Harvard School of Science GRPA Mordernization Act Strategic Plan Discussion

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1. Strikes? When a public sector union does not have the right to strike, what options does it have to force the agency to listen to its demands? 2. What is leadership? 3. Types of budgets? Four dimensions of public budget? Define and explain 4. Types of Leadership? 5. Monetary policy? 6. What is mediation, Arbitration, and unions 7. Representative Bureaucracy? 8. The proposition that some people have unique leadership characteristics and qualities that enable them to assume responsibilities not everyone can execute is advanced by which theory? Please define and explain this theory 9. What is social equity? 10. What is program evaluation? Please define and explain the tern 11. What are the two steps in the performance audit chain? Please identify and explain 12. Define and explain the term for a job requirement that would be discriminatory and illegal if it was not necessary for the performance of a particular job. 13. The type of audit that is conceptually a part of a control system that focuses on the inputs or resources used in administration, not the outputs or results? Please identify and explain 14. Policy analysis and program evaluation? Criteria for program evaluations? Vocab/Terms forecasting Balanced budgets accounting Fiscal policy program evaluation. the spoils system. veterans' preference. The Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972: Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 transformational transactional contingency micromanagement over management the theories of leadership and types of leadership styles expert power trait reward power Efficiency evaluations five major bases of power suggested by French and Raven Pendleton Act of 1883. Social equity line-item budget. audit. cost-benefit analysis. integrated budget. The Government Accountability Office compliance audit. performance audit. internal audit. financial audit. a comprehensive audit. heroic leader: entrepreneurialism. impasse three standards against which a program can be evaluated training methods and types of trainings The organization responsible for oversight of federal labor management relations stages of the collective bargaining process workplace intolerance toward those who are different representative bureaucracy discrimination and different types of discrimination Evaluating Public Programs Program evaluation is a way of bringing to public decision-makers the available knowledge about a problem, about the relative effectiveness of past and current strategies for addressing or reducing that problem, and about the observed effectiveness of programs. Evaluating Public Programs Evaluation must be tailored to the political and organizational context of the program to be evaluated. The assessment should look into: The need for the program The design of the program The program implementation and service delivery The program impact or outcomes Program efficiency Accurate description of program performance and assessment against relevant standards or criteria. . The Audit The audit is any independent examination or objective assessment of an organization. In all cases and audit connotes comparison with some standard. In public administration, the audit refers to two very common activities: It examines a financial report to determine whether it accurately represents expenditures, deductions, and other legal requirements. It is the final phase of a government budgetary process. It reviews the operations of an agency to see whether it has spent its funds in accordance with the laws in an efficient manner. What Auditors Do Organizations have auditors whose basic task is to certify that financial accounts are correct. New applications of auditing have evolved beyond this traditional meaning. Thus it is possible to have: OMB Guidance 230.1 What is an agency Strategic Plan? The GPRA Modernization Act (2010) aligns strategic planning with the beginning of each new term of an Administration, requiring every federal agency to produce a new Strategic Plan by the first Monday in February following the year in which the term of the president commences. The Strategic Plan, therefore, presents the long-term objectives an agency hopes to accomplish at the beginning of each new term of an Administration by describing Evaluations Evaluations take place within the discipline or paradigm in which they are conducted. These paradigms can vary widely. The standards, however, must reflect the fundamental questions that must be answered of any program.
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Running head: QUESTIONS





1. When a public-sector union does not have the right to strike, what opinions does it
have to force the agency to listen to its demands?
When a public-sector union has no legal right to conduct strikes, then it can use other
collective bargaining methods such as mediation and arbitration. Mediation is a process through
which a union tries to settle disputes with the agency through the use of a mediator. The mediator
offers advice to the two conflicting parties, but they have a right to reject the advice. The
mediator must hold persuasion skills and must use active efforts to assist the conflicting parties
to make clear the issues at hand, ask appropriate questions, and make certain requests in order to
reach an agreement. On the other hand, arbitration is the process of conflict resolution that
involves a third party; here, formal hearings are held, and the two parties are expected to lay
down issues and seek a way out. Arbitration can be compulsory arbitration or binding arbitration.
In compulsory arbitration, the two parties are mandated by law to come to an agreement. Binding
arbitration is the most common in conflict resolutions, especially when the union is not permitted
to strike.
2. What is leadership?
Leadership is the act of exercising authority while guiding and organizing people in
certain activities to achieve specific goals. Leadership can either be formal or informal. A good
leader is one who is able to exercise authority in both formal and informal set up. Formal means
that he can exercise authority in official ranks. Informal leadership means that people specifically
choose the person to lead them because they see that he holds certain qualities making him fit to
lead them. A leader is different from a manager. A manager has to have a high position in an
organization, but a leader is not defined by his position in an organization but his ability to
interact and lead people. He must earn trust from the people he is leading for them to view him



as their leader. Therefore, a leader must have skills such as self-confidence, good communication
skills, integrity, drives, and empathy to be able to lead others.
3. Types of budget? Four dimensions of public budgets? Define and explain
There are different types of budget, including multi-year budgets, unified budgets, and
integrated budgets. A multi-year budget is a combination of budgets for more than one year. A
unified budget is a budget that entails a combination of federal and trust fund's receipts. An
integrated budget is one that all the financial statements such as the balance sheet, income
statements, and cash flows are integrated. The public budget is a political, managerial,
economical and accounting instrument. It is a political instrument because it is useful in the
distribution of the available public resources to meet the needs of a certain location. The public
budget is a manageria...

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