Biol 1407 - Lab 2 Exercises - Evolution

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BIO 1407 – Lab 2 – Evolution An Introduction to Evolution This unit on Evolution is big which you have probably summarized from the amount of lecture material. Coming off of a rather small unit - Ecology - you may be like ... GULP! No worries friends. Evolution is big because the majority of your learning outcomes for this course come from this unit. Which means that we will take some time to discover it. Below is a link to a Power Point that will give you an introduction to the lab portion of our evolution unit. • PowerPoint - Caption for narrations available in the notes section Link to Evolution Intro Power Point After you have watched this intro, please head into the individual lab files to begin your exploration. EXERCISE #1 Below is a link to a Power Point that will give you an introduction this lab exercise. The introduction will provide you with important context for conducting this lab as well as clearly identify the objectives for this lab. • PowerPoint - Caption for narrations available in the notes section Link to Fossils and Skulls Power Point For this lab you will need: • • A tape measure or some form or measuring device. A measuring tape (like they use in clothing stores) is probably best, a tape measure (like for construction) will work, or if all you have is a ruler you can use a piece of string and then use the ruler to measure the length of string. As long as your measurements are consistent, this should work don't spend money on this lab! Making no assumptions about your math abilities, you may require a calculator Part 1 - Fossil Type Analysis For the first part of this lab • Review and record notes on the five different fossil types (see intro PPT) • Review and record notes on the steps to fossilization. Part 2 - Skull Analysis - Observations and Comparisons For the second part you will be observing some images of some skull types. You can see the types of comparative analysis on the following Power Point: Link to Skull Analysis Power Point. By reviewing the power point you should have some idea of how anthropologist and biologists can look at skulls to make assumptions about the specimens. You may be asked to draw your own conclusion on the end of unit assessment, so be sure you understand what you looked at. Part 3 - Cephalic Index Recall from you introduction to this unit that we can compare skulls by getting a cranial index (on non-living specimens) or cephalic index (on living specimens). For this part of the exercise we will be creating a database of the cephalic (I hope it isn't cranial) of the people in our class. Directions: Measure your own skull from side to side - your skull width. Do not include your ears. Record that measurement as your cranial breadth (CB). Measure your own skull from front to back - your skull length. Do not include your nose. Record that measurement as your cranial length (CL). Calculate your cephalic index (CI) by using the following formula: C.I.=(C.B./C.L.)*100 Then go to this linked Google Form and enter in your value for calculation. Then select the link that says "See previous responses" You will want to collect some of the data from your classmates and come up with something that is a "class average." We understand that this number will vary as more data pours in, but this is just to get an idea of what is out there. Organize your data like this: Cephalic Index: Your Cephalic index ___________ How many students' values did you use (in research this is called the sample size and is denoted with an "n" for our purposes n must be > 10) ___________ Your Calculated Average (divide the sum of the values by "n" ___________ Range (this is simply listing the lowest value and the highest value or the distance between them): _____________________ Mode (this the most frequently occurring value - if you "n" is small you may not have a mode): _____________________ Save this data - you may be called upon by your lab instructor to provide your values! EXERCISE #2 Below is a link to a Power Point that will give you an introduction this lab exercise. The introduction will provide you with important context for conducting this lab as well as clearly identify the objectives for this lab. • PowerPoint - Caption for narrations available in the notes section: Link to Evolutionary Agents Power Point For this lab you will need: • • • • • • • • Something that will keep time. Something that you can use as a pond. A mixing bowl or a large soup bowl will work fine. Something that will be a predator - pincers, tweezers, or even chopsticks would work. Something that will serve as the "water" in your pond. You will not want to use actual liquids as it might get messy. If you decide to go this way, please make sure you video it so we can see how it goes. My recommendation is to use rice. It's cheap and as long as you are not too disruptive can probably still cook it. Something that will serve as organism 1 - this is the organism with the best-fit genes. It should be roughly the same color/shape as your pond "water." In a lot of the examples we use this is the p-gene and is white. You do not need to make it any particular color, but for the sake of the exercise, it should be well fit for the environment. Also, make sure you can pick it up with your predator. Something that will serve as organism 2 - it should be similar to organism 1 but slightly easier to see. In best cases, it would be an intermediate between organism 1 and 3. In lab we typically use pink colored beads. Something that will serve as organism 3 - this should be easy to see Making no assumptions about your math abilities, you may require a calculator P.S. - you can earn 1 bonus point if you email your lab instructor and give them a detailed description of what you used to set this up. P.P.S - this might work with using a few bags of Goldfish snacks or different kinds of M&Ms ... just don't eat your organisms until after you have done your calculations. :) You may also want to save this setup for the Darwin's Finch Lab. It will be a real time&money-saver to use some of what you have collected here. Directions In this experiment you are going to take a population of organisms and subject them to (a) natural selection, (b) gene flow, (c) non-random mating (d) genetic drift, and (e) a mutation exercise. All of these will affect the frequencies of genes in the population. Student Tip: Just so you know, these calculations get easier as you go along and also start to make sense if you challenge yourself to always be aware of the biology behind the numbers! You may have to watch the introductory Power Point more than once but once it "clicks" you should be home-free! each part, step by step and hopefully it helps you understand these evolutionary agents. Part 1 - Natural Selection Attached Files • BIOL 1407 EX 16 Evolutonary Agents NATURAL SELECTION.pdf BIOL 1407 EX 16 Evolutonary Agents NATURAL SELECTION.pdf - Alternative Formats (13.416 KB) Directions: • • • • You will need to create your environment by putting your "water" into your "pond" You will need to mix in 10 individuals of organism 1 Then mix in 20 individuals of organism 2 To finish your set-up mix in 10 individuals of organism 3. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • You should now have 10 of both homozygous organisms and 20 of the heterozygous individual - 40 individuals with 80 alleles. Record the data on a chart - I have provided a sample one for you, or you can make your own. TRIAL ONE: Now, grab you"predator" and time yourself killing off organisms for 20 seconds. Now you record what is left of your population on your chart (not what you killed, what remains!) Calculate the gene frequencies: Calculate the p value:________ Calculate the q value: ________ Calculate the population frequencies Calculate the p2 value: ________ Calculate the 2pq value: ________ Calculate the q2 value: ________ Answer the following questions: Do your calculations make sense? How do you know? What did you calculate in each step? TRIAL TWO: Setting the Pond back up - Use the frequencies found in your p2, 2pq, and q2 calculations to bring your pond back up to 40 individuals. Hint: It won't likely be 10/20/10. Repeat the timed predation on your new 40 and then recalculate all 5 values. Answer the following questions: Do your calculations make sense? How do you know? What did you calculate in each step? What is happening to organism 3? At this time, if you see the pattern emerging, you can stop, but one more generation means more practice working with the calculations and even better results! Congrats on completing your first evolutionary agent natural selection - don't throw away your pond, you will need it for the next part. Part 2 - Gene Flow Directions: • • • • • • • • • • • Similarly to Natural Selection Set-up your pond by pouring your "water" into your "pond" and again mix in 10 individuals of organism 1, 20 individuals of organism 2, and mix in 10 individuals of organism 3. As before, record that original set of data on a chart - you can reprint your chart from the first exercise or maybe you have a better one. Again grab your "predator" and time yourself killing off organisms for 20 seconds. BEFORE you do anything else - you are going to create a gene flow - so add 5 of organism 3 back into the pond. What you are doing here is assuming that even though organisms died off, you are going to replenish some from another source. Now you record what is left of your population on your chart. Calculate the gene frequencies: Calculate the p value:________ Calculate the q value: ________ Calculate the population frequencies Calculate the p2 value: ________ Calculate the 2pq value: ________ • • • • • • Calculate the q2 value: ________ Answer the following questions: Do your calculations make sense? How do you know? What did you calculate in each step? Does your data look different from the natural selection data? Like you did before in Natural Selection, use the frequencies found in your p2, 2pq, and q2 calculations to bring your pond back up to 40 individuals. Repeat the timed predation on your new 40. But again, before you do a single calculation, add another 5 individuals from organism 3 and then recalculate all 5 values. Answer the following questions: Go back and look at your natural selection data - is a different and new pattern emerging from organism 3? Is it more fit or less fit? Why is this happening? At this time, if you see the pattern emerging, you can stop, but one more generation means more practice working with the calculations and even better results! You have now completed the second evolutionary agent - gene flow - you wont need the pond anymore for the remainder of this lab, but you will need your organisms. Part 3 - Non-random Mating • Attached Files • BIOL 1407 EX 16 Evolutionary Agents NONRANDOM.pdf BIOL 1407 EX 16 Evolutionary Agents NONRANDOM.pdf - Alternative Formats (9.928 KB) You do not need any of the organisms for this, but if you want to use them I will not discourage you - but you will not need your predator. In non-random mating I want you to refer back to the introductory Power Point. Re-watch this section and pay careful attention to the assumptions and the setup. Using either a custom chart that you make or the one I have attached - calculate out the non-random mating for a few generations. On the introductory power point you will see I have really done the first one for you. You may finish this - again - once you see the pattern emerge. Wahoo - done with three of your evolutionary agents - only two more to go. Part 4 - Genetic Drift For genetic drift your directions are as follows. TRIAL ONE: • • • • • • • • Re-establish you organism population (but you do not need the pond You want 10/20/10 of organisms 1,2, and 3 respectively. Record the data in your chart HINT: you already have this - copy under the new heading Place these 40 organisms into a bowl or just on your table. Close your eyes, blindfold, or just look up - but at random pick out just 10 organisms Record the 10 that you picked out - NOT what is left. Before you do any numbers look at the population - does it represent the parent population? Then do the calculations for p, q, p2, 2pq, and q2. TRIAL TWO • Repeat above experiment, starting again with your perfect 10/20/10 Did trial two have similar percentages as trial one? How did they differ? Did any of the phenotypes disappear? If you feel confident that you understand the application of the random and small population dependent genetic drift, then you can stop. Or, as always another trial would not hurt. Final evolutionary agent coming up, almost there! EXERCISE #3 Introduction Below is a link to a Power Point that will give you an introduction this lab exercise. The introduction will provide you with important context for conducting this lab as well as clearly identify the objectives for this lab. • PowerPoint - Caption for narrations available in the notes section: Link to Adaptive Radiation Power Point Materials For this lab you will need: • • • • Four types of "beaks" - these can be whatever you want. In a traditional lab we use probes, knives, tweezers, and spoons. But we encourage you to be creative. Four "food" types - this can also be whatever you want, but have at least 4 types of food. It does not even need to be actual food, you could use Legos. Again, be creative. Also make sure that all four types are different enough in texture and geometry. In a typical lab we will use paper clips, rubber bands, beans, and toothpicks. One "stomach" - a cup is fine A timer - something to keep time Directions • Attached Files • ONLINEadaptive_radiation_darwins_finches_sheet.xlsx (10.76 KB) For this lab you will be expected to perform multiple trials. Your lab intro does mention you should work in groups of four - this is not a requirement. You may work independently. However, if you have kids or family members you can make quite a game out of this lab. • • Gather your materials and label your data spreadsheet (attached) Pick any one of your four beaks and your stomach • • • • • Spread one type of food on the table For 30 seconds grab as much of that food type as you can and successfully transfer into your stomach At the end of 30 seconds, count out the number of items you consumed Record your data on the attached data spreadsheet. Repeat with the remaining beaks and food types Once you have completed your data sheet - upload it as an assignment. Please be sure to interpret your data and answer the questions on the sheet. HINT: The data sheet will self calculate, if you feel like you have messed up the sheet, redownload a fresh copy. EXERCISE #4 Introduction Below is a link to a Power Point that will give you an introduction this lab exercise. The introduction will provide you with important context for conducting this lab as well as clearly identify the objectives for this lab. • PowerPoint - Caption for narrations available in the notes section: Link to Taxonomy Intro Power Point Materials For this lab you will need: • • Nothing - this lab is dry and will require intellectual power only. If you desire you may want to print and cut out the Caminalcules - totally a preference based use of materials. Directions • Attached Files • Living Caminalcules.JPG (95.896 KB) For this lab you will be expected to try and sort out a taxonomy mess. Meet the Caminalcules (also attached) - a fictitious group of organisms that are all alive and well. • • Looking at the 14 extant (living) Caminalcules your job is to put them into some form of hierarchal order. You probably do not have enough information to go very far, but family, genus, and species would suffice for this exercise. You may print them or work off of any format you think would work best. Do not get frustrated as there are a few solutions to this Once you have completed your sorting - save your Caminalcules assignment as a picture file (jpg/png/pdf ONLY) and then upload it as part of your quiz. Dichotomous Keys Below is a link to a Power Point that will give you an introduction to dichotomous keys and how to use them to identify organisms at various levels of taxonomic classification. PowerPoint - Caption for narrations available in the notes section: Link to Dichotomous Keys Power Point Microscope Review In the next unit we will begin our journey learning about the diversity of life. But, this might not be exactly what you're expecting. Many of the organisms you'll be learning about you probably won't be familiar with because they're too small to be seen with the naked eye. Because this is the case for many of the organisms we study, the microscope is an incredibly powerful tool for biologists. Below is a link to a Power Point that will give you a refresher on how to use a microscope. • PowerPoint - Caption for narrations available in the notes section Link to Microscope Review Power Point
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