POSC 3300 Houston Community Women Rights Gender Inequalities Paper

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POSC 3300

Houston Community College System

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This is the Final Paper just to do the conclusion now and put everything together.

I will give you the comments or the feedback he gave for each documents, so that you know why to modify.

The final paper .

In the final paper, you need to provide:

– Introduction and research question. (1. You can use an example/case to illustrate the problem of gender inequality in the world.2. Please avoid using abbreviations such as "don't" in academic writing. – Literature review. )

– Theory and hypothesis(es). ( find your proposed hypotheses interesting, but am very confused with the third hypothesis, which seems to be biased. Please check whether that is the direction of your argument in line with the research you found. Meanwhile, please polish the flow of this section as well. )

– Research Design. (1. Please be more specific about the measurements of your dependent and independent variables, regarding their sources and how they are operationalized. To put it in a simple way, your independent variable is gender inequality, and your dependent variables are occupation preferences, education, and employment/unemployment. Please specify how they are measured. 2. Meanwhile, I do not see a clear sample selection process. Do you plan to conduct a survey? Who will be the potential respondents?)

– Discussion and Expectation.

– Bibliography/Reference.

The conclusion is just doing 1 page:

*resummary

*implication/ what you expect to find

*feedback

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Kone Nidian Dofere POSC 3300 Pr. Yao-Yuan Yeh January 31, 2020 Research Question The 21st century has ushered in a society where women's rights are respected in many places around the world, and the lives of many women have improved around the world. Despite this effort, there are still these places where there are women who do not enjoy the same rights as men in the places where they live. Current trends around the world indicate that more and more women are being freed and granted equal rights to men, while in other places women are still considered to be less than men (Basu, 2018). This is an important factor to consider because it means that more women will be left in poverty and will not be able to pursue their dreams, just as men in their categories could. It also seems there are some fights against women in countries such as Saudi Arabia to imprison any woman who campaigns for better women's rights. This contrast makes us really wonder why does some countries tend to promote women's emancipation and why some countries such as African countries still don’t? Where does this difference come from? This question is important because it brings to view the issues of many women all around the world that are unable to get equal rights as men despite all the development in different places. This question is essential to the many people that are in positions of power in different countries as well as on an international level. It is also an important factor for the United Nations as it strives to improve the lives of many people across all these different places. This question is also vital to the millions of women that are yet to get equal rights as men as a result of the places where they live and stay. The question is crucial because it will help me to investigate the causes of these issues and the most suitable solutions. References Basu, A. (2018). The challenge of local feminisms: Women's movements in global perspective. Routledge. Peters, J. S., & Wolper, A. (Eds.). (2018). Women's rights, human rights: International feminist perspectives. Routledge. Kone Nidian Dofere POSC 3300 Pr. Yao-Yuan Yeh March 27, 2020 Introduction Gender inequality has been an issue of concern in the world, where one gender has over time appeared to be having better life experiences as compared to the other. In this perspective, it is the gender that influences how individual lives and the various experiences that they go through. Some of the gender inequality and differences are a result of cultures, and so society plays a significant role in bringing about the disparities. Gender inequality is experienced in different spheres of life such as education, careers, jobs and employment, work experience, hours worked, breaks that occur in the course of employment, especially while giving birth, politics among others. This study will help in identifying various areas that need policy development for the enhancement of equality. Literature Review The society has always perceived males and females as two distinct people who are supposed to perform different roles. Different studies and research has been conducted to establish the truth of this matter. According to (Ridgeway, 2018), there has been persistence in gender inequality because gender has always been used in organizing social relations with others. He says that social processes do not consider the changes in society but keeps on promoting inequality and bias as well as gender stereotypes in different sectors. Job, employment and Labor Market There has been much inequality, especially in favor of men, when it comes to employment and jobs that they can be allowed to do. It also affects the terms and conditions, working hours, among other things. For example, according to (Kleven, Henrik, Camille Landais, & Jakob Egholt Søgaard. 2019), there are lower labor earnings for women from lower labor participation, lower hourly wage rates, and as well lower hours worked. The research they conducted, and by using data from Scandinavian countries explain that women face child penalty in earnings as compare to men. This penalty may be persistent up to 20 years after the first child is born and gives a good explanation of remaining gender inequality. They say that the difference in child penalties focuses on different government policies like taxes, transfers, family policies like parental leave, and the provision of childcare that affects the mother’s incentive to work. In Mozambique, an African country, there has been a widening gender gap over time, which has been attributed to low numbers of women in terms of human capital with less academic achievement and lower probabilities of employment for women in marriage as compared to men. (Gradín & Tarp, 2019). According to Gradín & Tarp (2019), women have low probability than men of working in upcoming non-subsistence sectors and the public sector. For women, they are more likely to be self-employed without employees or work as unpaid family workers. They also explain that, on average, women work for fewer hours than men and that women are more likely to have permanent jobs. Thus, the disparity in employment is more in subsistence sectors. In terms of working in different industries, (Tan, 2019) points out that in some industries such as construction industries, there is much experience of gender bias. According to Tan (2019), most of the factors that result in this is the cultural obstacles as well as resistance to change. The author points out that most females in the sector leave within the first five years of their careers as a result of restrained career progression and discrimination. Education In terms of education, there have always been many social and structural constraints that have been limiting women's education for long. Still, there have been changes that have turned around their opportunities in the last few decades, reducing the constraints. (Herd, Freese, Sicinski, Dominque, Mullan Harris, Wei & Hauser, 2019). In finding out the relationship between genetic and education attainment, they found out that this relationship was not as strong for women as for men. However, this relationship changed as women continued to age. According to Herd et al. (2019), the constraints hindering women from attaining education declined as gender relationship between genetics and attainment of education for women weakened. Proposed Theory on the Research Question The proposed theory to answer this research question will be the feminist perspective. This is because this theory seeks equality of both genders in all sectors of society, such as social, economic, and political. Researching with a feminist perspective in mind, especially on women’s work and participation in various activities, would rely on various assumptions that are related to their skills and experiences of women in other circumstances. The assumptions may be different depending on race, class, ethnicity, and age. This theory will well answer my research questions on disparities between men and women in employment and various sectors of employment, educational attainment, as well as participation in paid work or unpaid household work. (Allen, 2018). Deriving a testable hypothesis This is a statement that seeks to propose a possible solution or an answer to a particular situation. The importance of a testable hypothesis is that it can be proved through research or investigations on a specific issue. (Addlakha, 2017). In this research, the research question is on gender inequality in the world. In line with the feminist perspective, and the resources used for research the hypothesis will be as follows; • Cultural perspective is the primary determinant factor that affects gender participation in different roles. • Most women fail to secure employment because their educational attainment is low. • Most women like doing simple jobs like in the office, but don’t like doing hard jobs like construction. • Women have long faced barriers in education more than men. • Some women only do unpaid work at home and do not participate in paid employment. Females’ experiences and perspectives will help in challenging the hypothesis, either proving them correct or wrong. In my argument, gender inequality has been there for many years in different societies. This is the time when women were restricted from performing certain roles only, with men doing completely different roles. This was a result of cultures that promoted those stereotyping and bias. However, nowadays, this is becoming a thing of the past, as many efforts have been used to promote equality. Today, many women do jobs that were previously done by men, such as managerial roles and political roles. Culture is no longer a hindrance as the girl child has been advocated for with much success being experienced. However, there are still areas that experience strong gender inequalities in the world. References Addlakha, R. (2017). Unit-2 Scientific Method and its Critique. Allen, A. (2018). The power of feminist theory. Routledge. Gradín, C., & Tarp, F. (2019). Gender inequality in employment in Mozambique. South African Journal of Economics, 87(2), 180-199. Herd, P., Freese, J., Sicinski, K., Dominque, B. W., Mullan Harris, K., Wei, C., & Hauser, R. M. (2019). Genes, Gender Inequality, and Educational Attainment. American Sociological Review, 84(6), 1069-1098. Ridgeway, C. (2018). The Persistence of Gender Inequality. In Inequality in the 21st Century (pp. 417-421). Routledge. Running head: RESEARCH DESIGN 1 Kone Nidian Dofere POSC 3300 Pr. Yao-Yuan Yeh April 17, 2020 Gender Inequality in the World Introduction This refers to the strategy that will be used to integrate the different components of my study in a very logical and coherent way and which will effectively address the research problem or question about the gender inequalities in the world.in this case, this research design will have the blueprint for the collection, measurement, and analysis of data (Creswell & Creswell, 2017). In this research problem, a lot of research has been done before, where gender inequality has been seen as a significant challenge in many regions of the world over time, and where the male gender has been much privileged in different sectors of the society. Men have appeared superior, starting from social divisions, economic sectors, education, employment, and even in terms of roles and responsibilities. According to previous researches, culture has been at the center of these disparities, and thus this seeks to come up with ways of testing the hypothesis. The hypothesis is as follows; • Culture is the primary determinant factor that affects gender participation in different roles. • Most women fail to secure employment because their educational attainment is low. • Most women like doing simple jobs like in the office, but hate hard tasks such as in construction. • Women have long faced more barriers in education than men. RESEARCH DESIGN • 2 Some women only do unpaid work at home and do not participate in paid employment. Hypothesis testing, the unit of analysis and samples In the testing of the hypothesis, it seeks to find out whether the alternative review is correct. However, there are null hypotheses as follows; there is no significant relationship between culture and gender roles participation, and finally, there is no meaningful relationship between education level and employment for women. Before the formulation of the analysis plan, the testing of the hypothesis will involve the collection of data from the populations in specific areas, depending on the research question and the hypothesis to be tested (Meyer, Van Witteloostuijn & Beugelsdijk, 2017). It will be done as follows; Culture is the primary determinant factor that affects gender participation in different roles. In this hypothesis, we will seek to test it by collecting information by using various methods. The unit of analysis, in this case, will be individuals or groups of people. First, the target population will be women and men between the ages of 20 and 50 years, and this will be done using questionnaires. There will also be conducting interviews to ascertain and finally use quantitative methods to analyses the data. The target population will be in colleges, universities, and other higher learning institutions, working-class, as well as reliable data from gender organizations. The reason for choosing these clusters is because they are the most enlightened in the society. In the hypothesis, most women fail to secure employment because their educational attainment is low. However, there will be the conducting of research, by obtaining data from questionnaire and interviews, we will seek to combine data and information from available censuses as well as information from other surveys done either by public or private bodies. The reason for using censuses is because there is full information regarding education and the job and RESEARCH DESIGN 3 employment of individuals. We will thus be able to the level of disparity between the genders and the relationship between the variables using the qualitative method. In the testing of the hypothesis that most women like doing simple jobs like in the office, but hate hard jobs such as in construction, we will seek to find out whether indeed this is true or not, as well as investigating the obstacles that maybe there. We will get our samples from companies that offer services such as banks and hospitality companies, which will provide us with the data of their workers. We will also obtain data from hard job companies like the construction industries, in different locations to check on the level of percentage of each gender who work there. Besides that, there will be qualitative analysis by semi-structured interviews among the practitioners and workers from the industries mentioned above through a random sampling design or purposive sampling. In this, we will have a content analysis for all the responses of those who have been interviewed. Questionnaires will also be distributed in different places through simple random sampling, with the main target population being the youth of between 20 and 40 years who are currently in higher education or are already working. The data gathered using the questionnaires will then be analyzed by developing a coding system and entering the data and finally calculate the number of answers given for the different categories of each question. This basically will apply to all other hypothesis testing. Dependent and independent variables The independent variables are those that affect the dependent variables. They can always be adjusted by the experiment or research to test the results of the dependent variable. Thus, the dependent variable is the one being tested, and its outcome depends on the independent variable (Losh, 2017). In our research, there are various independent variables which include, education level, culture, education barriers, and self-interests, among others. In this case, and according to RESEARCH DESIGN 4 the stated hypothesis, the level of education in women determines whether they will secure employment or not, and which kind of job they do. Thus the level of employment is dependent on the level of education. Also, education barriers are independent variables that determine whether women get an education more or less than men; in this case, education being the dependent variable. Culture, on the other hand, has been seen as the primary cause and determinant of the roles that will be done by men and women, thus roles for the genders becoming the dependent variables. On the types of jobs loved by women, self-interest in simple tasks such as office jobs, makes women avoid hard jobs. Thus, self-interest is becoming the independent variable; the type of employment may be the dependent variable in this case. Therefore, in this case, we are only seeking to determine whether there is a significant relationship between these dependent and independent variables or not. Conclusion Research design is aimed at laying down the research procedure to address the research question or problem. The hypothesis needs to be tested to find out their authenticity and whether they hold or not. Sometimes there may be a significant relationship between the tested variables, thus making the hypothesis to be proved, but in other cases, the null hypothesis stands, where there is no significant relationship. The outlaid research design will help obtain data for analysis, thus testing our hypothesis. RESEARCH DESIGN 5 References Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications. Losh, S. C. (2017). Dependent, and Independent Variables. The Wiley‐Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Theory, 1-3. Meyer, K. E., Van Witteloostuijn, A., & Beugelsdijk, S. (2017). What’s in a p? Reassessing best practices for conducting and reporting hypothesis-testing research. Kone Nidian Dofere POSC 3300 Pr. Yao-Yuan Yeh February 21, 2020 Annotated Bibliography: Gender Inequality in the World Kleven, Henrik, Camille Landais, and Jakob Egholt Søgaard. 2019. "Children and Gender Inequality: Evidence from Denmark." American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 11 (4): 181-209. This study used the administrative data from Denmark to find out the impact of children on the labor market inequality in gender. According to research, a gender gap is created in the long run by the arrival of children. The gap is created in the earnings of around 20 percent, which is determined by the length of time worked, participation, and rates of wage. The research tried to identify the driving mechanisms of the penalties on women in terms of the type of work and where they work. The findings were, over the last few decades, child penalties caused some gender inequalities. These child penalties were transferred from one generation to the other, especially from the parents to their daughters, which suggested an effect of childhood environment on the specification of gender. This research is important in my work since it is outlining the disadvantages of the salary increase of women who give birth as compared to men. It provides accurate information about what happens in the employment sector and the labor market. Herd, P., Freese, J., Sicinski, K., Dominque, B. W., Mullan Harris, K., Wei, C., & Hauser, R. M. (2019). Genes, Gender Inequality, and Educational Attainment. American Sociological Review, 84(6), 1069-1098. The research was aimed at finding out the level of educational attainment, based on gender. The study also sought to identify if the social restrictions came as a restraining impact on hereditary indicators and if equalizing opportunities mean making the role of genetics equal. This study was carried out using three cohorts; Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (Year of birth 19391940), Health and retirement study, and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent health. (1975-1983). The study included a polygenic score for education attainment. The study found that, within the MLS cohort, there was a weaker relationship between genetics and education achievements for women as compared to men. However, this changed with time, with more women attending school, strengthening the connection between education and genetic factors for women as they grew older. This research is essential in my study as it gives an insight into the developments that are bridging the inequality gap and understanding that women opportunities have changed over the last century by the reduction of social and structural barriers that limits educational attainment for women Ridgeway, C. (2018). The Persistence of Gender Inequality. Inequality in the 21st Century (pp. 417-421). Routledge. The article looks at why gender inequality has become persistent over time, in many parts of the world, even in the 21st century. It explains that this has been the case because, in everyday life, people use gender as the means of organizing their social relations with others. This is a strong social process that brings gender inequality continually in new forms, even with the changes in society. By observing the occurrences in the society and at the individual level, gender stereotypes may lead to biases that bring about resistance to people in noticing information that is gender-inconsistent or view it as consistent. For example, from innovation sites, the argument makes different predictions about the extent of inequality that is likely to emerge. This article is important as it is helping me to understand the trend and factors that have resulted in the persistence of gender disparity in many societies, such as cultural beliefs. Gradín, C., & Tarp, F. (2019). Gender inequality in employment in Mozambique. South African Journal of Economics, 87(2), 180-199. In this research, the study was to investigate the employment gap based on gender in the Mozambique subsistence sector. The analysis was done on a regression-based technique as well as an analysis of differential employment probabilities. The information and data were obtained from budget estimations and census results. The finding was that employment rates were lower for women than for men. There was an increase in the gender gap by 1% between 1997 to 2007. This was due to engagement in housework, or being in school. The increase in the gender gap has been associated with low levels of female human capital, low-level education, and illiteracy. This research is vital in my work finding out the main challenge in employment disparity based on gender, especially in African countries, where girl education was not considered necessary traditionally, where many girls end up being housewives. Tan, H. Y. (2019). Gender Inequality in Construction Industry (Doctoral dissertation, Tunku Abdul Rahman University College). In the construction industry, there has been the existence of gender disparity since long ago and in many countries in the world. The research aimed at finding out the main challenges and obstacles that have resulted in gender disparity in the industry. It also seeks to determine whether the public believes that females can do well in such a sector. It also investigated whether girls and women were willing to participate in construction. The method used was qualitative analysis and questionnaires. According to the research, there is a considerable gap in the sector between males and females. This research is essential in helping me understand the different roles that are performed by men and women, and whether there are certain beliefs associated with them. It will help me in understanding gender inequality in various jobs, especially those seen as belonging to men References Gradín, C., & Tarp, F. (2019). Gender inequality in employment in Mozambique. South African Journal of Economics, 87(2), 180-199. Herd, P., Freese, J., Sicinski, K., Dominque, B. W., Mullan Harris, K., Wei, C., & Hauser, R. M. (2019). Genes, Gender Inequality, and Educational Attainment. American Sociological Review, 84(6), 1069-1098. Kleven, Henrik, Camille Landais, and Jakob Egholt Søgaard. 2019. "Children and Gender Inequality: Evidence from Denmark." American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 11 (4): 181-209. Ridgeway, C. (2018). The Persistence of Gender Inequality. In Inequality in the 21st Century (pp. 417-421). Routledge. Tan, H. Y. (2019). Gender Inequality in Construction Industry (Doctoral dissertation, Tunku Abdul Rahman University College).
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Kone Nidian Dofere
POSC 3300
Pr. Yao-Yuan Yeh
May 6th, 2020
Research Question
The 21st century has ushered in a society where women's rights are respected in many
places around the world, and the lives of many women have improved around the world. Despite
this effort, there are still these places where there are women who do not enjoy the same rights as
men in the places where they live. Current trends around the world indicate that more and more
women are being freed and granted equal rights to men, while in other places, women are still
considered to be less than men (Basu, 2018). This is an important factor to consider because it
means that more women will be left in poverty and will not be able to pursue their dreams, just
as men in their categories could. It also seems there are some fights against women in countries
such as Saudi Arabia to imprison any woman who campaigns for better women's rights. This
contrast makes us really wonder why do some countries tend to promote women's emancipation
and why some countries, such as African countries, still do not? Where does this difference come
from? This question is important because it brings to view the issues of many women all around
the world that are unable to get equal rights as men despite all the development in different
places.
This question is essential to the many people that are in positions of power in different
countries as well as on an international level. It is also an important factor for the United Nations
as it strives to improve the lives of many people across all these different places. A good
example can be found in different countries, such as the United States and Saudi Arabia. These

are two countries that have very different women's rights, and this can largely be attributed to the
difference in cultures in the two countries. This question is also vital to the millions of women
that are yet to get equal rights as men as a result of the places where they live and stay. The
question is crucial because it will help me to investigate the causes of these issues and the most
suitable solutions.
Annotated Bibliography: Gender Inequality in the World
Kleven, Henrik, Camille Landais, and Jakob Egholt Søgaard. 2019. "Children and Gender
Inequality: Evidence from Denmark." American Economic Journal: Applied
Economics, 11 (4): 181-209.
This study used the administrative data from Denmark to find out the impact of children
on the labor market inequality in gender. According to research, a gender gap is created in the
long run by the arrival of children. The gap is created in the earnings of around 20 percent, which
is determined by the length of time worked, participation, and rates of wage. The research tried
to identify the driving mechanisms of the penalties on women in terms of the type of work and
where they work. The findings were, over the last few decades, child penalties caused some
gender inequalities. These child penalties were transferred from one generation to the other,
especially from the parents to their daughters, which suggested an effect of childhood
environment on the specification of gender. This research is important in my work since it is
outlining the disadvantages of the salary increase of women who give birth as compared to men.
It provides accurate information about what happens in the employment sector and the labor
market.

Herd, P., Freese, J., Sicinski, K., Dominque, B. W., Mullan Harris, K., Wei, C., & Hauser,
R. M. (2019). Genes, Gender Inequality, and Educational Attainment. American
Sociological Review, 84(6), 1069-1098.
The research was aimed at finding out the level of educational attainment, based on
gender. The study also sought to identify if the social restrictions came as a restraining impact on
hereditary indicators and if equalizing opportunities mean making the role of genetics equal. This
study was carried out using three cohorts; Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (Year of birth 19391940), Health and retirement study, and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent health.
(1975-1983). The study included a polygenic score for education attainment. The study found
that, within the MLS cohort, there was a weaker relationship between genetics and education
achievements for women as compared to men. However, this changed with time, with more
women attending school, strengthening the connection between education and genetic factors for
women as they grew older. This research is essential in my study as it gives an insight into the
developments that are bridging the inequality gap and understanding that women opportunities
have changed over the last century by the reduction of social and structural barriers that limits
educational attainment for women
Ridgeway, C. (2018). The Persistence of Gender Inequality. Inequality in the 21st Century
(pp. 417-421). Routledge.
The article looks at why gender inequality has become persistent over time, in many parts
of the world, even in the 21st century. It explains that this has been the case because, in everyday
life, people use gender as the means of organizing their social relations with others. This is a
strong social process that brings gender inequality continually in new forms, even with the
changes in society. By observing the occurrences in the society and at the individual level,

gender stereotypes may lead to biases tha...


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