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Bethel College Benefits of Nicotine Substances Against the Current Pandemic Article Discussion

Bethel College

Question Description

Can you help me understand this Health & Medical question?

Use the uploaded textbook (Paul, R., Elder, L. (2012). Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Professional and Personal Life) as a source and at least 1 other outside scholarly/academic sources. Must use proper grammar, mechanics and spelling in your response, you have to make use of proper in-text citations and an end-reference “ NO Plagiarism” . Remember to use in work citations ie: (Author, 2018) and provide the full citation in APA format at the end of the response for the question where you cited information from the reference. Must be no less than 350 words.

Question: Interact with a current news story. You may read any article that you like. Look up the concept of synthesis. Go beyond concrete thinking, and use synthesis of thought to develop new concepts. So, read the article. Then there are 2 parts to the discussion post:

1) Are there any issues with the intellectual standards in the article? That is, are there problems with Clarity, Accuracy, Precision, Relevance, Depth, Breadth, Logicalness, Significance or Fairness in the article?

Please be careful to be specific here. You're going to have to read the article closely and point out the problems you find with the author's argument as they relate to these intellectual standards.

2) Was the author obviously biased in his argument?

To answer this question, you're going to have to make sure that you understand what is meant by bias - you can research bias a bit here: http://philosophy.hku.hk/think/fallacy/biases.php

You may choose any article that you like.

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Chapter 11 Monitoring Your S SociocentricATendencies U N D E R S iving a human life entails membershipSin a variety of human groups. This typically includes groups such as nation,R culture, profession, religion, family, and peer group. We find ourselves participating in groups before we are aware of our. selves as living beings. We find ourselves in groups in virtually every setting in which , group to which we belong has some we function as persons. What is more, every social definition of itself and some usually unspoken “rules” that guide the behavior of all members. Each group to which we belong imposes some level of conformity on G a set of beliefs, behaviors, and taboos. us as a condition of acceptance. This includes L A R All of us, to varying degrees, uncritically accept R as right and correct whatever ways of acting and believing are fostered in the social groups to which we belong (Figure Y on what happens when, say, an adoles11.1). This becomes clear to us if we reflect The Nature of Sociocentrism cent joins an urban street gang. With that act, adolescents are expected to identify themselves with: 2 • • • • • • A name that defines who and what they 0 are; A way of talking; 9 A set of friends and enemies; 0 Gang rituals in which they must participate; T members; Expected behaviors involving fellow gang S Expected behaviors when around the enemies of the gang; 185 Critical Thinking Strategies for Success (Collection), by Richard Paul, Linda Elder, Judy Chartrand, Stewart Emery, Russ Hall, Heather Ishikawa, John Maketa, and Robert E. Gunther. Published by Financial Press. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. CRITICAL THINKING 186 • A hierarchy of power within the gang; • A way of dressing and speaking; • Social requirements to which every gang member must conform; • A set of taboos—forbidden acts that every S gang member must studiously avoid under threat of severe punishment. A For most people, blind conformity toU group restrictions is automatic and N recognizing their conformity. They unreflective. Most effortlessly conform without internalize group norms and beliefs, take D on the group identity, and act as they are expected to act—without the least sense that what they are doing might reasonably E groups as unreflective participants in a be questioned. Most people function in social R range of beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors analogous, in the structures to which they conform, to those of urban street gangs. S ew Vi A central determinant in the life of humans is the group to which we belong Essential Concepts ns io m pt on 2 0 9Judgments groups 0about that tell us how behave in Thumans groups, and why S ce en fer In su Information Information about specific human groups and the characteristics they do and do not share d an As How do humans behave in groups? n tio eta pr ter In Humans as a herd or conforming animals sti of Implications and Consequences G A R R ELEMENTS OF Y REASONING ue nt If I know the groups a person belongs to, I can predict much of his/ her behavior we do as a result of living with others in groups Ke yQ i Po Seeing human behavior as deeply shaped by the beliefs and values of groups S R . learn how and why , Topeople act the way Purpose Figure 11.1 The logic of sociology. Critical Thinking Strategies for Success (Collection), by Richard Paul, Linda Elder, Judy Chartrand, Stewart Emery, Russ Hall, Heather Ishikawa, John Maketa, and Robert E. Gunther. Published by Financial Press. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. MONITORING YOUR SOCIOCENTRIC TENDENCIES 187 This conformity of thought, emotion, and action is not restricted to the masses, or the lowly, or the poor. It is characteristic of people in general, independent of their role in society, independent of status and prestige, independent of years of schooling. It is in all likelihood as true of college professors and their presidents as students and custodians, as true of senators and chiefSexecutives as it is of construction and assembly-line workers. Conformity of thought and behavior is the rule in humans, A independence the rare exception. U N [There is an] infinity of variations in humanD behavior, termed good or evil, well or sick, according to the time and place and surrounding mores. The mescalin intoxicated priest carrying out an Indian ritual is adapted andE healthy according to the rules of the game. Under other circumstances and in other places R his behavior would probably bring him confinement in the police station or in a mental hospital. S According to the The Encyclopedia Americana (1950, vol 7, page 541): To fail to conform to social expectation is to become subject to being cut off from the group: Here is how such a person is characterized in Tom Brown’s School Days S (Hughes, 1882): R The person whose appearance had so horrified Miss Winter was drawing beer for them . woman, with a skin burned as brown from a small barrel. This was an elderly raw-boned as that of any of the mowers. She wore a man’s , hat and spencer, and had a strong harsh voice, and altogether was not a prepossessing person. She went by the name of Daddy Cowell in the parish, and had been for years a proscribed person. She lived up on the heath, often worked in the fields, took in lodgers, G and smoked a short clay pipe. These eccentricities, when added to her half-male clothing, were quite enough to account for AWinter, and other good people of Englethe sort of outlawry in which she lived. Miss bourn, believed her capable of any crime, and R the children were taught to stop talking and playing, and run away when she came near them. R Y Sociocentric Thinking as Pathology Sociocentric thinking, as we intend this expression, is egocentric thinking raised to the 2 thinking, if not more so, as it carries level of the group. It is as destructive as egocentric 0 cases, we find a native and uncritical dogwith it the sanction of a social group. In both matism implicit in its principles. And therein 9 lies its pathology. Like egocentric thinking, it is absurd at the level of conscious expression. If sociocentric thinking is made 0 explicit in the mind of the thinker, its unreasonableness will be obvious. T S Note the parallels in Table 11.1 for egocentric and sociocentric patterns of thought. Critical Thinking Strategies for Success (Collection), by Richard Paul, Linda Elder, Judy Chartrand, Stewart Emery, Russ Hall, Heather Ishikawa, John Maketa, and Robert E. Gunther. Published by Financial Press. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. CRITICAL THINKING 188 Table 11.1 Egocentric and Sociocentric Patterns of Thought Egocentric Standard Related Sociocentric Standard “It’s true because I believe it.” S“It’s true because we believe it.” “It’s true because I want to believe it.” A “It’s true because we want to believe it.” U “It’s true because it’s in my vested “It’s true because it’s in our vested Ninterest to believe it.” interest to believe it.” D“It’s true because we have always “It’s true because I have always believed it.” Ebelieved it.” R Just as individuals deceive themselves through S egocentric thinking, groups deceive themselves through sociocentric thinking. Just as egocentric thinking functions to serve one’s selfish interest, sociocentric thinking functions to serve the selfish interests S of the group. Just as egocentric thinking operates to validate the uncritical thinking of the individual, sociocentric thinking operates to validate the uncritical thinking of R the group. . , Test the Idea Thinking About the Groups You Belong To G to. Then choose the group you Make a list of the groups you belong think has influenced you the most inAyour beliefs, values, and behavior. Complete the following statements: R 1. The group that has influenced me the most is probably… R 2. This group’s main function or agenda is… Y 3. Comment on as many of the following variables as you can identify with, with respect to the group you have chosen to analyze. To what extent does your membership in this group involve: 2 • A name that defines who and what they are; 0 • A way of talking; 9 • A set of friends and enemies; • Group rituals in which you must 0 participate; • Expected behaviors involving Tfellow members; • Expected behaviors when around the “enemies” of the group; S • A hierarchy of power within the group; • A way of dressing and speaking; Critical Thinking Strategies for Success (Collection), by Richard Paul, Linda Elder, Judy Chartrand, Stewart Emery, Russ Hall, Heather Ishikawa, John Maketa, and Robert E. Gunther. Published by Financial Press. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. MONITORING YOUR SOCIOCENTRIC TENDENCIES 189 • Social requirements to which you must conform; • A set of taboos—forbidden acts, whose violation is punished. 4. One of the key “requirements” of this group is… 5. One of the key “taboos” (what ISam forbidden to do) is… 6. A group that my group would look A down upon is … We think of this group as beneath us because… U N The idea of sociocentric thinking is not new. Under one label or another, many books have been written on the subject. D And it has been the focus of important sociological studies. Almost a hundred years E ago, in his seminal book Folkways, originally published in 1902, William Graham Sumner wrote extensively about Rfounders of the discipline of sociology, social expectations and taboos. One of the Sumner documented the manner in whichSgroup thought penetrates virtually every dimension of human life. He introduced the concept of ethnocentrism in this way: Ethnocentrism is the technical name for this view of thinking in which one’s own group S is the center of everything, and all others are scaled and rated with reference to it.… Each group nourishes its own pride and vanity, R boasts itself superior, exacts its own divines, and looks with contempt on outsiders. Each group thinks its own folkways the only right ones, and if it observes that other.groups have other folkways, these excite its scorn. (p. 13) , Sumner describes folkways as the socially perceived “right” ways to satisfy all interests according to group norms and standards. He G says that in every society: There is a right way to catch game, to win A a wife, to make one’s self appear… to treat comrades or strangers, to behave when a child is born… The “right” way is the way R down. The tradition is its own warwhich ancestors used and which has been handed rant. It is not held subject to verification by experience.… In the folkways, whatever is, is R right. (p. 28) Y In regard to expectations of group members, Sumner states: Every group of any kind whatsoever demands that each of its members shall help defend 2 group interests. The group force is also employed to enforce the obligations of devotion to group interests. It follows that judgments 0 are precluded and criticism silenced.… The patriotic bias is a recognized perversion of thought and judgment against which our edu9 cation should guard us. (p. 15) 0 Even young children exhibit sociocentric thinking and behavior. Consider this passage from Piaget’s study for UNESCOT(Campbell, 1976), which is a dialogue between an interviewer and three children S regarding the causes of war: Michael M. (9 years, 6 months old): Have you heard of such people as foreigners? Yes, the French, the Americans, the Russians, the English… Quite right. Are there differences Critical Thinking Strategies for Success (Collection), by Richard Paul, Linda Elder, Judy Chartrand, Stewart Emery, Russ Hall, Heather Ishikawa, John Maketa, and Robert E. Gunther. Published by Financial Press. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. 190 CRITICAL THINKING between all these people? Oh, yes, they don’t speak the same language. And what else? I don’t know. What do you think of the French, for instance? The French are very serious, they don’t worry about anything, an’ it’s dirty there. And what do you think of the Russians? They’re bad, they’re always wanting to make war. And what’s your opinion of the English? I don’t know… they’re nice… Now look, how did you come to know all you’ve told me? I don’t know… I’ve heard it… that’sSwhat people say. Maurice D. (8 years, 3 months old): If youAdidn’t have any nationality and you were given a free choice of nationality, which would U you choose? Swiss nationality. Why? Because I was born in Switzerland. Now look, do you think the French and Swiss are Nthe other? The Swiss are nicer. Why? The equally nice, or the one nicer or less nice than French are always nasty. Who is more intelligent, D the Swiss or the French, or do you think they’re just the same? The Swiss are more intelligent. Why? Because they learn E any nationality he liked, what country French quickly. If I asked a French boy to choose do you thinking he’d choose? He’d choose France. Why? Because he was born in France. R And what would he say about who’s the nicer? Would he think the Swiss and French equally nice, or one better than the other? He’d S say the French are nicer. Why? Because he was born in France. And who would he think more intelligent? The French. Why? He’d say the French want to learn quicker than the Swiss. Now you and the French boy don’t really give the same answer. Who do you Sthink answered best? I did. Why? Because Switzerland is always better. R Marina T. (7 years, 9 months old): If you were . born without any nationality and you were given a free choice, what nationality would you choose? Italian. Why? Because it’s my country. I like it better than Argentina where,my father works, because Argentina isn’t my country. Are Italians just the same, or more, or less intelligent than the Argentineans? What do you think? The Italians are more intelligent. Why? I can see people I live with, they’re Italians. If I were to give a child fromG Argentina a free choice of nationality, what do you think he would choose? He’d want to stay an Argentinean. Why? Because that’s his country. And if I were to ask him who is moreA intelligent, the Argentineans or the Italians, what do you think he would answer? He’d say R Argentineans. Why? Because there wasn’t any war. Now who was really right in the choice he made and what he said, the Argentinean child, you, or both? I was right. Why?R Because I chose Italy. Y It is clear that these children are thinking sociocentrically. They have been indoctrinated into the belief systems, with accompanying ideologies, of their nation and culture. They cannot articulate why they think their country 2 is better than others, but they have no doubt that it is. Seeing one’s group as superior to other groups is both natural to the 0 human mind and propagated by the cultures within which we live. 9 0 Social Stratification T Sociocentric systems are used in complex societies to justify differential treatment S and injustices within a society, nation, or culture. This feature of complex social systems has been documented by sociologists who have specialized in the phenomenon of social stratification. As virtually all modern societies today are complex, the fol- Critical Thinking Strategies for Success (Collection), by Richard Paul, Linda Elder, Judy Chartrand, Stewart Emery, Russ Hall, Heather Ishikawa, John Maketa, and Robert E. Gunther. Published by Financial Press. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. MONITORING YOUR SOCIOCENTRIC TENDENCIES 191 lowing characteristics of stratification presumably can be found in all of them. According to Plotnicov and Tuden (1970), Each has social groups that 1. Are ranked hierarchically; 2. Maintain relatively permanent positions in the hierarchy; S 3. Have differential control of the sources of power, primarily economic and A political; U distinctions that also serve to maintain 4. Are separated by cultural and invidious the social distances between the groups; Nand 5. Are articulated by an overarching ideology that provides a rationale for the D established hierarchical arrangements. (pp. 4-5). E Given this phenomenon, we should be able R to identify, for any given group in our society, where approximately it stands in the hierarchy of power, what the sources of Sthat indicate status are formulated, how power and control are, how the distinctions social distances are maintained between the groups, and the overarching ideology that provides the rationale for the way things are. S R Test the Idea . Identifying Social Stratification , Try to construct a hierarchy of the social groups within the culture with which you are most knowledgeable. First identify the groups with the most power and prestige. What characteristics do these groups have? Then identify the groups with less G and less power until you reach the groups with the least amount of power. A How do the groups with the most power keep their power? To what extent is it possible for groups R power? To what extent do they with the least power to increase their seem to accept their limited power?R To the extent that they accept their limited power, why do you think they do? Y Sociocentric Thinking Is Unconscious and Potentially Dangerous 2 Sociocentric thinking, like egocentric thinking, 0 appears in the mind of the person who thinks that way as reasonable and justified. Thus, although groups often distort the meaning of concepts to pursue their9 vested interests, they almost never see themselves as misusing language. Although0groups almost always can find problems in the ideologies of other groups, they rarely are able to find flaws in their belief sysT tems. Although groups usually can identify prejudices that other groups are using S prejudices that they are using against against them, they rarely are able to identify other groups. In short, just as egocentric thinking is self-deceptive, so is sociocentric thinking. Critical Thinking Strategies for Success (Collection), by Richard Paul, Linda Elder, Judy Chartrand, Stewart Emery, Russ Hall, Heather Ishikawa, John Maketa, and Robert E. Gunther. Published by Financial Press. Copyright © 2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. 192 CRITICAL THINKING Though the patterns of dysfunctional thinking are similar for egocentric and sociocentric thinking, there is at least one important distinction between the two. We pointed out in Chapter 10 that egocentric thinking is potentially dangerous. Through self-deception, individuals can justify the most egregious actions, but individuals operating alone are usually more limited in the amount of harm they can S do. Typically, groups engaging in sociocenric thinking can do greater harm to greater A numbers of people. U wherein the state, controlled by the Consider, for example, the Spanish Inquisition, Catholic Church, executed thousands of reputed N heretics. Or consider the Germans, who tortured and murdered millions of Jews, or the “founders” of the Americas, who D of Native Americans and Africans. enslaved, murdered, or tortured large numbers E In short, throughout history and to the present day, sociocentric thinking has led directly to the pain and suffering of millions R of innocent persons. This has been possible because groups, in their sociocentric mindset, use their power in a largely S unreflective, abusive way. Once they have internalized a self-serving ideology, they are able to act in ways that flagrantly contradict their announced morality without noticing any contradictions or inconsistencies S in the process. R . Sociocentric thinking is fostered by the way groups use language. Groups justify , use of concepts or ideas. For example, unjust acts and ways of thinking through their Sociocentric Use of Languag ...
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Critical Thinking for Managers
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Critical Thinking for Managers
Question 1

The article used for this discussion is about reports that have been spreading in the past
few days over the potential benefits of nicotine substances against the current pandemic,
COVID-19. For about five months now, the world has been seriously affected by the outbreak of
the corona virus, which has killed hundreds of thousands and infected more than two million
people. It has also paralyzed almost all impor...

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Duke University

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