Science
College of San Mateo Physics Photoelectric Effects and X-Ray Photons Analysis

College of San Mateo

### Question Description

Read chapter 38.1, 38.2, 38.3, 38.4, 39.1, 39.2 and write a reading summary for each one. It should be 6 reading summary, each reading summary should be 5 lines or more. It not that hard.

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Reading Summary Guidelines • Do for each section of assigned reading (e.g. 2.1) before class on the day assigned. Bring them to class for reference. • Use WORDS, not equations • Keep it short! 5-15 lines. • Focus on the big picture of the text. • Take in ADDITION to notes. “Meh” Example: Error and Uncertainty (first two paragraphs). Experiments are designed to test a hypotheses or theoretical prediction. In order to determine this, every experimental result must have an uncertainty. The uncertainty can be compared with the difference to draw a conclusion. Particles called neutrinos were measured by the OPERA experiment to be exceeding the speed of light, moving 454 miles 0.0000000060 seconds faster than light. We need to know the uncertainty in this measurement to determine if neutrinos really move faster than light. Better Example: Error and Uncertainty (first two paragraphs). If an experimental result is just a bit different from a theoretical prediction, the natural question to ask is whether that difference is due to an actual physical effect or just experimental error. Scientists use estimates of the uncertainty in experimental results to determine whether a difference between experiment and theory could be explained by possible measurement error. “Meh” Example: Differences vs. Uncertainty Error is the difference between an experimental result and a true value. Discrepancy is the difference between an experimental result and a theory being tested. Difference is the difference between two experimental results. Uncertainty, or “possible error” is the amount that the measurements could be off, which should not depend on the theory. In the OPERA experiment, the difference was bigger than the uncertainty, so they originally thought their results differed significantly from theory. However, it turned out that their uncertainty estimate was too low, so really, their results did not differ significantly from theory. In our class, when difference is bigger than uncertainty, this means there is a significant difference. It should be noted that in more rigorous contexts, statistical tests can be used rather than this simple comparison. Better Example: Differences vs. Uncertainty The difference between an experimental result and a theory, prediction, or other result can be referred to as error, discrepancy, or difference, depending on context. For example if an experiment measures the value of 𝜋 as 3.30, the error is 3.30 – 3.14 = 0.16. The uncertainty, also known, confusingly, as “possible error” is based on your measurement tools and methodology: it’s how far off you could be because of measurement problems. For example if you measure pi by using the width of your thumb to measure the diameter and circumference of a circle, your uncertainty is probably very large (say, for example, 0.5) because the method is not very accurate. In the example above, the difference is not significant because the 0.16 difference is smaller than the 0.5 uncertainty. That is, the experiment is still consistent with the theory because the difference could be explained by measurement error. In this class, we’ll determine whether a difference is significant or now by simply seeing whether it is bigger than or smaller than the uncertainty. ...
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Photoelectric effect38.1 page 1254

Photoelectric is the ejection of electrons on a metal surface when light shines on a mental.
The process is further referred to as photoemission, and those electrons that get ejected on the
metal surface are termed as photoelectrons. Photoelectrons have no significant differences from
other electrons that get ejected on a metal surface by incident light. The process of photoelectric
effect comes about when light wave heat the electrons leading to their vibration and lifting them
from mental surface. The aspect of photoelectric is based on the assumption that light travels
strictly as a wave through space. The energy of the light wave is believed to have a direct
proportion to its brightness. The prediction drown from the movement of light is that the kinetic
movement of the distributed photoelectrons, increases in accordance to the light amplitude. The
speed of electron emission ought to increase proportionately in accordance to the estimated
electric current, which increases as the light frequency increases.
X-Ray photons are spectrum of wavelength 38.2 page 1260
X-rays are types of electromagnetic radiations, which are commonly known due to their
applicability in viewing through a person’s skin and show the bone structure beneath the same.
Technology advancement has resulted into more powerful concentration of x-ray beams and
more significant application of these light waves. X-rays are classified into two hard and soft Xrays. Sot X-rays consists of short wavelength of about10 nanometer, hence, th...

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