For this research project assignment, you will write the Results and discussion section of this paper.MUST BE formatted according to APA format

Humanities

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For this research project assignment, you will write the Results and discussion section of this paper.MUST BE formatted according to APA format


Please see attached class input to interpret the data and come up with the results and disucssions.


Please submit entire document as one. that includes the method, results and discussion. Also please use separate color ink to indicate which is which. and what you added.

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WRITING RESULTS AND DISCUSSION SECTIONS IN APA FORMAT SSC 328 Spring 2020 Results: What goes in here? ◦ Describes information related to statistical analyses – NOTHING ELSE! ◦ No interpretation of results. ◦ But flow of presentation of results can help build the story that started in the Introduction (e.g. The results support the hypothesis that XX is negatively related to XX.) ◦ The Results section should be thought of as both the narrative and the tables/figures it includes ◦ They should complement one another; not duplicate ◦ E.g. As can be seen in Table 1, ….. ◦ Tables are preferred when there are a lot of data The Results ◦ Begin with a presentation of the results of the descriptive analyses ◦ Help set an important context for interpreting the results ◦ Restriction of range ◦ (Describe any analyses and corrections you did for outliers or violations of assumptions) ◦ For continuous variables, present means, standard deviations, and ranges. ◦ For categorical variables, present frequencies (by category and cumulative if ordinal data) ◦ Then report results of inferential statistics (tests of hypotheses) ◦ For a lab paper, you can state: “A BLANK test was computed to determine if there was a relationship between XX and XX.”. The results revealed that XX was (significantly related to/unrelated to) XX, (report statistical results in APA format). ◦ Present the test statistic, the df, the exact p value (unless SPSS says .000 then p < .001), and the effect size. (sometimes also have confidence interval of the test statistic). Format of Results Section ◦ The word “Results” should be centered on page. Do NOT add extra spaces between Method section and Results section. ◦ Statistical characters are presented in italics (e.g. M, t, r) as is the p for probability value (e.g. p = 031). See pages 119-122 for symbols. ◦ Note Greek letters – often denoting the value of something in the population (parameter versus a statistic) – are NOT italicized. ◦ Find the Greek letters in the insert “equations” section in PPT and Word ◦ When you reference a test in the narrative though, use the word - not the symbol. Means were XX rather than M’s were ◦ Make sure you have appropriate spacing ◦ E.g WRONG p=.031 CORRECT p = .031 Discussion Section ◦ This is the section where you get to “sell your story” and talk about what you think about what this all means. ◦ FORMAT: Discussion section begins with word “Discussion” centered on page, and immediately following the Results section (NO extra spacing) ◦ A Discussion section begins with an opening paragraph in which you briefly restate the purpose of this study, and hypotheses. Discussion Section ◦ After opening paragraph, describe each result pertaining to the hypothesis IN WORDS (NOT again saying something was statistically significant etc. and discuss whether results are consistent with each hypothesis. Do one by one. ◦ As each result described, offer an explanation as to why you think you found what you did. What do the results mean? ◦ For significant findings, often refer back to citations in the Intro. (e.g. The results obtained are consistent with the findings of Brown and Thomas (2016)) ,who also found that….”. ◦ For non-significant results, you must explain WHY you did not find what you thought you would. This could also involve referencing other citations that help make sense of the findings. Discussion Section ◦ After describing your results, describe the limitations of your study EVEN if you found all that you hypothesized you would. (some may already have been mentioned as reasons for you finding what you did especially if hypos do not come out as expected). ◦ Think of research design used – did you really want to test a causal hypothesis but used a correlational design? ◦ Was your sample limited in some way like size, the demographics of partiipants (think how it limits external validity) ◦ Could other procedures have been used to measure your variables or test your hypotheses that may have been better? ◦ Always say something like results should be viewed with some caution because of the limitations. ◦ The next subsection should be devoted to discussing the strengths of your study, including the design used and what is something new it contributed to research in this are. Discussion Section ◦ The last part of your paper should discuss the implications of your results. ◦ Ideas for future research: What should researchers examine next to further the literature in this area (make specific suggestions ◦ Describe what theoretical implications the results may have, if any. ◦ Describe the practical implications the results may have. After Discussion: References ◦You have a complete reference list in APA FORMAT ◦Must have a reference for every article you cite in your paper. ◦Do NOT include references that are NOT cited in your paper. Running head: METHODOLOGY 1 Methodology Student Name Institutional Affiliation METHODOLOGY 2 Methodology The main question of this study is looking at the level of cynicism in rates that victims are reporting in their areas. The question focusses on how the cynicism affects the victim reporting. Research has shown that there is an excellent relationship between reporting crimes and doubt. Some studies suggest that criminal incidents are more commonly not reported to the police because they consider the crimes minor and sometimes make the assumption that the police cannot do everything about it (Ranapurwala, Berg & Casteel, 2016). This study will also seek to prove whether certain ethnicities and age groups mistrust the police more and thus avoid reporting crimes altogether. Method For this study, we will be using surveys to find out whether the victims have ever reported any crime to the police. The survey will be closed and will have multiple choices where the victims can select their options without having to write a lot down. The study will seek to find out whether the person lives in a high crime neighborhood, whether they have family or friends who are police officers and whether they have ever been victims if the crimes. The study would also look at the gender and ethnicity of the person to find out whether ethnicity also contributes to a person's inability to report crimes. The survey will also consider the age of the person and what they are studying in school. While the questionnaires were given to all, the main aim was to find the opinions of immigrants and people who consider themselves as foreigners. We also targeted finding respondents between 12 and 40 years old since they have more active lives are more likely to be targets of crimes. It was challenging to find out numerous METHODOLOGY 3 people willing to take the survey. Therefore, the results in this study are based on 20 respondents who took the time to answer the survey questionnaire. Participants This survey excludes respondents who are younger than 12 years. It also eliminates people living in military barracks, crew members of maritime vessels, prison inmates, the homeless, and the elderly who suffer from health conditions like Alzheimer's disease. The study also targeted participants who were involved in a crime before and reported it. It is important to find out whether they were encouraged to report other criminal activities they faced five years after the first report of victimization. Measures The participants who have been victims of a crime before and who reported the victimization were categorized as exposed, while those who did not report are considered unexposed. The exposure is a binary variable. The victims who have initial instances of the victimizations were to tell the surveyors their chances of reporting subsequent victimizations. The survey gathers the attitudes of the respondents on the criminal justice system, their perceptions of crimes, and fear of the crimes and other issues surrounding criminal justice. The participants also reported their risks for future victimization, which included interpersonal violence like robberies, sexual assault, threatened rape, and threats of attacks. The minimal sufficient set of variables will be required to control the victimization types and ensure that the types of crimes that the participants faced commonly were noted on the surveys to METHODOLOGY 4 establish which types of crimes that are widely not reported to the police for one reason or another. The baseline age, ethnicity, race and baseline household income, and education level were noted. The survey also attempted to show the relationship between the offenders and the victim, their age, and the location where the crime occurred. Were there witnesses present and was the victim injured in the ordeal were also factors that were considered. The act to not report to the police and the chances of future victimization varied depending on the victim's age, race, and the offender-victim relationship. Procedure We used the statistics from the survey to check the rates, intensities, and frequencies of future victimizations, the age group that experiences most instances of violence, races that are more likely to trust the police and the education level of victims who tend not to report the acts of violence to the police. It also calculates the chances of a person reporting the crime when they are attacked by people they know. Graphs and diagrams were used in the analysis of the data to determine the people who are more likely to get victimized because they rarely report crimes. The analysis also looked at the reasons people do not find it necessary to report their involvement in a violent crime, especially when they know the perpetrator or have been involved in a crime before (Zaykowski, 2010). The association with reporting to the police and future victimization should also be considered in high crime neighborhoods where the criminals may have details of their victims and may return to threaten and cause them to harm after they have already reported the issue to the police. It is also important to note whether victims are satisfied with the services and support they receive from the police. METHODOLOGY 5 References Ranapurwala, S., Berg, M., & Casteel, C. (2016). Reporting Crime Victimizations to the Police and the Incidence of Future Victimizations: A Longitudinal Study. PLOS ONE, 11(7), e0160072. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0160072 Zaykowski, H. (2010). Racial Disparities in Hate Crime Reporting. Violence And Victims, 25(3), 378-394. doi: 10.1891/0886-6708.25.3.378 Running Head: HOW LIKELY ARE YOU WILLING TO REPORT BEING A VICTIM OF A CRIME TO THE POLICE VERY UNLIKELY OR VERY LIKELY How Likely Are You Willing to Report Being A Victim of a Crime to The Police? SSC 328 2/18/2020 Introduction 1 HOW LIKELY ARE YOU WILLING TO REPORT BEING A VICTIM OF A CRIME TO THE POLICE VERY UNLIKELY OR VERY LIKELY 2 Over the last decade and in most parts of the world, reporting offense, abuse or unlawful action, be it the victim or offender to the police, has been viewed with mixed reactions. In most cases, research has shown that most victims do not report once they are victimized, abused, or offended (Kidd & Chayet, 2017). Although reporting is one of the most critical processes as it commences investigation that aims at ensuring justice to the victim. Unless the criminal acts are reported, especially by victims, the police investigation may bear either less or no fruit at all. The few researches conducted on this field focuses more on macro social characteristics as the critical cause of victims not reporting to the police. According to Hindelang and Gottfredson, (2016) these macro social characteristics include; perception of police incompetence, socialeconomic status, and social ties. According to Kirk and Papachristos, (2013) in his research, they argued that social relations between the offender and the victims might contribute a lot when victims are making a decision or reporting a criminal act to the police. This is because if the crime has been committed by relatives, some cultures allow family negotiation instead of law enforcement. Focusing on police incompetence, most of the people believe that there will be no justice to the victim even after reporting their case as most of the police officer does not carry out the necessary investigation. Hence, there is no justice to the victim. Other studies have also attributed victims’ failure to report their abuse to police based on social, economic ties. Kidd and Chayet, (2017) in their research, conclude that some of the victims, especially those who have been abused by people of high social class in the society such as politicians or mafias. This is because such an individual will finally use their means to do away with such cases even if getting away with the victims by murder. HOW LIKELY ARE YOU WILLING TO REPORT BEING A VICTIM OF A CRIME TO THE POLICE VERY UNLIKELY OR VERY LIKELY 3 This study aims at testing the altitude relationship between victims and a police officer to determine the reason which may be contributing unlikelihood or likelihood of victims reporting to police officers. My hypothesis in this paper is, if the victims have a positive attitude towards police officers, they will report any abuse or criminal act committed to them, (Hindelang, M. & Gottfredson, 2016). Several factors from the macro social characteristics will be selected and tested based on interviews to be carried out from citizens who are part of victims who have been abused, and hence they are a better position to give out positive feedback based on their altitude of reporting to the police officer. The conclusion to this study will be based on the analysis from the data collected based on citizens’ responses. HOW LIKELY ARE YOU WILLING TO REPORT BEING A VICTIM OF A CRIME TO THE POLICE VERY UNLIKELY OR VERY LIKELY References Baumer, E. & Lauritsen, J. (2014). Reporting crime to the police, 1973–2005: A multivariate analysis of longterm trends in the National Crime Survey (NCS) and National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). Criminology, 48, 131–186, Hindelang, M. & Gottfredson, M. (2016). The victim’s decision not to invoke the criminal justice process. In W. McDonald (Ed.), Criminal justice and the victim. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Kidd, R. & Chayet, E. (2017). Why do victims fail to report? The psychology of criminal victimization. Journal of Social Issues, 40, 39-50 Kirk, D. & Papachristos, A. (2013). Cultural mechanisms and the persistence of neighborhood violence. American Journal of Sociology, 116, 1190–1233., 4 FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=major race hispanic gender borninvi /ORDER=ANALYSIS. Frequencies Notes Output Created Comments Input 14-APR-2020 08:53:55 Data Missing Value Handling Syntax Resources /Users/ejaeger/Desktop/ssc 328 class survey 2020.sav Active Dataset DataSet8 Filter Weight Split File N of Rows in Working Data 28 File Definition of Missing User-defined missing values are treated as missing. Cases Used Statistics are based on all cases with valid data. FREQUENCIES VARIABLES=major race hispanic gender borninvi /ORDER=ANALYSIS. Processor Time 00:00:00.01 Elapsed Time 00:00:00.00 Statistics major N Valid Missing race 28 0 28 0 hispanic 28 0 gender 28 0 borninvi 28 0 Frequency Table major Valid criminal Criminal justice Criminal Justice psychology Psychology Social sciences in minors in cultural Caribbean studies and psychology Social work Social Work Total Frequency 4 1 3 8 2 5 1 Percent 14.3 3.6 10.7 28.6 7.1 17.9 3.6 Valid Percent 14.3 3.6 10.7 28.6 7.1 17.9 3.6 1 3 28 3.6 10.7 100.0 3.6 10.7 100.0 Cumulative Percent 14.3 17.9 28.6 57.1 64.3 82.1 85.7 89.3 100.0 race Valid Black, African American ; Other ; White; White;Native or American Indian ; Total Frequency 4 21 1 1 1 Percent 14.3 75.0 3.6 3.6 3.6 Valid Percent 14.3 75.0 3.6 3.6 3.6 28 100.0 100.0 hispanic Valid No Yes Total Frequency 4 20 4 28 Percent 14.3 71.4 14.3 100.0 Valid Percent 14.3 71.4 14.3 100.0 Cumulative Percent 14.3 85.7 100.0 Cumulative Percent 14.3 89.3 92.9 96.4 100.0 gender Valid female male Total Frequency 4 15 9 28 Percent 14.3 53.6 32.1 100.0 Valid Percent 14.3 53.6 32.1 100.0 Cumulative Percent 14.3 67.9 100.0 borninvi Valid No Yes Total Frequency 4 11 13 28 Percent 14.3 39.3 46.4 100.0 Valid Percent 14.3 39.3 46.4 100.0 Cumulative Percent 14.3 53.6 100.0 RECODE gender ('female'='1') ('male'='2'). EXECUTE. RECODE borninvi ('1'='Yes') ('2'='No'). EXECUTE. RECODE borninvi ('1'='Yes') ('2'='No'). EXECUTE. T-TEST GROUPS=gender('1' '2') /MISSING=ANALYSIS /VARIABLES=pops1 /CRITERIA=CI(.95). RELIABILITY /VARIABLES=autism1 autism2 autism3 autism4 autism5r autism9r autism10r autism11r autism12r autrism14 autism6 autism7 autism8 autism13 /SCALE('ALL VARIABLES') ALL /MODEL=ALPHA /STATISTICS=DESCRIPTIVE SCALE /SUMMARY=TOTAL. Reliability Notes Output Created Comments Input Missing Value Handling Syntax Resources 14-APR-2020 11:48:43 Data /Users/ejaeger/Desktop/ssc 328 class survey 2020.sav Active Dataset DataSet8 Filter Weight Split File N of Rows in Working Data 28 File Matrix Input Definition of Missing User-defined missing values are treated as missing. Cases Used Statistics are based on all cases with valid data for all variables in the procedure. RELIABILITY /VARIABLES=autism1 autism2 autism3 autism4 autism5r autism9r autism10r autism11r autism12r autrism14 autism6 autism7 autism8 autism13 /SCALE('ALL VARIABLES') ALL /MODEL=ALPHA Processor Time Elapsed Time Scale: ALL VARIABLES /STATISTICS=DESCRIPTI VE SCALE /SUMMARY=TOTAL. 00:00:00.02 00:00:00.00 Case Processing Summary N Cases Valid Excludeda Total % 23 5 28 82.1 17.9 100.0 a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure. Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha .819 N of Items 14 Item Statistics autism1 autism2 autism3 autism4 autism5r autism9r autism10r autism11r autism12r autrism14 autism6 autism7 autism8 autism13 Mean 3.1739 4.3478 3.8696 3.7826 4.2609 5.0435 5.0435 5.6522 5.3478 3.8261 4.0870 4.1739 3.9565 4.6087 Std. Deviation .98406 .64728 1.14035 .51843 1.38883 1.18622 1.10693 .71406 1.07063 1.40299 .73318 .65033 .63806 .58303 N 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 Item-Total Statistics autism1 autism2 Scale Mean if Scale Variance Item Deleted if Item Deleted 58.0000 46.727 56.8261 48.605 Corrected Item-Total Correlation .446 .518 Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted .808 .806 autism3 autism4 autism5r autism9r autism10r autism11r autism12r autrism14 autism6 autism7 autism8 autism13 57.3043 57.3913 56.9130 56.1304 56.1304 55.5217 55.8261 57.3478 57.0870 57.0000 57.2174 56.5652 50.858 50.704 41.901 47.391 41.755 49.443 48.241 41.783 47.174 47.636 46.632 48.348 .095 .369 .549 .300 .749 .373 .290 .548 .594 .628 .764 .618 .837 .815 .801 .822 .782 .813 .821 .801 .801 .801 .794 .803 Scale Statistics Mean 61.1739 Variance 53.696 Std. Deviation 7.32773 N of Items 14 RELIABILITY /VARIABLES=pol2 pol3 pol4 pol5 pol6 pol7 pol8 pol9 pol10 pol11 pol12 pol14 pol1r pol13r /SCALE('ALL VARIABLES') ALL /MODEL=ALPHA. Reliability Notes Output Created Comments Input 14-APR-2020 11:51:29 Data /Users/ejaeger/Desktop/ssc 328 class survey 2020.sav Active Dataset DataSet8 Filter Weight Split File N of Rows in Working Data 28 File Missing Value Handling Matrix Input Definition of Missing Cases Used Syntax Resources Processor Time Elapsed Time User-defined missing values are treated as missing. Statistics are based on all cases with valid data for all variables in the procedure. RELIABILITY /VARIABLES=pol2 pol3 pol4 pol5 pol6 pol7 pol8 pol9 pol10 pol11 pol12 pol14 pol1r pol13r /SCALE('ALL VARIABLES') ALL /MODEL=ALPHA. 00:00:00.00 00:00:00.00 Scale: ALL VARIABLES Cas ...
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