Two identical brothers were raised in the same household by parents who strive to treat them equally, essay help

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Two identical brothers were raised in the same household by parents who strive to treat them equally. One brother grows up to be a successful attorney and the other grows up to be an unemployed petty criminal. in their senior years, the prosperous citizen enjoys tranquil aging with his family and grandchildren while the other dies in despair years earlier. How might a psychologist begin to address this paradox? how do you think Kohlberg, Erikson, Piaget and other development psychologists explain this issue?

due date: June 30. Chapter 10

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Introducing Psychology Second Edition Schacter · Gilbert · Wegner Development Chapter 10 Prepared by Melissa S. Terlecki, Ph.D. Cabrini College, PA Development Developmental psychology: the study of continuity and change across the life span Prenatality Infancy and Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Prenatality: A Womb With a View There are three prenatal stages (from conception to birth). Germinal stage: the 2-week period that begins at conception o Zygote: a fertilized egg that contains chromosomes from both a sperm and an egg Embryonic stage: the period of prenatal development that lasts from the 2nd week until about the 8th week Fetal stage: the period of prenatal development that lasts from the 9th week until birth o Myelination: the formation of a fatty sheath around the axons of a neuron Prenatal Environment The womb is an environment that influences development in a multitude of ways. The placenta is the organ that links the bloodstream of the mother to the unborn baby, which permits the exchange of materials. o Foods and substances a mother intakes affects development. o Teratogens: agents that damage the process of development, such as drugs and viruses. o Fetal alcohol syndrome: a developmental disorder that stems from heavy alcohol use by the mother during pregnancy. Infancy and Childhood: Becoming a Person Infancy: the stage of development that begins at birth and lasts between 18 and 24 months Newborns have poor sight, but habituate to visual stimuli. Newborns are attentive to social stimuli and can mimic facial expressions within the first hour of life. Infancy and Childhood: Becoming a Person Newborns must strengthen their muscles and work on motor development. o Motor development: the emergence of the ability to execute physical action o Reflexes: specific patterns of motor response that are triggered by specific patterns of sensory stimulation; these are innate The development of sophisticated behaviors follows two rules: o Cephalocaudal rule: the “top-to-bottom” rule that describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the head to the feet o Proximodistal rule: the “inside-to-outside” rule that describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the center to the periphery Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor stage (birth-2 yrs.): infants acquire information about the world by sensing it and moving around within it.  Object permanence: the idea that objects continue to exist even when they are not visible  Research on the impossible event shows children may learn this earlier than originally proposed. Preoperational stage (2-6 yrs.): children have a preliminary understanding of the physical world. Concrete operational stage (6-11 yrs.): children learn how various actions or operations can affect or transform concrete objects.  Conservation: the notion that the quantitative properties of an object are invariant despite changes in the object’s appearance. Formal operational stage (11 yrs.adulthood): children can solve nonphysical problems; abstract thinking. Table 10.1 Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive Development Social Development Harry Harlow (1905-1981) conducted attachment experiments with baby rhesus monkeys. Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989) discovered imprinting in newly hatched goslings. John Bowlby (1907-1990) argued that infants innately channel signals to primary caregivers to form attachment. Attachment: the emotional bond that forms between newborns and their primary caregivers (secure, avoidant, ambivalent, and disorganized attachment styles) Temperaments: characteristic patterns of emotional reactivity Mother sensitivity and responsiveness matter in subsequent children’s attachment style. When Mom’s Away A majority of mothers now work and entrust their children’s care to someone else. o Effects on attachment? A longitudinal study showed that nonmaternal daycare had little effect on mother– child attachment. o However, infants who had insensitive or unresponsive mothers and who had poorquality daycare for more than 10 hours a week were especially likely to be insecurely attached. Moral Development Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987) developed a theory of three stages in moral development (based on responses to moral dilemmas): Preconventiona l stage (childhood): a stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is primarily determined by its consequences for the actor. Conventional stage (adolescence): a stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is primarily determined by the extent to which it conforms to social rules. Postconventional stage (adults): a stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is determined by a set of general principles that reflect core values. • Reasoning may differ under different circumstances. • Not all people will reach the postconventional stage. Adolescence: Minding the Gap Adolescence: the period of development that begins with the onset of sexual maturity (about 11-14 years of age) and lasts until the beginning of adulthood (about 18-21 years of age) Puberty: the bodily changes associated with sexual maturity o Primary sex characteristics: bodily structures that are directly involved in reproduction o Secondary sex characteristics: bodily structures that change dramatically with sexual maturity but that are not directly involved in reproduction o The brain also changes (connections multiply between the temporal and parietal lobes, and proliferation and pruning in the prefrontal cortex is observed). Parents and Peers Adolescence marks a shift in emphasis from family relations to peer relations. o Adolescents can choose their peers, but not their parents. o As adolescents strive for autonomy, parents rebel. Parent–child conflicts aren’t as pervasive or severe as many believe. Peer relationships evolve and “peel off.” Peer pressure forms but has less influence as we age. Adulthood: Going Happily Downhill Adulthood: the stage of development that begins around age 18 to 21 and ends at death Abilities and heath peak in the 20s and begin to deteriorate between 26 and 30 years onward. Physical changes lead to psychological consequences (cognitive decline). o The prefrontal cortex deteriorates most quickly (affecting different types of memory). o Older brains can compensate by calling on other neural structures (less bilateral asymmetry in older adults). ...
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Final Answer


Personality Development
Institutional Affiliation




In many respects, identical brothers have distinct personalities even if they share the same
genetic makeup. Previously it has been a mystery to behavioral geneticists how such individual
differences emerge even where the children have been brought up in the same environment.
However, today scientists have discovered how life experiences can have an effect on the
development of the brain and thus explaining how differences in personality evolve.
Scientifically, phenotype should not be the right term to refer to monozygotic twins
owing to among other rea...

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