 Science
Calories lesson

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I have an assignment in calories the information are in a PDF and Word doc . the assignment are in the excel.

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ENERGY Mass of Nut (g) Mass remaining after Burning (g) Mass of Nut Burned (g) Mass of can w/ no water (g) Mass of Can w/ water (g) Mass of water (g) Initial Temp of Water Before Burning 0C (T1) Final Temp of the Water after Burning 0C (T2) Change in Water Temp Heat (Calories) Produced by Heat energy Transfer Calories in 1 gram of Food Number of Kilocalories per gram of Food ***Q = Mass of water (g) X Specific Heat X Change in Water Temperature X.XXX g X 1 calorie / gram °C X X.X 0 C Name: Last Name, First Name Online Week 14 - Calories Mass of Nut (g) Mass remaining after Burning (g) Mass of Nut Burned (g) Mass of can (g) Mass of Can w/ water (g) Mass of water (g) Initial Temp of Water (°C) Final Temp of the Water (°C) Change in Water Temp (°C) Heat Produced (calories) (round to whole number) calories in 1 gram of food (round to whole number) Number of kilocalories (Calories) per gram of Food Value measured or given Value calculated NOTE: 1 Calorie = 1 kilocalorie = 1,000 calories Follow the Heat Measuring Temperature • Temperature is measured with a thermometer. • Hotness Meter: • As something gets hot , the molecules move faster & Expand • A thermometer shows how hot or cold something is relative to two reference temperatures, usually the freezing and boiling points of water. Heat • Something that has a high temperature is said to be hot. • Does temperature measure heat? • Is heat just another word for thermal energy? • The answer to both questions is no. • Heat is the transfer of thermal energy between objects that have different temperatures. • Thermal energy always moves from an object with a higher temp to an object with a lower temp. • When thermal energy is transferred in this way, the warm object becomes cooler and the cool object becomes warmer The transfer of thermal energy ends. Only when both objects have the same temperature. • Here we have two containers of water: 50 g of 0 oC water and 50 g of 100 oC water. Note: both liquids • When the 2 are combined the transfer of energy stopped when both solution reached 50 oC • The Cold Water gained energy and the Hot Water lost or gave up energy. • Energy Moved from high energy to low energy. • Temp of the cold increased and Temp of the hot decreased Energy Gained = Energy Lost Q = Cold Gain Heat Must Be Equal Q = Hot Lose Heat Hot : 100 0C to 30 0C Cold : 20 0C to 30 0C Hot : 20 0C to 15 0C Cold : 0 0C to 15 0C Summary • Temperature is the average kinetic energy of particles of an object. • Warmer objects have faster particles and higher Temp. • If two objects have the same mass, the object with the higher temperature has greater thermal energy. • Temperature is measured with a thermometer. Scaler device • Heat Is the transfer of thermal energy between objects that have different temperatures. • Thermal energy Always moves from an object with a higher temperature to an object with a lower temperature. Formula for Measuring Heat Transfer Q = m c ΔT c = specific heat capacity ΔT = change in temperature m = mass Q = amount of heat Calories/goC oC g Calories If data are given in initial (T1) and final (T2) temperatures instead of change in temperature, calculate ΔT using ΔT = T2 – T1 Measure of Energy Transfer • Metals such as iron have • Specific heat is the amount of relatively low specific heat. energy (in Calories) needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram 0.4 Cal/ g oC of a substance by 1°C. • It doesn’t take much energy to • Specific heat is a property that is raise their temperature. That’s specific to a given type of why a metal spoon heats up matter. quickly when placed in hot coffee. • Substances differ in their Specific heat Specific heat capacity is a constant and is represented by “c” SUBSTANCE c (Calories /g oC) Pure water 4.19 Steam 2.02 Ice 2.00 Sea water 3.89 Moist air 1.15 Dry air 1.00 Iron 0.45 Sand 0.67 Wood 1.67 Water 4.18 Demonstration of Thermal Conductivity and Specific Heat Capacity • Since copper has very low specific heat capacity it requires very little energy to raise its temperature. • Copper will change temperature very quickly when it is removed from the water. Some of the energy is lost to the air in the transfer. • When the copper touches your hand, the energy needed to lower the temperature of the copper is very low, due to its low specific heat capacity. • Meaning, that not much energy is transferred to your hand, and risk of burning your hand is very low. • Sand also has a relatively low specific heat, 0.67 Cal/ g oC • Sea water has a very high specific heat. 3.89 Cal/ g oC • It takes a lot more energy to increase the temperature of water than sand. This explains why the sand on a beach gets hot while the water stays cool. Question: • Glass has a specific heat of 0.84 J/g·°C. • Which material takes more energy to warm up? • Copper has a specific heat of 0.39 J/kg·°C. • Hint check the units. Q Hot = 50 g *Constant * 40 Metal 0C Q Cold = 50 g * Constant * 25 0C Water Energy Lost = Energy Gain 1250 Calories 1250 Calories Q water = m c ΔT ΔT = 25 0C Q metal = m c ΔT ΔT = 40 0C Q Hot = 50 g * Specific Heat * 40 0C Q Cold = 50 g * 1 calorie/ g 0C * 25 0C Water Specific Heat = 0.625 calorie/ g 0C Energy Lost = Energy Gain 1250 Calories 1250 Calories Bomb Calorimeter: A Contained Explosion • The sample burns in an oxygen rich atmosphere • As the sample combust, the heat energy is transferred to the water surrounding the calorimeter bomb • The stirred assures that the transfer of energy is homogenous throughout the water. • When the water temp stops increasing all of the energy has been transferred. • Change in Temp of H2O used to Measure energy transfer Calories: transferred to the water • Q = Mass H2O g X Specific Heat 𝐶𝑎𝑙𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑠 𝑔 𝑜𝐶 X Δ Temp H2O oC This we need: • Mass of Corn Chip Before & After Burning • Massed the water in the can • Change in Temp of water: Initial (25.0 °C) and Final (28.9 °C) Calories: transferred to the water • Q H2O = Mass of H2O (g) X Specific Heat • 50.000 g X 1 𝐶𝑎𝑙𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑠 𝑔 𝑜𝐶 X Δ H2O Temp X 3.9 °C • Calories per gram food • Here we need the mass of Chip that was lost in the fire. • This mass was responsible for the heat transferred to the water. • Mass of Chip – Mass of burned Chip = Mass Lost from the burn 1.025 g – 0.750 g = 0.250 g • Q / mass of Chip lost while burning 195 Calories / 0.250 g Now divide both top & Bottom values by 0.250 : 780 Cal / 1 g Sample Calculations Mass of Nut (g) Mass remaining after Burning (g) A 1.025 B 0.750 Mass of Nut Burned (g) C 0.250 A-B Mass of can w/ no water (g) Mass of Can w/ water (g) Mass of water (g) D 2.001 52.001 50.000 E-D Initial Temp of Water Before Burning 0C (T1) G Final Temp of the Water after Burning 0C (T2) H Change in Water Temp I 3.9 Heat (Calories) Produced by Heat energy Transfer Q 195 Calories ***Equation Below the table 780 Cal / 1 g 0.78 Kcal/ gram 195 Calories (Q) / 0.250 g [C] 780 Calorie x 1 Kilocalorie/1000 Cal Calories in 1 gram of Food Number of Kilocalories per gram E F 25.0 28.9 H-G ***Q = Mass of water (g) X Specific Heat X Change in Water Temperature 50.000 g X 1 calorie / gram °C X 3.9 C ...
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