CMIT 265. Network project that i already wrote

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CMIT 265

University of Maryland - University College

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Base on the screenshot and the feedback from the professor better the writting. I have already wrote it would love some help on the feedback that the professor gave to modify what i already wrote. what i wrote is attached with the rest of the file.

CMIT 265. Network project that i already wrote
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CMIT 265. Network project that i already wrote
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CMIT 265. Network project that i already wrote
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CMIT 265. Network project that i already wrote
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CMIT 265. Network project that i already wrote
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CMIT 265. Network project that i already wrote
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1 NRP Network research project. Student name: Kadi AMAH Institution Name: UMGC Course-name: CMIT 265 NRP 2 Network research project. Introduction. Network attacks are threats directed towards a network to affect its normal operations (Pawar, & Anuradha, 2015). The invention and use of technology has many advantages ranging from economic excellence to artificial intelligence. However, the efficiency and effectiveness of the network depend on the protective measures used within an organization to ensure hackers and eavesdroppers have no access to the internet without authorization. Notably, the security measures implemented by the organization depends on the size of the network and the privacy of the data. For instance, the network protective mechanisms implemented on a Local area network (LAN) cannot be the same as that performed on a wide area network (WAN). To ensure the system is protected, every organization should update its protective mechanisms to the latest threat definitions to seal all the loopholes that might be used as a medium of attack to access the organizational network. Therefore, this project identifies and elaborates the common network threats that can affect normal operations within an organization. Common networking attacks. a. Denial of service. Denial of services (DOS) occurs when the network is flooded with unwanted traffic such that genuine network users cannot access its services. For instance, network within an organization provides access to network-related application systems such as Gmail accounts, websites and enterprise resource planning systems. To facilitate their intentions, the requests have undefined return address which floods the services with limitless requests, therefore overloading the serving, which makes it crush. Consequently, DOS can cost an organization time and resources and affect its overall net returns. The image below shows how DOS prevents genuine users from accessing the network. Figure 1 DOS attack. Source: Denial of service (Dos) attack a DDoS (Distributed denial of... (2020). NRP 3 Some of the frequent DOS attacks include; i. Buffer overflow attack. This type of attack targets to send multiple requests that are at the extreme level of the system functionality, therefore flooding the system with requests that the system cannot handle. This leads to a deadlock whereby the system cannot accept more or respond to the already existing requests. Buffer overflow attack can also use the loopholes in the system and install a bug in the code, therefore affecting the functionality of the network. ii. Smurf attack. This type of attack uses loopholes in misconfigured network devices by sending threat infected data packets that pings all the network devices, therefore causing a total lockdown that makes the network inaccessible. iii. SYN attack. It sends multiple requests to the network which are never executed or terminated. The requests occupy any available port such that the whole network enters into a deadlock whereby users cannot send requests or have their requests serviced. b. Social engineering. According to Krombholz, et al., (2015), social engineering attacks are a form of a security breach that entails manipulation of people who have legal access to the system to initiate attacks. Some of the common social engineering attacks include; i. Phishing. It is a form of attack whereby outsiders use deceptive websites and emails go gain personal data and information. Users are deceived into believing there are accessing certain websites; therefore, they log in with their data which is then used by the hackers and eavesdroppers to initiate attacks on their accounts. ii. Pretexting. It is another form of social engineering attack whereby the attacker requests bits of information from the targeted person which are later used for identity theft. For instance, the attackers might obtain credit card information and then use the data to access the victim's bank accounts and withdraw money. iii. Baiting. It is almost similar to phishing; however, it entails enticement whereby the attacker pretends to be offering free services to the customers. For example, the attacker might be offering free movies or social media site that requires all participants to create their accounts. Consequently, the users might believe the information and use their email addresses which are linked to their banks, credit cards. Therefore, their information will be used to initiate attacks on their accounts. iv. Tailgating. This form of attacks entails unauthorized personnel following an authorized person in a restricted area where they gain access to confidential data and initiate attacks to the system. It is a common attack in small organizations that have no advanced level of verification and authentication of the people who have access to a restricted area. c. Insider threat. NRP d. e. f. g. 4 An insider threat is initiated and facilitated by people who work within the organization. For instance, they can give outsiders their login credentials to gain access to the organization network and get away with confidential data. Some of the common forms of insider threats include; i. Pawns. A pawn is an employee who risks the organizational network by making a mistake that is then utilized by outsiders to gain access to the organizational network. For example, misplacing a laptop while logged in into the organizational systems can act as an opportunity for outsiders to cause harm and render the organization service inaccessible or get away with confidential data. ii. Turn cloaks. Turn cloaks are employees who sell organizational data for their benefit. Turn cloaks can accumulate a large volume of data and sell it to outsiders or resign and initiate attacks to the network using the already accumulated data. Logic bomb. According to Formby, Durbha, & Beyah, (2017), a logic bomb is a defective code that can initiate malicious attacks by executing and deleting certain files or completely formatting the storage devices in a computer. Notably, logic bombs are set to be triggered by certain events within the organizational network. Therefore, an organization can purchase software with a logic bomb and stay with it for an extended period of time until when a certain condition to trigger the logic bomb is achieved. For instance, the logic bomb can be set to be triggered by a specific number of files within the hard disk or at a certain period of the year. Therefore, logic bombs are considered harmful because of the negative effects they can cause to the network system. Rogue access points. It refers to Wi-Fi installed in a network without proper authorization and with the aim of stealing information of the network users. Notably, many of the rogue access points are open Wi-Fi without passwords which prompts users to access the internet without any passwords. However, the user's devices are monitored by third parties, and every confidential data used can be easily accessed by the third parties. The rogue access points can also be automatically installed in an organization Wi-Fi such that they are broadcasting signals anonymously without being detected, therefore accessing user's data without their authorization. Evil twin. Evil twin refers to a malicious wireless network that broadcasts the same service set identifier (SSID) as the genuine WIFI network so that network users can connect without any alert of intended threat. Notably, hackers use penetrative tools to access network user's devices and get away with their confidential data. After connecting to the evil twin network, the network disappears from its range, therefore, prompting the network users to access to a genuine Wi-Fi whereby hackers can monitor data packets being sent in and out of the network. The criminals duplicate all the data and passwords shared within the network without user authorization, therefore risking their security. War-driving. It is a form of security breach initiated by hackers while on transit. Hackers Map all the network SSID's within a given area and launch their attacks using software that identifies NRP 5 loopholes within the security configurations of the networks. Therefore, war drivers map the network with chalk to access confidential data about the network. h. Ransomware. According to Formby, Durbha, & Beyah, (2017), Ransomware is a form of an attack that encodes all data in a computer with a private code so that the owner can only access it after paying a certain amount requested by the attacker. For instance, the hackers give the owner of the data a certain deadline to make the payment, whereby failure to do so is met by permanent deletion of the data. i. DNS poisoning. DNS poisoning is the act of entering wrong information to the DNS cache so that network users can be directed to the illegal websites. For instance, internet protocol (IP) address maps and directs users to the correct websites, therefore entering the wrong IP directs the network users into a website used as a medium of attack by hackers and eavesdroppers. However, the DNS has no mechanism to verify whether the data being held in the cache is correct or not; therefore they only facilitate the communication which directs the user to the wrong sites. Below is an image showing how DNS poisoning works. Figure 2 j. Brute force. It an attack that aims to decode a certain massage or gain access to users confidential passwords using guess and error methods. Notably, brute force can be successful depending on the user's length of passwords or type of the passwords used. For example, persons who use their names or mobile numbers as passwords are the targets of brute force attackers because the password credentials are easy to guess. Therefore, people are encouraged to use strong passwords with unique characters to prevent brute force attacks from taking place. k. Exploits vs. vulnerabilities. NRP 6 Exploits and vulnerabilities are the open loopholes in a system that can be used by hackers and eavesdroppers. For instance, the coding process entails a sequence of activities that must be tested to ensure they meet all security definitions. However, if the system has defects, hackers can use the existing defects to initiate attacks and fain access to confidential data. Therefore, network users should ensure they have the latest security definition by updating their systems to seal all the loopholes that might be used by outsiders. In conclusion, hackers and eavesdroppers may either use existing loopholes or use blackmail to access confidential data from network users. The can either flood the network with unwanted traffic and initiate their attacks or use employees working within the organization to initiate the attacks by giving out their login credentials. Evil twin entails the duplicating of similar SSID to confuse the network users and gain access to their devices. Ransomware entails the encoding of personal data by hackers to demand a certain amount of money in order to decode the message. Therefore, network attack threat incorporates all measures implemented by unauthorized personnel’s to access organizational network and prevent normal operations within the network. NRP 7 Work cited. Formby, D., Durbha, S., & Beyah, R. (2017). Out of control: Ransomware for industrial control systems. In RSA conference. Figure 3: Denial of service (Dos) attack a DDoS (Distributed denial of... (2020, January 1). ResearchGate. https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Denial-of-Service-DoS-attack-ADDoS-Distributed-Denial-of-Service-attack-as-shown-in_fig2_324562008 Krombholz, K., Hobel, H., Huber, M., & Weippl, E. (2015). Advanced social engineering attacks. Journal of Information Security and applications, 22, 113-122. Pawar, M. V., & Anuradha, J. (2015). Network security and types of attacks in network. Procedia Computer Science, 48, 503-506. ...
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