Week 4 Reflection

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Reflect on the content assigned for Week #4 using the below questions as a guide, at a minimum:

    • Locate additional resources for the content of Week #4. Describe what you found.
    • How effective were the PowerPoint materials in presenting this information?
    • Select one pharmacy organization. Trace its history from inception to now. Why is it still important today?
    • Why is it important for pharmacists to be a member of a professional organization?
    • Does pharmacy have too many professional organizations? Why or why not?
    • At least 2 cited sources
    • 2 Pages of Reflection
    • Please use 12-point, Times New Roman, 1.5 or 2.0 spacing

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Rennebohm Hall n University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Pharmacy 777 Highland Avenue n Madison, WI 53705-2222 n 608.262.5378 n aihp@aihp.org This slide presentation was compiled and produced by Robert McCarthy, Ph.D., Professor and Dean Emeritus at the University of Connecticut School of Pharmacy for his class “The History of American Pharmacy.” Prof. McCarthy created this version of the slide talk for his class in the Spring of 2016. This slide presentation was downloaded from the Teaching the History of Pharmacy section of the website of the American Institute of the History of Pharmacy (https://aihp.org/historicalresources/teaching-the-history-of-pharmacy/) where a copy of the syllabus (.pdf) for Prof. McCarthy’s class is also available. This .pdf copy of the slide presentation was shared with the permission of Prof. Robert McCarthy for the personal and educational use of interested readers. EARLY PHARMACY IN AMERICA PHRX 4001W-002 The History of American Pharmacy Spring 2016 Source: American Pharmacists Association. American pharmacy comes from roots in modest English shops as well as wholesalers (druggists) & general stores England, 1804 E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v 1638: John Johnstone (in future New Jersey), a Scottish apothecary founded a settlement there. v 1653: Gysbert van Imbroch (in future New York), a Dutch surgeon, who practiced medicine and sold drugs in a general store; may have operated the first “drug store” in North America as part of a multi-purpose dispensary. E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v New England • 1630: Boston is founded and Governor John Winthrop and his son took an avid interest in preparing medicines; they employed a trained British apothecary, Robert Cooke, to assist them, importing herbs from Europe; the younger Winthrop also prepared compounds from saltpeter, antimony, mercury, tartar, sulfur, and iron and became one of the first people in North America to prepare pharmaceuticals. • 1646: The first mention of a dispensary in British North America operated by William Davis of Boston. • Elizabeth Gooking Greenleaf (1681–1762), the first woman to practice as an apothecary during the colonial era; in 1727, she opened an apothecary shop with her husband in Boston. Very few apothecary shops in Colonial America Governor John Winthrop by Robert Thom, Parke-Davis series E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v 1729: Irish immigrant Christopher Marshall established an apothecary shop in Philadelphia, which ultimately manufactured pharmaceuticals, served as a drug wholesaler (druggist) to physicians and large landholders, and trained apothecaries; during the American Revolution, he supplied medicines to the American troops under General George Washington; in 1805, his daughter Elizabeth became the first American woman apothecary; in 1821, his son Charles became the first president of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v Apothecary (Physician or Pharmacist)-a preparer and compounder of medicinal products v Pharmacist /Druggist (Pharmacist Owner) v Drug Clerk (Employee Pharmacist) v Materia Medica-a collection of the therapeutic properties of medicine (pharmacology) E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v Health practitioners were few among early settlers v “Heroic Medicine” (Dr. Benjamin Rush) v Home remedies, home medical books v Physician-run apothecary shops v Druggists • Wholesale medicines • Patent medicines (nostrums) • Luden’s Cough Drops, Fletcher’s Castoria (now Laxative) E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v Almost all medicines imported from England v Revolutionary War led to development of domestic sources of medicine • Growing up in Connecticut, Benedict Arnold trained as an apothecary in Norwich; starting in 1764, he owned and operated a drugstore in New Haven. v Most compounding occurred in physician’s offices; number of non-physician pharmacy practitioners was small Benedict Arnold, Apothecary, c. 1765, New Haven E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v 18th and Early 19th Century Drugs • Anodynes (pain relievers): opium and laudanum (opium, saffron, and Canary wine) • Anti-arthritics: Epsom salt or cinchona • Anti-dysentery: ipecac, paregoric • Anti-pyretics (for fever): emetics, cinchona, laxatives, and cold baths • Emetics (to induce vomiting to treat food poisoning): tartar emetic, ipecac, honey • Muscle spasms: opium, wine, cinchona, and oil of amber • Intestinal irritation: purgatives or cathartics including Glauber’s Salts, Plummer’s Pills, ipecac, jalap, calomel, salme, rhubarb, castor oil, and Epsom salts • Sudorifics or diaphoretics (to induce perspiration): camphor, Dover’s Powder (opium and ipecac), and rhubarb • Diuretics (to treat edema by increasing urine flow): milk, extracts of dandelions, juniper berries, and lemon juice E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v Hospital Pharmacy • Dr. Thomas Bond and Benjamin Franklin established Pennsylvania Hospital in 1751 in Philadelphia, North America’s first hospital. • 1752: Jonathan Roberts, America’s first hospital “pharmacist”; like most early hospital pharmacists (including at the Massachusetts General Hospital) he was an apprentice physician • Roberts’ successor proposed separating pharmacy practice from medical practice. • By 1811, the New York Hospital employed a full-time pharmaceutical practitioner. • Most 19th century (and before) patients were treated at home, limiting the need for hospital pharmacists. E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v Hospital Pharmacy • The demand for hospital pharmacists increased during the Civil War; these individuals had expertise in drug preparation manufacturing and in buying drugs. • With an increase in immigration to the U.S. after the Civil War, demand for hospitals also increased to meet the expanding population; the growth in the number of hospitals also led to an increased demand for hospital pharmacists as hospitals realized it was more cost-effective to fill prescription in-house rather than use community pharmacies. E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v Early 1800s: formal instruction in medical schools versus apprenticeship model v Physicians began to write prescriptions for apothecaries to compound and dispense leading to a growth in pharmacy v 1808: Massachusetts Pharmacopoeia v 1820: Pharmacopoeia of the United States of America E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v First two schools of pharmacy established • Philadelphia College of Pharmacy (1821) • Massachusetts College of Pharmacy (1823) v In the 1830s, physicians generally supported the emergence of pharmacy and establishment of pharmacy schools. v Establishment of the American pharmaceutical industry v Potent drugs were added to the materia medica E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v Between 1820 and 1860, the practice of pharmacy emerged from the practice of medicine • Apothecary shops became more standardized in the stock they carried; patent medicines became very profitable • • • • • • Drugs and medicines Surgical supplies Artificial teeth and limbs Dyestuffs Essences Chemicals E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v By the 1840s, tensions grew between physicians and pharmacists • The focus of pharmacists shifted to directly caring for patients versus doing the bidding of physicians. • Apothecaries began to fill prescriptions without physician authorization. • Medical schools increased the number of graduates, many of whom wanted to practice in cities, leading to a direct conflict with pharmacists in their care of patients. E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v Inferior drug products being shipped from Europe becomes an even more serious problem in the 1840s • Increased regulation of the European drug market • Alkaloidal chemistry allowed for extraction of the active ingredient from the plan (unfortunately, these plants were often sent to America absent the active drug) • Drug Importation Act of 1848—established examiners at several points of entry to check quality, purity and fitness E A R LY P H A R M AC Y I N A M E R I C A v Although initially successful, the Drug Importation Act of 1848 eventually failed because of the appointment of incompetent inspectors (as a result of political cronyism); the failure of this law led to a convention of pharmacists in NYC in 1851, which ultimately led to calls for a national pharmacy organization (APhA). Source: American Pharmacists Association. Source: American Pharmacists Association. Source: American Pharmacists Association. Source: American Pharmacists Association. Source: American Pharmacists Association. Source: American Pharmacists Association. Source: American Pharmacists Association. Source: American Pharmacists Association. Source: American Pharmacists Association. Source: American Pharmacists Association. Teaching History of Pharmacy According to the AIHP Guidelines: F. Pharmacy Associations Created by: James Colbert, PharmD UC San Diego, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Reviewed by: Susan Miller, BS Pharm, PharmD, BCGP, FASCP Mercer University College of Pharmacy and David M. Baker, BS Pharm, MBA, JD Western New England University College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences Developed by the Teaching History of Pharmacy Committee of the History of Pharmacy SIG, 2017-18 Picture: Pharmacist at People’s Drug Store No. 5, Washington, DC, c. 1920. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs, LC-USZ62-129891 Development of Pharmacy Associations in Italy - The Guilds • Ancient Roman times: seplasiarii – association (guild) for social and welfare purposes, and to regulate conditions of trade. • During Middle Ages, Italian guilds not only regulated themselves but also were political bodies with legal authority • Late 12th Century • Physicians, pharmacists, and drug wholesalers were in the same guild; pharmacy was one of the 7 major arts - held in high esteem. Tasks of 12th-15th Century Italian Pharmacy Guild • 1. Care of poor and/or sick members. • 2. Introduction and job location of all who passed entrance exams. • 3. Regulation of distance bet. pharmacies. • 4. Regulation of remedy prices. • 5. Collection of taxes. • 6. Supervision of remedy producers and retailers. Evolution of British Pharmacy Associations • Under King James I: • 1607 - Apothecaries part of Grocers Company • 12/6/1617 - established Society of Apothecaries • 1632 – Society of Apothecaries built Guild Hall • 1815 - Apothecaries Act - grouped physicians, surgeons and apothecaries together, separate from druggists and chemists, who only buy, compound and dispense drugs. • 1841 - Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain formed for druggists and chemists. Objectives: • • • • 1. Advancement of pharmacy and chemistry 2. Promotion of uniform education for druggists and chemists 3. Protection of those who are druggists or chemists 4. Relief of needy member, and widows and dependents US Pharmacy Associations – the Beginning – the Philadelphia College of Apothecaries • Type of Association: Local • Where: Philadelphia, PA • Why: • Location of oldest American school of medicine and most educated physicians • J. Redman Coxe (March 1820), with University of Pennsylvania support, proposed a “Master of Pharmacy” degree/designation conferred by the medical school – received 16 druggists’ signatures • U of P did confer 16 honorary Master of Pharmacy degrees, but no one took a single pharmacy course at the U of P US Pharmacy Associations – the Beginning – the Philadelphia College of Apothecaries • Reaction: • Meetings of prominent Philadelphia apothecaries – first in February 1821 • On March 13, 1821 formed the Philadelphia College of Apothecaries in Carpenter’s Hall • In 1822, changed name to Philadelphia College of Pharmacy • Origin of name: College of Apothecaries: • “College” from “Philadelphia College of Physicians” and English “Royal College of Physicians” • “Apothecary,” then “Pharmacy” from: • Apothecaries becoming physicians • French and German use of pharmacist and pharmacy • Was a combination of a school, an association, and a publisher US Pharmacy Associations – State Organizations • 1867 – first – Maine Pharmaceutical Association – faltered and dormant till 1890 • Often formed in response to medicine’s call for pharmacy legislation & regulation • Often business-oriented; separate from schools forming; most practitioners from apprenticeship • Mid-1900s: became more professional; integrated with national/local associations “It is my firm conviction that American pharmacy will not come into its own until we have a majority of our pharmacists actively supporting their national professional organization.” Donald E. Francke 1910-1978 US Pharmacy Associations – National Organizations • 1850s National Issue: adulterated drugs • Response: • 1851: Meeting called by NYCP (PCP, MACP, MDCP and CCP) – PCP, NYCP and MACP attended – PCP (Procter) proposed meeting to form national association • October 6-8, 1852: Formed American Pharmaceutical Association – Daniel B. Smith, president and William Procter, Jr., secretary. • Created Constitution and Code of Ethics American Pharmacists Association (APhA) • • • • • • • Formed in 1852 as the American Pharmaceutical Association Oldest and largest organization in pharmacy Headquartered in Washington D.C. APhA is the organization that the U.S. congress expects to speak for pharmacy Involved in setting policy and standards of practice for all pharmacy settings Has more than 62,000 members APhA Vision inspires, innovates, and creates opportunities for members and pharmacists worldwide to optimize medication use and health for all • APhA Mission as the voice of pharmacy, leads the profession and equips members for their role as the medication expert in team-based, patient-centered care • Member of the Joint Commission of Pharmacy Practitioners (JCPP) • Most other pharmacy organizations have ties to APhA The APhA Headquarters Building – Washington, D.C. Healthcare Distribution Alliance (HDA) • Founded on March 15, 1876 under the name Western Wholesale Druggists’ Association (WWDA). The name was changed to the National Wholesale Druggists’ Association in 1882, to the Healthcare Distribution Management Association in 2000, and to the Healthcare Distribution Alliance in 2016. • Mission is to protect patient safety and access to medicines through safe and efficient distribution; advocate for standards, public policies and business processes that enhance the safety, efficiency and value of the healthcare supply chain; and, create and exchange industry knowledge and best practices. National Community Pharmacists Association (NCPA) • Founded in 1898 as the National Association of Retail Druggists (NARD) • Headquartered in Alexandria, Virginia • Represents the pharmacist owners, managers, and employees of more than 22,000 independent community pharmacies across the U.S. • U.S. independent pharmacies, independent pharmacy franchises, and independent chains dispense approximately 40 percent of the nation's retail prescription medicines • Serves as a champion for community pharmacy on Capitol Hill • Mission: Dedicated to the continuing growth and prosperity of independent community pharmacy in the U.S. • Has developed an aggressive student-outreach program aimed at educating students about pharmacy ownership • Member of the Joint Commission of Pharmacy Practitioners (JCPP) National Association of Chain Drug Stores (NACDS) • Founded in 1933 • The mission of NACDS is to advance the interests and objectives of the chain community pharmacy industry, by fostering its growth and promoting its role as a provider of healthcare services and consumer products. American College of Apothecaries (ACA) • Founded in 1940 • Headquartered in Bartlett, Tennessee • Has over 1000 members, from both U.S. and Canada • Primary focus is independent community pharmacy practice • Vision Dedicated to the advancement of professional practice in independent community pharmacy through entrepreneurship and mentoring. • Mission Dedicated to advancing the entrepreneurial spirit of member pharmacists through education, innovation, mentoring, fellowship and training • Member of the Joint Commission of Pharmacy Practitioners (JCPP) American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) • • • • • • Founded in 1942 as the American Society of Hospital Pharmacists Began as a subsection of hospital pharmacists at APhA in 1936 Changed name to American Society of Health-System Pharmacists in 1994 Headquartered in Washington D.C. Has over 45,000 members ASHP Vision is that medication use will be optimal, safe, and effective for all people all of the time. • ASHP Mission for pharmacists is to help people achieve optimal health outcomes • Best known as the primary organization for the accreditation of pharmacy residency programs • Member of the Joint Commission of Pharmacy Practitioners (JCPP) National Pharmaceutical Association (NPhA) • Founded in 1947 • The National Pharmaceutical Association is dedicated to representing the views and ideals of minority pharmacists on critical issues affecting health care and pharmacy, as well as advancing the standards of pharmaceutical care among all practitioners. Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) • Founded as the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association in 1958 • Represents the country’s leading pharmaceutical industry research and biotechnology companies • Mission is to conduct effective advocacy for public policies that encourage the discovery of important, new medicines for patients by biopharmaceutical research companies. • Headquartered in Washington, DC American Society of Consultant Pharmacists (ASCP) • Founded in 1969; the only international professional society devoted to optimal medication management and improved health outcomes for all older adults • Headquartered in Alexandria, Virginia • Represents over 9,000 pharmacy professionals • ASCP Vision is to achieve safe, effective, and appropriate use of medications by all older adults. • ASCP Mission involves empowering pharmacists to promote healthy aging through the appropriate use of medications. • Focuses on building relationships with other pharmacy, aging, and long-term care associations • Works closely with officials from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) • Member of the Joint Commission of Pharmacy Practitioners (JCPP) American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) • Founded in 1979 by ASHP members who practiced clinical pharmacy at an advanced level • International organization • Headquarters in Lenexa, and Washington D.C. • Criteria for full membership are more restrictive than those of other pharmacy organizations • Strong relationship with the Board of Pharmaceutical Specialties (BPS) • ACCP Vision to drive positive changes in health care as the professional organization most influential in advancing clinical pharmacist roles and responsibilities to optimize pharmacotherapy in the prevention and treatment of disease • ACCP Mission is to improve human health by extending the frontiers of clinical pharmacy less through strategic initiatives, partnerships, collaborations, and alliances • Member of the Joint Commission of Pharmacy Practitioners (JCPP) Professional Compounding Centers of America (PCCA) • Founded in 1981 • Involves over 4,000 independent community pharmacies in the U.S., Canada, Australia, and other countries around the world • Headquartered in Houston, Texas • Mission is to help pharmacists and prescribers create personalized medicine that makes a difference in patients’ lives American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) • Founded in 1986 • Formerly the Academy of Pharmaceutical Research Scientists of APhA • Represent pharmaceutical researchers (pharmacology, medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutics) • Mission: To advance the capacity of pharmaceutical scientists to develop products and therapies that improve global health • Vision: Advancing the pharmaceutical sciences to drive prevention and cures. • Five core values: Learning, Innovation, Service, Inclusiveness and Integrity. Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy (AMCP) • Founded in 1989 representing over 8000 members • Headquartered in Alexandria, Virginia • Nation’s leading professional association dedicated to increasing patient access to affordable medicines, improving health outcomes and ensuring the wise use of health care dollars • Active membership available to all including pharmacists, physicians, nurses, physician assistants, students • AMCP Vision to improve health care for all • AMCP Mission to empower its members to serve society by using sound medication management principles and strategies to improve health care for all • Academy members manage medication therapies for the 270 million Americans served by health plans, pharmacy benefit management firms, emerging care models and government • Member of the Joint Commission of Pharmacy Practitioners (JCPP) American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) • The national organization representing the interests of pharmacy education founded in 1900 • Headquartered in Alexandria, Virginia • The association includes institutional members - the 142 schools of pharmacy accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education • Represents more than 6,400 faculty, 62,500 students enrolled in professional programs and 5,100 individuals pursuing graduate study. • AACP Vision envisions a world of healthy people through the transformation of health professions education • AACP Mission is to advance pharmacy education, research, scholarship, practice and service, in partnership with members and stakeholders, to improve health for all • Member of the Joint Commission of Pharmacy Practitioners (JCPP) Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) • Founded in 1932, was originally called the American Council on Pharmaceutical Education • Not a government agency • Is the national accreditation agency for all U.S. pharmacy schools and all U.S. pharmacist continuing education programs. • ACPE initially established standards for the baccalaureate degree in pharmacy and then added the doctor of pharmacy standards as an alternative. • In 2000, ACPE announced the conversion to the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) as the sole entry-level degree for the profession of pharmacy. Board of Pharmacy Specialties (BPS) • In January of 1973, a Task Force on Specialties in Pharmacy was created by the American Pharmacists Association (APhA). • BPS was organized in 1976 as an independent certification agency of APhA. • Vision Statement: The Board of Pharmacy Specialties, the premier postlicensure certification agency, will ensure that BPS Board Certified Pharmacists are recognized within healthcare delivery systems while serving the needs of the public and the pharmacy profession. • Mission Statement: The Mission of the Board of Pharmacy Specialties is to improve patient care by promoting the recognition and value of specialized training, knowledge, and skills in pharmacy and specialty board certification of pharmacists. • Currently Recognized Specialties (12): Nuclear, Nutrition Support, Pharmacotherapy, Psychiatry, Oncology, Ambulatory Care, Critical Care, Pediatrics, Cardiology, Infectious Diseases, Geriatrics, and Compounded Sterile Products. National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP) • First attempt (1890-1892): Association of Boards of Pharmacy & Secretaries of State Pharmaceutical Associations • Founded 1904 • Not a government agency • Members are board members of the U.S. state and territory boards of pharmacy • Represents all of the states’ boards of pharmacy • Responsible for maintenance of Model Pharmacy Practice Act • Maintains NAPLEX, MPJE, and PCOA examinations American Institute of the History of Pharmacy (AIHP) • Founded in 1941 by: • • • • • • Dr. Arthur H. Uhl, Director of the UW School of Pharmacy Dr. Edward Kremers, Director Emeritus of the UW School of Pharmacy Dr. Louis W. Busse, Professor at the UW School of Pharmacy Dr. Lloyd M. Parks, Professor at the UW School of Pharmacy Jennings Murphy, Secretary of the Wisconsin Pharmaceutical Association Dr. George Urdang, former Director of the German Society of the History of Pharmacy • Mission is to advance knowledge and understanding of the history of pharmacy and medicines. • Headquartered at the University of Wisconsin-Madison • Membership is open to any who share an interest in the history of pharmacy. • Has extensive pharmacy archives – called the Kremers Files • Journal: Pharmacy in History American Society for Pharmacy Law (ASPL) • Founded in 1974. • ASPL is the organization of attorneys, pharmacists, pharmacistattorneys and students of pharmacy or law who are interested in the law as it applies to pharmacy, pharmacists, wholesalers, manufacturers, state and federal government and other interested parties. • ASPL is a nonprofit organization with the purposes of: • Furthering knowledge in the law related to pharmacists, pharmacies, the provision of pharmaceutical care, the manufacturing and distribution of drugs, and other food, drug, and medical device policy issues; • Communicating accurate legal educational information; and • Providing educational opportunities for pharmacists, attorneys, and others who are interested in pharmacy law PHRE 5345 Pharmacists, Pharmaceuticals, and the Media ONLINE ANALYTICAL DISCUSSION INFORMATION Participation Guidelines You are expected to participate actively in the scheduled online analytical discussions. In order to do this, you must create a substantive post for each of the four (4) assigned discussion topics by the deadline. Each post should demonstrate your achievement of the participation criteria. In addition, you should respond to the postings of at least two of your fellow learners for each discussion question (unless the discussion instructions state otherwise). These responses to other learners should be substantive posts that contribute to the conversation by asking questions, respectfully debating positions, and presenting supporting information relevant to the topic. Also, it is your responsibility to respond to any follow-up questions the instructor directs to you in the Discussion area of Blackboard in a timely matter (within 24 hours). In order to permit other learners time to respond, you must submit your initial posts in the Discussion area by Tuesday at 23:55 (11:55 pm EDT) (just before midnight). Responses to other learners' posts are due by the following Friday (last day of each segment) at 23:55 EDT. Timeline for Analytical Discussion Posts Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Weekly Discussion Schedule Segment Begins Read, reflect, research, and write Initial Discussion Post due Engage and respond with classmates ALL Responses DUE Segment Ends Online Analytical Discussion Scoring Rubric Due Date: Weeks one, two, four, and six Percentage of Course Grade: 30% {see next page} Saturday 2 PHRE 5345 Online Analytical Discussion Grading Rubric Proficient (2 points) Distinguished (3 points) Learner does not post Learner responds to fewer responses to fellow learners. than the minimum number of request posts to fellow learners. Learner responds to the requisite number of posts to fellow learners and sometimes posts more than the requirements. Learner consistently responds to more than the requisite number of posts to fellow learners. Quality in Completeness: Responses address all aspects of the question. Responses do not address the Responses do not question or are not relevant consistently address all to the discussion prompts. aspects of the question. Responses address all aspects of the question. Responses address all aspects of the question and extend the dialog. 3 Quality in Critical Thinking: Responses show evidence of critical thinking. Responses do not demonstrate evidence of critical thinking. Responses show evidence of critical thinking. Responses show evidence of critical thinking at a high level. 4 Quality in Peer-to-Peer Interaction: Responses to other learners include substantive feedback that extends the discussion by raising questions and sharing additional resource information when appropriate. Learner often responds to feedback received from other learners, as appropriate. Learner rarely or never posts Responses to other feedback to other learners. learners seldom include substantive feedback that extends the discussion. Learner occasionally responds to feedback received from other learners. Responses to other learners include substantive feedback that extends the discussion by raising questions and sharing additional resource information, when appropriate. Learner often responds to feedback received from other learners, as appropriate. Responses to other learners are insightful and provide substantive feedback that extends the discussion by consistently raising new questions, fosters critical thinking, and leads to the refinement of ideas. Learner responds to feedback received from other learners, as appropriate, and continues the dialog. 5 Quality in Use of Discussion Guidelines (in syllabus): Responses show evidence of analysis and synthesis to create a strong, substantive post that states the case and supports the evaluation with evidence as needed. Responses do not follow any Responses show minimal of the discussion guidelines. analysis and synthesis to create a strong post that partially states the case and contains minimal evidence. Responses show evidence of analysis and synthesis to create a strong, substantive post that states the case and supports the evaluation with evidence. Responses show evidence of analysis and synthesis to create a strong, substantive discussion post that states the full case, supports the evaluation with evidence, and raises new questions or describes what remains unanswered. # Criterion 1 Participation Responsiveness: Learner responds to the requisite number of posts to fellow learners and sometimes posts more than the requirements. 2 Non-performance (0 points) Basic (1 point) Responses show minimal evidence of critical thinking. TOTAL => 15 Points
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Running head: REFLECTION

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Reflection

Institution Affiliation

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REFLECTION

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Additional resources and effectiveness of the PowerPoint materials

One resource I located is an article concerned with the role of pharmacists in ensuring
public health is achieved. According to Mohiuddin (2019), pharmacy is a dynamic field whose
education has been changing to match arising needs. Pharmacy as a profession has grown over
the years as human needs evolved, and it has since branched into various divisions. The divisions
are artists, lawyers, engineers, entrepreneurs, health professionals, academics, and industrial
pharmacists. The PowerPoint materials have been effective in presenting the information
concerning the history of pharmacy and the pharmacy organizations in the country. On the
history of pharmacy in America, the presentation relays information systematically since its
introduction in 1638 to the present. The use of relevant images has also made the presentation
effective. The images act as proof in explaining progress made by profession has made since its
introduction in the US.

The history of a pharmacist organization

One pharmacy organization in America is the American Pharmacists organization. The
organization was formed in 1852, and it was the first professional organization for pharmacists in
America. Currently, the organization is the large...


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