Eric Fisher Academy Levels of Education Inequality in China and Japan Paper

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Levels of Education Inequality in China and Japan Sara AlGhofaily Introduction: The Research Question • • • • Why does China experience higher levels of education inequality than Japan? Dependent variable: income and gender inequality. Japan and China have a close geographical proximity. However, the two are very different, with distinctive historic, political, and social features. The Research Question Cont. • Education inequality in experienced in several countries in the world, both developing and developed. • Multiple levels are responsible for the existence of educational disparity. • These divisions are based on gender, geographical locations, as well as ethnicity. • Such variations are witnessed based on how educational resources are distributed nationwide and also the available levels of education (Rist, 2018). • Understanding why this happen may help to prevent it. Background section ( evidence ) • The division that exists between the rural and urban as well as social stratification are the leading causes of education inequality. • The problem of education inequality in China is closely related to Chinese history. • Following the Chinese Revolution of 1949, significant disparities in education confronted the communist government (Song, 2011). • Japan has a more equitable distribution of funds with teachers paid by both the national government and prefectural government. Hypotheses and Theory • Several regions of China still experience gender inequality. • Studies have proved that there is a higher gender disparity in education in rural areas compared to education in urban areas. • Since 1981, the rural illiteracy rate of females has often doubled that of males, even though the illiteracy rate has decreased in rural regions (Song, 2011). Hypotheses and Theory Cont. • The continuing rise in income inequality in China undermines education expansion. • Income inequality prevents the development of education to rural areas and thus facilitates education inequality. • The urban migrant families are forced to pay hefty tuition fees in private schools because their children are often not admitted in public schools. • Education inequality often causes most low-income families to educate only the males and leave girls behind which consequently fuels gender inequality (Wu, 2013). Education Inequality in China Japan Experiences Lower Education Inequality • All areas in Japan have well-equipped schools regardless of their wealth. • Hiring of teachers in Japan is not carried out by individuals schools but rather prefectures. • The salaries of teachers are paid by national government instead of being based on area`s median household earnings (Semuels, 2017). • The education system in Japan is designed in such a way that it provides equal opportunity nation wide. Causes of Education Inequality in China 1. Hokou system • in the early 1950s, the hokou system made sure that the population of China was assigned into urban and rural areas. • This helped in enhancing inequalities regarding health, employment, housing, and education. • The education policy was further complicated when individuals of ruralhukou status were allowed to stay in urban areas where they worked without having to change their hukou designation (Rist, 2018) 2. Decentralization Policy • The policy ensured that rapid income growth was capitalized through funding of education from non-governmental sources. • Families were forced to settle for high fees and tuition which resulted in schools having to change into surcharges and funding themselves through social contributions. • The students from low-income families could only acquire education through state subsidies, even though the most impoverished families didn`t receive it. Conclusion • Education inequality is a critical problem facing the economy of China compared to that of Japan. • Gender equity promotion is also being conducted to make sure that all individuals have equal access to education. • There are efforts to restructure the household registration system, hukou system, to make sure that the children of the rural-urban immigrants are not prevented from receiving education in urban areas. • Several strategies have been laid out to combat income disparity. Questions ? Paper Guide Nature of the research questions: Students must ask a causal question. They may not ask mainly predictive questions or offer normative essays. Prediction and normative thoughts may be minor aspects of the project and contained in the conclusions but may not be the main focus of the paper. Page length: The paper must be between 15 and 20 pages long. Paper Style: • • • • • • The paper must use footnote citations. Citations must follow the Chicago Manual of Style format. The font for the paper should be Calibri 11 point. The paper must be double-spaced and must have page numbers. Obviously, the paper must be typed. Un-typed papers will not be accepted. Paper must be handed in as a hard copy. Each research project must focus on the following questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. What is the dependent variable? Why is this an important dependent variable? Why study these case(s)? Is it a most similar systems or most different systems study (for comparative politics)? What are the hypotheses? Which theories support the hypotheses? Does the empirical evidence found support or refute the hypotheses? Does the set of findings weaken or strengthen a particular line of thinking in comparative politics or international relations theory? 9. What modifications could be made to the theory that would strengthen it? 10. What other research questions are raised by the study? IMPORTANT: How to think about starting your paper! When starting the process of thinking about your paper, think in broad theoretical terms. Do not start by thinking about the specifics of the country or case that are exploring but think the dependent variable as an abstract category. For example, the case below is about why Pakistan has military coups and India does not. So, the first thing you should think about is the general question: Why do countries have military coups? Look then to the theoretical literature that 1 generally deals with the issue of why countries have coups. This literature and your own logic will be able to help you develop hypotheses about why countries have coups or do not have coups. Your hypotheses should be general then and not historical or very country-specific. So, the case of Pakistan and India some hypotheses could be: H1: Countries that have militaries that are most powerful institution in the country are more likely to have coups that countries where the military is weaker than other institutions. H2: Countries where the civilian authorities have governed so badly that have de-legitimized themselves in the eyes of the public are more likely to have military coups that in countries where the civilian authorities have not de-legitimized themselves. H3: Countries where there is very deep sense of an internal or external security threat are more likely to have military coups than in countries where that sense of threat is not present. Each one of these hypotheses has to be based on a theoretical logic! What would be the theoretical logic behind each one of these hypotheses? Think about this yourself as practice for doing it in your paper. In most cases, the literature on the general topic you are exploring will have theory you can use for you hypotheses. But in some cases, you will have to develop the theory and hypotheses yourself. That is fine! Outline for the Paper I. Introduction: The Research Question • • • General statement of the research question. It must be a causal question! Example: Why has Pakistan had several military coups since 1947 but India has not had one? Dependent variable: incidence of coups. Why are you picking the case or cases that you are? Example: India and Pakistan were created out of the same country in 1947 so it is an interesting case of how two parts of the same country have diverged quite significantly. It is a very good example of a most similar systems analysis. Also, these two countries have a great deal of geostrategic significance so understanding their politics is very important. Importance of the problem: Why is it interesting? Why is it significant? Example: Military coups are a fairly common phenomenon around the world and challenge democratic governance and norms. Understanding why they happen may help to prevent them. 2 II. Background Section (for those who need to describe the dependent variable in depth) • • • Some of you will need to give background in order to make the reader aware of what your dependent variable looks like. Example: What have the coups in Pakistan looked like over the years? When have they happened, were they violent, not violent, etc? What does the military look like in Pakistan as opposed to India? Are the similarly structured, financed, have the same civilian command authority? Are they defined differently by the constitution? This is NOT a section to answer your research question! This is meant to help your reader understand what your dependent variable looks like and what the context of the situation your dependent variable occurs in looks like. For quantitative papers, this is a place for graphs to show the variation in your dependent variable. III. Hypotheses and Theory • • • • • This is a critical element of your paper. Make sure you define all relevant variables (independent/dependent). Example: The dependent variable in the hypothetical example is the incidence of coups. A hypothesis is a causal statement. Variable A causes Variable B. Example: Very weak civilian government legitimacy raises the probability of military coups. Theory is the explanation of causation. It is based on your own logic or from the literature of a mixture of both. Theory is logical and general and based on deductive and not inductive reasoning and not patterns of findings from the empirical word. Theory has to explain why an independent variable would cause a variation (coup or no coup) in the dependent variable. It is not “we have found that when A happens, B tends to happen too.” That is not an explanation of causation. Example: Militaries may displace delegitimized civilian governments in order to keep order in the country and prevent the outbreak of violence. As militaries are charged with maintaining the national security of a country, they may believe that civilian government breakdown is a threat to national security and they are compelled to step in. Each hypothesis must be backed by theory. There is no “golden rule” on the number of hypotheses you should have. If there is only one plausible hypothesis, then the question is not worthy of study. So, there should be at least two. Make sure you only create hypotheses that can have theoretical explanations and not be easily dismissed because they are logically impossible. 3 • IV. Each hypothesis should have its own sub-section with its relevant theory in that section and the “tests” that you will use to determine whether the hypothesis is supported or refuted by the evidence. Example: For the “delegitimized civilian government hypothesis,” you would say that you would look for evidence that indicates that the army believes that the government is delegitimized in the eyes of the public, and has expressed concern about the internal instability that may result from that. If there is ample evidence that the army has expressed that it is seen the delegitimization of the civilian government and is concerned about it, this would be support for the hypothesis. This could take the form of public statements by important army figures, documents they have produced, etc. If there is no indication that the military perceives the situation that way, than that would evidence to say that the hypothesis is not supported. Evidence     II. Identify what events, institutions, or people you plan to investigate. Does the empirical evidence refute or support each of your hypotheses? Be explicit and thorough about that for each of the hypotheses. Structure your evidence sub-sections the same way you have structured your hypotheses/theory sections. Make sure that at the end of each section, you make an analytical judgement about what the evidence has told you. Does the weight of the evidence support or refute the hypothesis? Be very clear why you say that. Conclusion • • • • • What was your aim in the research? This should be a paragraph-length summary. What were the major arguments (hypotheses and theories) you explored? This should be a paragraph or two summary. What were your major findings? If you have more than one hypothesis that is supported by the evidence, which is the most powerful predictor of the dependent variable? Why is that the case? This may be a paragraph or two summary. What are implications of your research? For policy? For political science? Does your research raise any other research questions for others to explore? 4
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Comparative Politics:
Levels of Education Inequality in China and Japan

Course Title

Surname 1


Introduction: The Research Question
The research question that will be addressed in this paper is; Why does China experience high

levels of education inequality than China? The dependent variable will primarily deal with income and
gender inequality. Japan and China have close not only geographical proximity but also share several
similarities. For instance, in the 19th Century, Japan and China have some similarities but also different
responses to a lot of things and a lot of ideas that the Chinese accepted or rejected from any nearby
countries or even from the United States1. During that Century, China accepted ideas, traditions, and
things from nearby countries and the United States. But they also took things that were not accepted
with gracious terms or were happy about it either; they also rejected certain things from other countries
in the 19th Century. One example of China not happily accepting something was from the British called
the Opium trade. However, the opium trade was introduced to China by the Turkish and Arabs first
before Britain around the 6th to the 7th Century. Because of this, the trade soon went to silver being
exported out of China is vastly massive amounts. After a while of trading with Britain on silver, they soon
realized that they were not profiting from it, and Britain was getting profit and making use of the profit
they get from it. In 1839 China rejected any further trade with Britain in the opium trade2. Because
China rejected the opium trade, Britain proclaimed war with China, and unfortunately, China lost the
However, as for Japan, they had no problem trading with any westerners. This is all because, in
the 19th Century, the Japanese did not have any possession of materials or products that anyone from
the West desired at that time. The difference between Japan and China is the fact that China didn't have


Li, Frank. 2014. "Human History: China Vs. Japan". Blog. Econintersect.
Rist, Gilbert. 2019. The History Of Development: From Western Origins To Global Faith (Development Essentials).
5th ed. London: Zed Books.

Surname 2
raw materials and wasn't into technology as Japan was3. China had a little to none of the products that
would be considered desired, but that was nine times out of ten took to the empire because of political
interests or from any foreign economy.
Now, it's different from Japan and China, along with the trading to the United States. Japan and
China have taken different paths in the economy today and from years ago with trades with each other
and with other countries and the United States. Trade with Japan died down for a long time when Japan
hit a huge recession that lasted for a while4. Unfortunately for Japan, they are still feeling repercussions
from that recession and are slowly coming back. Meanwhile, in China, their trade with other countries
along with the United States has grown bigger, making them one of the biggest trading countries to
From the rejected materials and trades to the accepted trades and materials, it seems that
China has made it out to be one of the biggest trading countries but also one of the poorest as well.
Meanwhile, in Japan, they still have to rebuild from the prolonged recession they suffered years ago.
Even though they disagreed with each other's decisions and trades, they still head-on and traded with
each other but not very often like they did with the western countries.
Besides, the two countries show a close connection to their efforts to respond to growing
European and American power. That is because, in the 19th Century, China and Japan were left with few
options and forced to respond to the growing and to expand European and American power. The
pressure on China and Japan was significant and required a response in some way, shape, or form. The
influence, in particular, was regarding the foreign-trade relationship between nations. The industrial
revolution which had been taking place in the West was what caused the inequalities between forces
and required action to level the playing field. China believed to be superior to all other countries, which


Li, Frank. 2014. "Human History: China Vs. Japan". Blog. Econintersect.

Surname 3
is what isolated them from the foreign trade movement, thus continuing the Chinese's intentions to
follow a staunchly traditional society5. Japan and the Meiji emperor were considered weak and lacked
many things that were needed to maintain a healthy economy. They lacked technology, military forces,
and were not in a perfect state at the time. European and American powers generated treaties to
control and further limit Japan and the trade between foreign countries.
China and Japan were both impacted similarly by the growth of western power coming from
Europe and America; however, their responses were handled entirely differently. China continued with
its traditional beliefs and values, whereas Japan took a newer strategy by deciding to follow
westernization, and those harmonized their culture with the traditions of the West6. The traditions
within Chinese culture were so thoroughly engraved within their direct environment that many of the
Chinese neglected even to acknowledge a change in power between countries.
Japan chose an alternative route with westernization and began to be open and comply with
new foreign adaptations. This was smart on Japan's behalf because opening up to different cultures
meant also receiving new technological and military advancements, which were very much needed to
maintain a healthy economic standpoint while keeping in touch with political and social needs within
society7. Japan's response will also help with playing a role in the influence of western society if need be.
China's response was more competitive in terms of influence because they weren't entirely involved
with the West, so their only option for influence would be to resist European and American power to try
and attain advances in their economy. While Japan was busy with western modernization
(westernization), China remained unable to depart from their influences entirely.


Rist, Gilbert. 2019. The History Of Development: From Western Origins To Global Faith (Development Essentials).
5th ed. London: Zed Books.
Li, Frank. 2014. "Human History: China Vs. Japan". Blog. Econintersect.
Rist, Gilbert. 2019. The History Of Development: From Western Origins To...

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