Literature review

Writing

California Southern University

Question Description

Follow rubric to the latter. Follow APA format, with the exception of single spacing. References must be cited in text and on reference page I have include my previous assignment so you will know what issue you are searching......basically you are researching how other cities combatted mistrust and poor community based public relations between the police force and the citizens they serve. Preferably we are talking about minority communities, but more specifically African American communities. This literature review will be used to help propose a solution for Memphis, Tennessee, where majority of the population is African- American.

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CJ 790 Milestone Two Guidelines and Rubric Overview: The literature review is a crucial element in the decision-making process. Criminal justice professionals will develop an initial response to the problem they have defined. Then, during the literature review phase, they will research the methods used for similar cases. During the course of their literature review, professionals will either gather information that supports their initial response or explore other avenues to a solution while producing socially and ethically responsible data. Your capstone will be graded with the holistic rubric included below. The rubric will be used to grade all components of your capstone project together and create one grade. In this capstone project, you are working toward proficiency in the program outcomes. The “Possible Indicators of Success” are some ways you can demonstrate that you have met the program outcomes. The milestones in this course are drafts of different sections of your capstone project, and you can work on them to receive feedback on how you are progressing toward meeting the outcomes. Your milestone submissions address different outcomes, but your final submission of all three components will show your general proficiency in the program outcomes. Prompt: You will submit the literature review, which should include the critical elements below. These elements will demonstrate your progress toward meeting the course outcomes. III. Literature Review: Use relevant scholarly bodies of work to perform a brief and systematic literature review. You will research how the criminal justice issue that you identified has been addressed historically, and what is currently being done to address it in other communities. You should refer to criminological theories as well as the best practices used by other agencies. The outline of your literature review will should include the following: A. Identify two or three possible solutions to the issue that you are researching, along with your reasoning for focusing on those approaches. B. Methodology: Explain your search strategy and the selection criteria adopted for this review, and provide descriptions of the types of research reviewed. C. Summarize the main findings of your research. D. Draw conclusions about which approach is the most appropriate for solving the issue in your selected city. Rubric Guidelines for Submission: Your literature review should be a 5–7 page Microsoft Word document with double spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font, oneinch margins, and APA formatting. The final capstone submission will assess students’ proficiency in the course outcomes. The milestone submissions demonstrate whether students are making progress toward meeting the outcomes. CJ-790-01: Apply moral reasoning to make ethically sound and socially responsible decisions that exemplify service philosophy and leadership in the field of criminal justice Students will receive “In Progress” if Value they are making progress toward the course outcome. Meets In Does Not 16.6 Expectations Progress Meet 100% 80% Expectations 0% Feedback on progress toward outcome proficiency: Possible Indicators of Success that may be evident in the student’s final submission: Does the student demonstrate the ability to make decisions that align to an organization’s values set forth in the mission statement? Does the student demonstrate the ability to form unbiased conclusions? Does the student demonstrate the ability to evaluate possible solutions with current criminological research studies? Does the student demonstrate the ability to propose plans that address the needs of an organization and the surrounding community? CJ-790-02: Employ criminological theory, research methodologies, and analysis to impact solutions to contemporary issues and problems in the field of criminal justice Meets In Does Not Expectations Progress Meet 100% 80% Expectations 0% Feedback on progress toward outcome proficiency: Possible Indicators of Success that may evident in the student’s final submission: Does the student demonstrate the ability to identify emerging criminal justice issues within communities and construct plausible solutions? Does the student demonstrate the ability to analyze data and recognize patterns to determine the underlying causes of criminal justice issues? Does the student demonstrate the ability to apply appropriate criminological theories to problems? Does the student demonstrate the ability to create insightful literature reviews that inform the direction of proposals? 17 CJ-790-03: Utilize multiple strategic planning and problem-solving approaches that impact crime reduction and public service and that reflect critical and creative thinking Meets In Does Not Expectations Progress Meet 100% 80% Expectations 0% 16.6 Feedback on progress toward outcome proficiency: Possible Indicators of Success that may be evident in the student’s final submission: Does the student demonstrate the ability to use best practices within the field to identify crime patterns that define underlying problems? Does the student demonstrate the ability to critically analyze why problems occur by using appropriate resources? Does the student demonstrate the ability to creatively employ problem-solving techniques to address both internal and external factors surrounding issues? Does the student demonstrate the ability to create response plans that address both the symptoms and root causes of criminal justice issues? CJ-790-04: Create authentic strategies and plans designed to improve and maintain effective organizational structure and culture for influencing professional identities, criminal justice management, leadership, and policy making Meets Expectations 100% In Does Not Progress Meet 80% Expectations 0% 16.6 Feedback on progress toward outcome proficiency: Possible Indicators of Success that may be evident in the student’s final submission: Does the student demonstrate the ability to choose appropriate methods of dissemination for proposals? Does the student demonstrate the ability to incorporate the needs of both the community and organizations into strategic proposals? Does the student demonstrate the ability to synthesize best practices and scholarly resources to create well-supported solutions to issues? Does the student demonstrate the ability to identify relevant resources required to initiate proposals within organizations? CJ-790-05: Employ effective decision-making methods and strategies that reflect versatility of thought in addressing the diverse needs of public service agencies Meets Expectations 100% In Does Not 16.6 Progress Meet 80% Expectations 0% Feedback on progress toward outcome proficiency: Possible Indicators of Success that may be evident in the student’s final submission: Does the student demonstrate the ability to clearly convey implementation plans in proposals? Does the student demonstrate the ability to combine knowledge from multiple sources to form proposals that meet the unique needs of cities and organizations? Does the student demonstrate the ability to describe the challenges and opportunities for criminal justice organizations when they address problems within communities? Does the student demonstrate the ability to prioritize the betterment of organizations within proposed solutions? CJ-790-06: Employ professional, appropriate communication strategies for effective resource planning, consensus building, and long-term planning Meets Expectations 100% In Does Not 16.6 Progress Meet 80% Expectations 0% Feedback on progress toward outcome proficiency: Possible Indicators of Success that may be evident in the student’s final submission: Does the student demonstrate the ability to clearly communicate how proposals may benefit organizations and communities in the future? Does the student demonstrate the ability to effect change through clear communication grounded in both organizational best practices and research? Does the student demonstrate the ability to create visual presentations that clearly identify problems, relevant research, and proposed solutions? Does the student demonstrate the ability to manage appropriate resources during strategic development of proposals? Running head: MANAGEMENT OF THE POLICE 1 Mistrust Between the Police and African-Americans In Memphis: Wokefield Police Department Milestone 1 Assignment Kayla Poole Southern New Hampshire University MANAGEMENT OF THE POLICE 2 Statement of the Problem In a city where 70% of the population is colored and 63% black, relations between the police and the African-American population have never been tenser (Kabede, 2016). Dating to the Martin Luther King Jr. era, the city continues to struggle with police-community relations. The issue is aggravated by the underrepresentation of the black population in the police force; black officers account for 51.6% of the force, while white officers representing the city's 27.5% population account for 46.7% of the force (Moore & Thomas, 2014). The 2019 police shooting of Brandon Webber further heightened these tense relations as scores of African-Americans poured to the streets to protest the shooting of an unarmed young black man in what is now part of the American public safety norm (Moore & Thomas, 2014). Piling onto a list of growing young African-Americans shot dead by the police, the ensuing response exemplified just how the police force responds to such tragedies ineptly. These tense relationships explain the high levels of armed crime and real estate crime in a city ranked as one of the most violent across America. In the week-long ensuing protests, the police responded violently, apprehending numerous black people, especially after 24 of the WPD officers suffered various injuries (Bella & Iati, 2019). How It Is Affecting the Community in Memphis The predicament is a national one; nonetheless, in Memphis, it alienates an already alienated population. Such relations disenfranchise the black community and segregate from numerous Memphis programs intended to rectify these relations. Police violence, prejudice, and profiling of the black community not only creates tense relations but also spread fear across the community. In light of escalated shootings of young African-Americans not only in Memphis but across the nation, the norm when stopped by a police officer has been to approach the officer with raised arm and phone at hand ready to record any dealings with an officer. Such is the proof MANAGEMENT OF THE POLICE 3 of the fear the black community lives by daily. It also widens the rift between Memphis' diverse populations. As opposed to working to realize the Public Safety Institute's goal of advancing the best public safety practices, these tense relations empower the white community to feel superior while rendering the black community inferior. Relevant Criminological Theories That Apply Conflict theories best explain the mistrust between the police and the African-American population in Memphis. Anderson, Reinsmith-Jones, and Brooks (2016) explain that the mistrust between these two factions is reminiscent of the '60s and '70s when the police used their power and authority to brutalize the dissenting minorities in America. Prejudicial mistreatment and mishandling of African-Americans dates back to the slavery era when whites oppressed and suppressed black people from realizing their potential. Consequently, these sentiments and innuendos propagated in the dark ages continue to the present. Nonetheless, this is not to say that the African-American population is not to blame for such mistrust with the Wokefield Police Department. According to the social disorganization theory, African-Americans are more likely perpetrators of crime since their residential locations, disadvantaged neighborhoods and culture inculcate criminal tendencies in young African Americans right from a tender age more than their individual characteristics. Consequently, the police are more inclined to stopping, scrutinizing and profiling the black community. Such disadvantages as poverty, lower literacy levels, and general decadency increase the community's propensity for armed and real estate crime. MANAGEMENT OF THE POLICE 4 Analysis of the Problem Scope of The Criminal Justice Issue The tense relationship between the African-American population and the police dates to the late 1900's when large businesses in Memphis, such as FedEx and Autozone, commenced and awarded white-collar jobs to middle- and upper-class whites, leaving African-Americans to impoverishment (Esri). As of 2015, Memphis ranked highest of the largest 53 metros across the U.S. in impoverishment with a 27.6% rate against the national 14% rate. Memphis' tensions between the police and the African-American population circle back to the high poverty levels in the black community. The police, all through history, have played a frontline role in suppressing and oppressing African-Americans, helping to instigate a white beneficial position in Memphis. Similarly, the city is one of the two cities across the U.S., both of which are predominantly black, that have in the past hang billboards across town warning people from entering the city due to high crime rates (Tulumello, 2018). An occurrence alien to predominantly white cities, such decisions not only chase away tourists but also communicate of a force incensed by a desire to control, authoritatively at that, control a population they consider violent, homicidal, and unruly. Coupled with the recent increased scrutiny on the police due to prejudicial mistreatment and handling of the African-American population, the police are now stricter and harsher on AfricanAmericans as they seek to curb crime. Nonetheless, the result is more adverse as tensions continue flaring, and relations break down even further. Recurring Trends or Patterns That City Data Reveals About the Issue Firstly, Memphis is a predominantly black and colored city as African-Americans comprise 63% of the total city population (Kabede, 2016). Carefully examining the percentage of black police officers in Memphis shows that African-Americans are underrepresented as black MANAGEMENT OF THE POLICE 5 officers make up 51% of the force while white officers representing the city's 27.5% population make up 46.7% of the entire force (Moore & Thomas, 2014). In such a heavily black city, the expectation would be more representation of the black population in the force since black officers are more inclined to understand better and cultivate positive relations with their fellow African-Americans. Such underrepresentation, therefore, sets the precedence for a pattern of underrepresenting and underserving the black community. Like the rest of the 19 000 law enforcement agencies across the country, the WPD is also plagued by controversy and misconduct up to the highest level. From excessively using deadly and physical force to discriminatory arrest patterns, the Wokefield police continue to serve as a problem for AfricanAmericans instead of serving as a solution to the numerous predicaments this community battles from its 33.8% poverty prevalence rate to 28.4 for every 100 000 people nationally toping homicidal rate (Esri). Secondly, data obtained by Thompson (2017) showed that between 2011 and 2016, the WPD's internal affairs department received 268 use of excessive force by officers complaints out of which a sole 33 were sustained. The department threw out the other 235 for lack of enough evidence to show wrongdoing. Despite the citywide recording of numerous cases of officer prejudicially using excess force on blacks, such decisions continue to propagate tense relations. The mistrust runs deep as residents comprehend that reporting to the police an issue about their fellow officers will never yield any substantial results. Extrapolating from these reported cases attests to a pattern of using excessive and physical force on blacks to oppress and suppress them. An already impoverished community suffering at the hands of a 'rogue' police unit further strains relationships. External Contributing Factors Supported by Research MANAGEMENT OF THE POLICE 6 The key contributing factor is the role played by the Memphis Police Association's spat with local politicians and policymakers. As the only second city to do so, the MPA commissioned billboards across the city, declaring it a dangerous city and branding local politicians and policymakers as insensitive to the city's public safety needs (Tulumello, 2018). Such interference from the organization creates polarization between the police and the local community since it amounts to branding the local community dangerous. Despite the city recording high crime rates, the MPA's decision to hang such billboards contravenes programs such as the 2017 Safe Community Plan that aims to integrate the community in policing and repair relations between the police and the African-American population (Crime Commission). A second eternal contributing factor to such tense relations is the national targeting of AfricanAmericans by the police. According to available data, police are 14% more likely to use excessive force on an African-American compared to other populations (Arthur, 2019). Similarly, the cropping up of such movements as Black Lives Matter and other AfricanAmerican civil rights movement further thaws this relationship. These movements primarily advocate for African-American rights without looping in the police by either educating them or enlightening them on black culture, problems, and issues (Anderson, Reinsmith-Jones & Brooks, 2016). Creating a basis of understanding is the key to fixing this relationship and fostering trust between a broken, marginalized, and forcefully policed community prejudicially misconceived as violent, thugs, and criminals. Internal Contributing Factors Supported by Details Provided in The Scenario Decreased officer productivity owing to increased national scrutiny on policy officers is the leading cause of officer demotivation and unproductivity at the WPD, which explains the worsening relationship with the local community. A demotivated police force is prone to making MANAGEMENT OF THE POLICE 7 errors in judgment, operating forcefully to police a community considered dangers by national crime statistics standards, and failing to work to mend this relationship. The recent increase in police conduct insight, nonetheless, should be a motivator for the WPD to mend this relationship to protect better and serve the people of Memphis. As opposed to demotivating the force, it should motivate officers to work to combating crime and involving the locals just as the Safety Community Plan spearheaded by the Memphis Crime Commission intends (Crime Commission). Secondly, a reduction in the available funding for personal items benefits is also a contributing factor to the predicament at hand. Despite the city's efforts to mend these relationships through the Public Safety Institute that loops in researchers to help provide actionable solutions to crime and officers' relations with the local community, appeasing officers should take precedence to help align their priorities and rectify the sour relations. The Root Cause of The Issue The root cause of mistrust between the police and the African-American community is not a matter of national police scrutiny; it is a historical problem dating to the slavery era. The police, a national security organ, contributed to the oppression and suppression of a minority community. Consequently, the notions and nuances of African-Americans established in these eras continue to the present, leading to the police heavily and unnecessary policing blacks. In this process, it leads to prejudice and racial profiling, which dissolves any existing iota of trust. Similarly, the police's failure to ...
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