SIR 210 University of Southern California How To Solve The Tragedy Of The Commons Essay

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ebaqba

Humanities

SIR 210

University of Southern California

SIR

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I will attach what exactly needs to be done in the assignment as well as lay it out below:

- Make specific references to concepts, readings, and ideas from the readings i will provide.

- Use whatever citation format you wish

- length: 1,250 words (five double spaced pages. Include a word count)


one of the readings are "Garrett Hardin, “The Tragedy of the Commons,” Art and Jervis, pp. 480-486."

you will have to find that on the internet, however if you cannot find it. that is alright. the other one can be emailed to you because it does not fit in the area designated to upload files because it is too large.

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Final paper, SIR 210 April 30, 2020 “How do we solve the tragedy of the commons?” • Make specific reference to concepts, readings, and ideas from the class. You should feel free to use concepts from the entire class – this is a comprehensive question. • Use whatever citation format you wish. • Write a complete essay, with intro, thesis statement, main body, and conclusion. Writing is as important as the content. • Length: 1,250 words (about five double-spaced pages. Include a wordcount) • You must turn in your paper by 11 a.m. PST, Thursday, May 7, 2020. Papers turned in after this time will be considered late and marked down accordingly. Turn papers in through Blackboard in your section.
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Please use these last attached files

Running head: HOW TO SOLVE THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS

How To Solve The Tragedy Of The Commons
Student Name
Institution Affiliation

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HOW TO SOLVE THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS

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Introduction
The tragedy of the commons presents an economic challenge where individuals have
incentives for the consumption of a resource at the expense of others without any way of
excluding others from utilizing the resource. As a result, it leads to overconsumption, as noted by
Ostrom in Governing the Commons, where he points to depletion of fisheries in the Georges
Bank due to overfishing of haddock, cod as well as flounder. The overexploitation of resources
degrades the environment as numerous individuals utilize the scarce resource. In this case, it has
led to firewood crises across the Third World War, the 1970s Sahelian famine, along with the
challenge of acid rain (Ostrom, 1990). It has also resulted in urban crime, the Mormon’s Church
organization, together with the challenges of global cooperation. However, the tragedy of
commons can be solved by centralized control, privatization, and collective action.
Centralized control
The solutions to environmental challenges cannot be achieved through cooperation. The
private enterprise system ensures that ruin is avoided in a world filled by people that respond to a
coercive force that is outside their psyches considered as ‘Leviathan’ (Ostrom, 1990). In this
case, the presumption that Leviathan is vital in solving the tragedy of commons proposes
recommendations that governments have to control the majority of natural resource systems.
Besides, Ostrom claims that ‘iron governments’ such as military governments would be ideal in
achieving control over ecological challenges. Also, the author notes that where private interests
fail to safeguard the public domain, in such a case, external regulations by international
authorities, as well as governments, are required.
Moreover, without public control, soil erosion, together with overgrazing, would take
place. In this case, public control is necessary where economic efficiency is to occur. Centralized

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control ensures that the external government agency decides the specific herding strategy that is
ideal in Hardin herder’s game (Ostrom, 1990). Here, the central authority decides those that can
utilize the meadow, the period they can use it as well as the number of animals that can graze.
Therefore, where the external authority determines the capacity for the resource, it monitors
actions as well as sanctions noncompliance transforming the Hardin herder game for producing
an optimally efficient equilibrium ideal for the herders.
Importantly, regulation of the consumption, along with the use of common-pool
resources, can decrease overconsumption. Chappelow (2020) concurs that the investment of the
government in conservation, coupled with the resources’ renewal, could assist in preventing
depletion. For instance, the regulation of the government can set limits on the number of the herd
that can graze on the common property. Notwithstanding, Chappelow points out that this
solution suffers from knowledge challenges, rent-seeking along with principal-agent inherent in
politically driven processes together with central economic planning.
Privatization
It is another way of solving the tragedy of the commons. Most notably, Ostrom (1990)
claims that by treating resources as the common property is what leads to its inexorable
destruction. Thus, the development of full private rights is vital in avoiding the inefficiency of
overgrazing. Typically, assigning private property rights usually converts to a private good
common-pool resource. Most notably, institutionally, it relies on the development of some
mechanism for defining as well as enforcing private property rights that could take place as an
outgrowth of existing institutions of private property over those goods. Technologically, it
implies the development of a certain way for identifying, marking along with measuring units of
the common pool resource.

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In such a scenario, each herder would be apportioned a half of the meadow. The herders
would be forced to graze their herds on a smaller terrain rather than competing with one another
on a larger terrain (Ostrom, 1990). The herders would be forced to invest in fences as well as
their maintenance. They would also be mandated to monitor as well as sanction ...


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