PHIL 100 UMUC Week 8 Stage 3 Importance of Courage and Truthfulness Paper

Phil 100 6380 Introduction To Philosophy

University of Maryland Global Campus


Question Description

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PHIL 100: PHIL 100 Final Project Stage 3: Arguing your Philosophical Claim (20% of overall grade)

For the Final Project stage 3 you will present the answer to your philosophical question in the form of a speech. You will write this speech on a Word .docx to submit. You can also supplement your written speech by recording yourself saying it on an .mp3. but this is optional.

Your speech will take the form of what is known as the Classical Style:

The Classical Style is divided into four (4) parts:

(1) The Introduction and Narration: In the first part of the classical style, you, as the speaker, introduce the question that is going to be answered by making the speech relevant to the audience. You can do this by contextualizing the speech and narrating the problem that the question brings. Philosophers often use narration, stories, analogies, and events to introduce problems or controversies that the question elicits. Common devices for introducing philosophical questions to an audience are: "Have you ever asked this question?" or "Many people have debated this topic." The aim of the first part is to make the audience feel comfortable before beginning the argument proper. The more relevant the introduction is to the audience, the better the argument. A very short introduction will not be persuasive, but neither will an overly long one.

(2) Arguments supporting your Claim: In the second part of the classical style, you present your arguments and evidence to back up or substantiate the main points of your claim. Your arguments and evidence are connected together in a chain of reasoning that link the facts and examples, and testimony that support the arguments you are making. Remember, it's important to faithfully present the arguments of the philosopher(s) you are studying in order to bolster your claim. When presenting your arguments, it is most persuasive to present your best argument and evidence first, your worst argument and evidence second and your middle argument and evidence third (if you have one). You have already done this step in the Final Project stage 2 assignment. Now, put your arguments and evidence into a convincing speech.

(3) Addressing the Counter-Claim: In the third part of the classical style, you concede and/or refute the arguments that support the counter-claim. The aim of the classical style is to persuade, and your persuasion will be more effective if you take into account these arguments: "Some people say this....but they are wrong because of XYZ" etc. You can anticipate and respond to objections before they are stated, or concede a particular point in order to make another point stronger (as long as you don't undercut your main claim). You have already identified the arguments that support the counter claim in your Final Project Stage 2 assignment. Now, address these arguments in your speech; your strongest refutation first, your weakest refutation second, and your middling refutation third (if you have one).

(4) Conclusion: In the fourth part of the classical style, you tie everything together, creating a sense of finality or closure to the question, convincing the audience that the question or problem stated in the Introduction has been answered. Often, speakers will include an emotional or ethical appeal in the conclusion in order to help sway the audience to their opinion.

There is no minimum word count or minimum time for your written or oral speech. Your speech will instead be graded on the elements of the Classical Style and your speech's overall persuasiveness.

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Final Answer

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Which is more important for a person to possess, courage, or truthfulness?
Every decision made to overcome fear must be accompanied by a genuine evaluation of
the availability of risk and resources. Courage is defined as the power of an individual to stand
against fear. Most acts that people consider as courageous are as a result of some reflection. Few
people are likely to be challenged with such kind of life-threatening decisions. Fears, which are
faced by people, are, generally long-term. Courage...

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