LING 102 University of Hawaii at Manoa Phrase Structure Trees Project

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Humanities

LING 102

University of Hawaii at Manoa

LING

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Activity 13: English Phrase Structure Name:______________ Directions: Either draw in the Phrase Structure Trees by hand and scan and upload the document or use the Syntax Tree Generator: http://mshang.ca/syntree/ to create PNG files which can be dropped into the Word document. English Phrase Structure Rules S → NP (Aux) VP VP → V NP (PP)* (Adv) NP → Det (Adj)* N (PP)* VP → V NP NP (PP)* (Adv) NP → (Det) (Adj)* Nmass/Npl (PP)* VP → V (PP)* (Adv) NP → {Proper Noun, Pronoun} VPcop → Vbe {NP, ADJ, PP} PP → P NP VP → V NP CP CP → Comp S VP → V CP (ADV) Structural Ambiguity: Given the above Phrase Structure Rules for English, 1. draw two Phrase Structure Trees for the following ambiguous sentence. For each tree, give a corresponding unambiguous paraphrase of the meaning of the sentence to demonstrate or draw a picture to depict the meaning. 2. Luke killed the Sith1 with the red lightsaber2. (A) Write one paraphrase here OR draw a picture to depict the meaning: (B) Write the other paraphrase here OR draw a picture to depict the meaning. __________________________________ ___________________________________ Tree A : Luke killed the sith with the red lightsaber. Tree B : Luke killed the sith with the red lightsaber 1 2 Sith: noun. A member of an alien species who has embraced the dark side of the Force. Lightsaber: noun. the high frequency laser beam weapon of the Star Wars universe -1- -2- 3. Given the English Phrase Structure Rules above, generate Phrase Structure Trees for the following sentences a. Jabba the Hut3 swallowed it on Tuesday. b. Those ewoks4 are cute. c. Princess Leia had given Han Solo her heart. d. The stormtrooper5 died dramatically. 3 Jabba the Hut: a large, slug-like alien gangster. Ewok: a hunter-gatherer resembling a teddy bear that inhabits the forest moon of the planet Endor. 5 Stormtrooper: a member of the elite special force loyal to the Emperor Palpatine. -34 Embedded Sentences. Diagram the following sentence using the English Phrase Structure Rules that are listed at the top and bottom of the page. I told her that I dreamed that I arrived late. English Phrase Structure Rules S → NP (Aux) VP VP → V NP (PP)* (Adv) NP → Det (Adj)* N (PP)* VP → V NP NP (PP)* (Adv) NP → (Det) (Adj)* Nmass/Npl (PP)* VP → V (PP)* (Adv) NP → {Proper Noun, Pronoun} VPcop → Vbe {NP, ADJ, PP} PP → P NP VP → V NP CP CP → Comp S VP → V CP (ADV) -4-
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Running Head: PHRASE TREE STRUCTURES

Assignment on Phrase Tree Structures Using English Phrase Structure Rules
Institution
Name

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PHRASE TREE STRUCTURES

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Phase tree structures and phrase-structure rules:
In linguistics, phrase tree structure, or a tree diagram is a depiction of the syntax of a sentence in
the form of a tree that is inverted with ternary branches (Wang, 2010). Each node of the tree
represents the type of phrase present. Examples of phrases that can be identified from sentences
include; noun phrases (NP), verb phrases (VP), adverbial phrases (AdvP), and prepositional
phrases (PP) (TheTrevTutor, 2018).
The structure of the tree diagram depends on the type of sentence being analyzed and the English
phrase structure rules. In this assignment, examples of phrase tree structures are going to be
formed for a simple sentence structure, compound sentence structure, and the complex sentence
structure.
...


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