (anti-Jackson party) and Northeast • Jackson: it's either removal, or extermination by local settlers • 15,000 Choctaw moved from Mississippi to west of Arkansas, ‘31 – ’33 • April, ‘32, Black Hawk War, Illinois and Wisconsin. Bad Axe massacre • 2nd Seminole War; 1500 whites killed • Osceola captured ’37 (3rd Seminole War in the ‘50s) Cherokee • 1827, Cherokee constitution – claimed status as own state • Georgia declared Cherokee laws void • Cherokee could not vote, own property, testify against whites • Gold discovered North Georgia ‘29 • Cherokee forbidden to dig for gold • Cherokee Nation v Georgia: Marshall refused to hear, because Cherokee a “domestic dependent,” not a foreign nation • ‘32, Worcester v Georgia -- Worcester and Butler missionaries sentenced to 4 years hard labor for living with Cherokee • Marshall: Georgia has no authority over Cherokee • Jackson (allegedly): “Now let him enforce his decision” • Georgia began selling Cherokee land Trail of Tears • 2000 had already moved, voluntarily • Most of remainder forced out ’38; 1000 mile trip • Crossed Ohio into southern Illinois – harsh winter • 4000 died A few hundred evaded removal; their descendants still in North Carolina Jackson's Presidency II: the Bank of United States • Original BUS creation of Alexander Hamilton • Lapsed, 1811. State banks issued own paper currency. • New bank chartered, 1816. Private corporation; 5 of 25 members of the Board appointed by President • Would collect state bank notes and then exchange them for specie – forced state banks to maintain assets, restrict loans • 1823, Nicholas Biddle President of BUS • Bank had branches in 29 cities; handled 20% nation’s loans, 1/3 total deposits and specie • Jackson accused it of political meddling • NY resented control from Philadelphia; state banks resented competition. • ‘32, National Republicans nominated Clay to run against Jackson. Bank re-charter part of their platform • Re-charter passed Congress – supported by New England, Middle Atlantic; opposed in South • Jackson vetoed – most important veto in presidential history? Jackson’s veto message: “When laws undertake to grant exclusive privileges, to make the rich richer and the potent more powerful, the humble members of society – the farmers, mechanics, and laborers – who have neither the time nor the means of securing like favors to themselves, have a right to complain of the injustice of the Government.” • So, bank not re-chartered – but still exists. • Jackson: the bank was “trying to kill me, but I will kill it!” • Ordered all Federal funds paid out of BUS; new Federal revenues deposited in state banks (“pet” banks) • Two Secretaries of the Treasury refused to do this – made Roger Taney Secretary, and he did it • Bank’s response: curtail loans, which causes financial hardship • Clay, Calhoun, challenged Jackson’s actions in the House. • Jackson’s response – Legislature shouldn’t meddle with Executive. If anyone tried to charter a new bank, he would veto that, too. And, considered challenging Clay to a duel. • Jackson got Democrats in House lined up. No re-charter, and investigation of BUS. Biddle refused to cooperate. Who won? • Charter lapsed ‘36; Biddle reorganized Bank as state bank, but it died ‘41. • Good signs: Federal debt paid off, ‘35. Surplus revenues now to states, for internal improvements • But, victory over bank papered over conflict between those who wanted easy (paper) money, and those who wanted specie payments Panic of 1837 • Removal of control over state banks led to overheated land speculation – a “land office” business • 1836, Jackson ordered that all public lands be paid for with specie – not bank notes • That withdraws assets from banks. • At same time, Bank of England raised interest rates – English investment money not coming in • 800 banks suspended paying out specie; over 600 failed To be continued, under Martin Van Buren Jackson’s Presidency III: the Nullification Crisis Federal Union v States’ Rights? Webster-Hayne debate: Hayne accused North of being out to get South; Daniel Webster responded • Webster: “liberty first and union after” are “words of delusion and folly” • Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable! • Government is made for the people, made by the people, and answerable to the people One of greatest speeches given in Senate Jefferson Day Dinner, 1830 Jackson’s toast -- “Our Union: it must be preserved.” Calhoun’s toast – “Our Union, next to our liberty most dear. May we all remember that it can only be preserved by respecting the rights of the States, and distributing equally the benefit and burden of the Union!“ • Calhoun had already published, 1828, “South Carolina Exposition” against Tariff of Abominations, on the right of states to choose to nullify Federal laws that discriminated against these states • New tariff ‘32 – but rates not lowered as much as South wished. Behind disputes on tariffs, defensiveness about the South’s “peculiar institution.” • South Carolina elected special convention, November. Passed an ordinance nullifying tariffs of ‘28, ‘32 – which SC would not collect after February 1. Began raising army. Jackson’s response to nullification ordinance • “Disunion by armed force is TREASON.” • “If one drop of blood be shed there in defiance of the laws of the United States, I will hang the first man I can get my hands on to the first tree I can find.” • Federal military forces moved toward SC. • “Force Bill” – tariffs must be paid, even if it took military force • Other southern states sympathize, but do not join SC Clay’s compromise • New tariff bill, lowering rates over span of a decade • SC repealed nullification of tariff (also repealed Force Bill, but who cares) These are the issues that will reappear in the Civil War – states versus Federal government; Southern defensiveness and resentment of perceived Northern domination • 1836, Jackson’s VP, Martin Van Buren, becomes President • Jackson back home to the Hermitage • As he left, Jackson summarized his presidency: “opposed throughout my administration by the talents, wealth, and money power of the whole aristocracy of the United States, but nobly supported by the Democratic republicans – the people.” • Died 1845 at the Hermitage Martin Van Buren The “Little Magician” New York political machine; became supporter of Jackson Resigned as Secretary of State after Eaton affair; Jackson’s Vice- President in 2nd term • Opposed in election of ‘36 by “Whigs” (antiJackson) • Won easily, but soon after, banks in NY failed – Panic of 1837 • By the fall, 90% factories shut, 1/3 jobless; wages cut; prices rose (Southerners moved to Texas, not yet part of US). Continued 7 years. • No attempt made by Federal government to influence economy: “the less government interferes with private pursuits, the better for general prosperity” • Van Buren’s idea – an independent government treasury to hold Federal monies, not connected to any bank. • Conservative Democrats considered this a betrayal, because it sets Federal government over state banks. • And, John C Calhoun begins wanting resolutions endorsing slavery • Treasury passed ‘40 – repealed ‘41, after Van Buren lost re-election to Whigs; restored '46 (but eventually replaced by Federal Reserve) ...
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